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Miyamoto Musashi

Miyamoto Musashi known as Shinmen Takezō, Miyamoto Bennosuke or, by his Buddhist name, Niten Dōraku, was a Japanese swordsman, strategist, writer and rōnin. Musashi, as he was simply known, became renowned through stories of his unique double-bladed swordsmanship and undefeated record in his 61 duels, he is considered the Kensei, sword-saint of Japan. He was the founder of the Niten Ichi-ryū school or Nito Ichi-ryū style of swordsmanship, in his final years authored The Book of Five Rings, Dokkōdō. Both documents were given to Terao Magonojō, the most important of Musashi's students, seven days before Musashi's death; the Book of Five Rings deals with the character of his Niten Ichi-ryū school in a concrete sense e.g. his own practical martial art and its generic significance. The Musashi Budokan training center - in a remarkable architecture - located in Mimasaka, Okayama prefecture, Japan was erected to honor his name and legend; the details of Miyamoto Musashi's early life are difficult to verify.

Musashi himself states in The Book of Five Rings that he was born in Harima Province. Niten Ki supports the theory that Musashi was born in 1584: " was born in Banshū, in Tenshō 12, the Year of the Monkey." The historian Kamiko Tadashi, commenting on Musashi's text, notes: "Munisai was Musashi's father... he lived in Miyamoto village, in the Yoshino district. Musashi was most born here." His childhood name was Bennosuke, his father worked as a farmer. "Bennosuke" worked the fields there before his restless nature led him to the life of the sword. Musashi gives his full name and title in The Book of Five Rings as Shinmen Musashi-no-Kami Fujiwara no Harunobu, his father, Shinmen Munisai was an accomplished martial master of the sword and jutte. Munisai, in turn, was the son of Hirata Shōgen, a vassal of Shinmen Iga no Kami, the lord of Takayama Castle in the Yoshino district of Mimasaka Province. Hirata so was allowed to use the Shinmen name; as for "Musashi", Musashi no Kami was a court title, making him the nominal governor of Musashi Province.

"Fujiwara" was the lineage from descent. Munisai's tomb says he died in 1580, which conflicts with the accepted birth date of 1584 for Musashi. Further confounding his birthdate, the genealogy of the extant Miyamoto family recounts Musashi was born in 1582. Kenji Tokitsu has suggested that the accepted birth date of 1584 for Musashi is wrong, as it is based on a literal reading of the introduction to The Book of Five Rings where Musashi states that the years of his life "add up to 60", when it should be taken in a more literary and imprecise sense, indicating not a specific age but that Musashi was in his sixties when he wrote it. There is considerable uncertainty surrounding Munisai, such as when he died and whether he was Musashi's father, less is known about Musashi's mother; the following are a few possibilities: Munisai's tomb was correct. He died in 1580, leaving son Iori. Omasa, Munisai's widow, was not Musashi's biological mother; the tomb was wrong. Munisai lived a good deal longer than 1590 possibly.

Musashi was born to Munisai's first wife, Yoshiko. Munisai divorced her after Musashi's birth, whereupon she decamped for her father's house, leaving Musashi with Munisai. Musashi grew up treating Omasa as his mother; this second scenario is laid out in an entry to the Tasumi family's genealogy. The daughter of Bessho Shigeharu first married Hirata Munisai and was divorced from him a few years later. After that she married Tasumi Masahisa; the second wife of Tasumi Masahisa was the mother of Miyamoto Musashi. Musashi's childhood name was Hirata Den. During his childhood, he went to Hirafu to find his real mother, he moved in with the Tasumi family. A variant of this second theory is based on the fact that the tombstone states that Omasa gave birth to Musashi on 4 March 1584, died of it. Munisai remarried to Yoshiko, they divorced, as in the second theory, but Yoshiko took Musashi, 7 at the time, with her, married Tasumi Masahisa. Kenji Tokitsu prefers to assume a birth date of 1581, which avoids the necessity of assuming the tombstone to be erroneous.

There is another possibility that Munisai's tomb was correct he died in near the end of 1580 but got Omasa pregnant near the time of his death and had the baby in 1582 because she had her pregnancy, a couple weeks late, had Musashi within January or February meaning the Miyamoto family was correct and she hid him from everyone till 1584. Miyamoto Musashi was told he was born in 1584 to another man so he stated in The Book of Five Rings that he was born in 1584, he had received his training from his uncle. Regardless of the truth about Musashi's ancestry, when Musashi was seven years old, the boy was raised by his uncle, Dorinbo, in Shoreian temple, t


The Mokattam known as the Mukattam Mountain or Hills, is the name of a range of hills and a suburb in them, located in southeastern Cairo, Egypt. The Arabic name Mokattam, which means cut off or broken off, refers to how the low range of hills is divided into three sections; the highest segment is a low mountain landform called Moqattam Mountain. In the past the low mountain range was an important ancient Egyptian quarry site for limestone, used in the construction of temples and pyramids, they represent the northwestern part of the limestone sampling area. 150 meters above sea level, 150 meters above the surface of the upper Mokattam, in the form of an updated twisting in the cracks due to the disturbances that hit Egypt during the oligocene and mucin periods, the mountain consists of three successive questes Geologically, Mokattam enters within the formation of the armies and is located above the Salah al-Din Citadel and the composition is named after the name of Mount Armies, established since ancient times above the front foot of Mount Mokattam.

The hills are in the region of ancient Fustat, the new capital founded by'Amr ibn al-'As after the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 642 CE. In direct contrast to Zamalek, an affluent, nearby city, in Mokattam, residents live in the midst of the city's garbage-the garbage collection system for Cairo is located on the road that leads to the Coptic church in the quarry; the Zabbaleen people, who are an integral part of collecting and processing Cairo's municipal solid waste, live in Manshiyat Naser, Garbage City, at the foot of the Mokattam Hills. Mokattam is known in the Coptic Church, as it is believed to have moved up and down when the Coptic Pope Abraham of Alexandria performed a mass near it in order to prove to the Caliph that the Gospel is true, when it says that "if one has faith like a grain of mustard one can move a mountain"; the name "Broken off Mountain" may be related to the fact that in the story the mountain breaks off from the underlying rock and rises up, before coming back down.

Maqaduniya, a region of Medieval Egypt City of the Dead, Islamic necropolis and cemetery List of types of limestone, ancient Egyptians quarried limestone in the hills Al Mokattam Official Website

James Sanks Brisbin

James Sanks Brisbin was an American educator, historian and soldier. He served as a Union Army general during the American Civil War. After the conflict he remained in the military for the rest of his life, authored several works on a variety of subjects. Brisbin was born in 1837 at a son of Margaret and Ezra Brisbin, he studied at the Boalsburg Academy, upon graduating Brisbin began teaching. He purchased and edited the Centre Democrat newspaper in Bellefonte and studied law and was admitted to the bar of Pennsylvania. Brisbin was prominently known as an anti-slavery orator; when the American Civil War began in 1861, Brisbin was a lawyer in practice. He enlisted in the Pennsylvania volunteer services that April as a private. On April 26, he was appointed a second lieutenant in the mounted 2nd U. S. Dragoons, he fought in the First Battle of Bull Run near Manassas, Virginia, on July 21. In this battle, Brisbin received two wounds, one in his side and the other in an arm, was praised by his superiors for his performance during the fight.

On August 3, 1861, Brisbin transferred to the 1st U. S. Cavalry but was appointed a captain in the 6th U. S. Cavalry two days later. On June 9, 1862, he fought during the action near Beverly Ford and was again wounded when he fell off of his horse. One year Brisbin was brevetted to the rank of major for his conduct at Beverly Ford. In 1863 he briefly led the cavalry forces in the Federal Department of the Susquehanna, was wounded in a leg during combat near Greenbrier, Virginia, on July 26. Brisbin was promoted to colonel on March 1, 1864, organized the 5th United States Colored Cavalry, he served as the acting head of cavalry on the staff of Brig. Gen. Albert L. Lee during the Red River Campaign, was again wounded during the Battle of Mansfield in Louisiana on April 8, this time in the right foot. On December 12, 1864, Brisbin was brevetted to brigadier general in the Union Army, seven days was appointed a brevet lieutenant colonel in the regular army for his performance at Battle of Marion in Tennessee.

In 1865, he was on recruiting duty in Kentucky, serving on the staff of Maj. Gen. Stephen G. Burbridge. On March 13, Brisbin was brevetted to colonel in the regular army as well as brevetted major general in the Union Army, on May 1 he was promoted to brigadier general. Brisbin was mustered out of the Union Army as a volunteer on January 15, 1866. After the war, Brisbin remained in the regular army, aiding in the establishment of other colored regiments and served in the Northwestern United States as an officer in several cavalry regiments. From 1868–92, he served as an officer in several cavalry regiments, including the Second, Ninth and Eighth regiments in the Northwestern United States. Brisbin was in command of the 2nd Cavalry of General John Gibbon's Montana Column at the time of the Little Big Horn campaign. Brisbin offered four companies of his 2nd Cavalry to Custer at the final command meeting of Generals Terry and Custer just prior to the final march into the Big Horn valley, but Custer declined it, stating that the 7th Cavalry alone could defeat the hostiles.

Brisbin never forgave Custer for this, is alleged to have called the dead Custer an "insufferable ass". In various correspondence Brisbin was critical of Custer's actions - whether or not because of personal jealousy cannot be determined. Brisbin penned the then-bestselling "Beef Bonzana" which urged investment in Open Range Cattle. At the time of his death he was a colonel in command of the Eighth Cavalry Regiment and was in command at Fort Meade. Brisbin died on January 1892 in Philadelphia, he was buried in Oakwood Cemetery in Minnesota. Brisbin married Mary Jane Wagner on June 15, 1861, they had four children. His wife died at Fort McKinney in 1887. In 1891 he married Amelia Wilson in Minnesota, he was a prolific writer, contributed articles and letters to Eastern periodicals on many subjects throughout his career. He was known for his works on the West and Montana Territory; the Campaign Lives of Ulysses S. Grant and Schuyler Colfax Beldon, the White Chief The Beef Bonanza, or How to Get Rich on the Plains Brisbin's Stories of the Plains Life of President Garfield From the Tow-Path to the White House Trees and Tree Planting List of American Civil War generals Eicher, John H..

Civil War High Commands. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. Warner, Ezra J.. Generals in Blue: The Lives of the Union Commanders. Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 0-8071-0822-7. Military Resources site of Centre County, Pennsylvania

Gosforth Cross

The Gosforth Cross is a large stone Anglo-Saxon cross, in St Mary's churchyard at Gosforth in the English county of Cumbria, dating to the first half of the 10th century AD. Part of the kingdom of Northumbria, the area was settled by Scandinavians some time in either the 9th or 10th century, it has gained reputation for its combination of Christian symbols with nordic symbols, being a tangible piece of evidence of the impact of the Christianization of Scandinavia. The Gosforth Cross has elaborate carvings which have been interpreted as representing characters and scenes from Norse mythology to how the Jelling stones depict Jesus with other Norse mythological characters, its design modeled after the cross design. The Gosforth Cross was first identified in 1886 by the amateur antiquarian Charles Arundel Parker in his book The Ancient Crosses at Gosford and Cumberland, he demonstrated. Those include images identified as: Loki bound with his wife Sigyn protecting him; the god Heimdallr holding his horn.

The god Víðarr tearing the jaws of Fenrir. Thor's failed attempt to catch the Midgard Serpent, it is debated amongst scholars whether the sources were added to the Cross out of reverence for Viking beliefs and still clinging to their own identity or as a way to parallel Norse mythology with Christian mythology. Among the parallels is Loki being bound is allegorical for Satan being bound, the death of Baldr accompanied by Hod and Nanna interchangeable with Christ's death as witnessed by Longinius and Mary Magdalene, the battle Odin has with Surtr similar to how Christ conquers the Devil. Another is; this is a possible parallel between Yggsdrasil and the Tree of Life, both featured in their respective mythologies. The cross has Christian symbolism, including a depiction of the crucifixion of Christ; the combination of Christian and Norse pagan symbolism on the cross may be evidence of the use of pagan stories to illustrate Christian teachings. Christ here is depicted as a deity of power, hence, he was popularly interpreted as a deity of power amongst Viking culture.

The cross is 4.4 metres tall and made out of red sandstone. It is estimated to date from 920-950 and is still in good condition, its design shows a strong Anglo-Saxon influence and suggests that the carvers were influenced by Anglo-Saxon stone carving. The importance of the Gosforth Cross caused the Victoria and Albert Museum to have replicas made in 1882, which are on display in the Cast Hall at the museum. In 1887, the Rev. William Slater Calverley commissioned a replica life-sized copy of this cross and erected it in the churchyard at Aspatria, Cumbria; the church has important hogback tombs, what appears to be a fragment of another cross, showing the god Thor fishing. The following images depict the 10th-century Gosforth Cross and related artefacts at St Mary's church; the images were published by Finnur Jónsson in Goðafræði Norðmanna og Íslendinga eftir Heimildum in 1913, the identifications of the figures are those suggested by Jónsson in 1913. Other Images Arundel P Charles, The Ancient crosses at Gosforth and Cumberland, Elliot Stock, 1896 Bailey, Richard N..

England's Earliest Sculptors. University of Toronto. ISBN 0-88844-905-4. Bailey, Richard N.. "Scandinavian Myth on Viking-period Stone Sculpture in England". In Barnes, Geraldine. Old Norse Myths and Society. Sydney: University of Sydney. Pp. 15–23. ISBN 1-86487-316-7. Archived from the original on 2009-09-14. Retrieved 2006-04-07. Finnur Jónsson. Goðafræði Norðmanna og Íslendinga eftir heimildum. Reykjavík: Hið íslenska bókmentafjelag. Rev. William Slater Calverley. A.. Notes on the Early Sculptured Crosses and Monuments in the Present Diocese of Carlisle. Kendal: Titus Wilson. Film about the Gosforth Cross "Four sides of the Gosforth Cross" Megalithic Portal Gosforth Cross grid reference NY072036 [[Category:History of

Agar Adamson

Agar Stewart Allan Masterton Adamson was a Canadian soldier who married the Toronto heiress Mabel Cawthra. He served with distinction in the Second Boer War and in World War I, commanded the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry from 1916 to 1918, he died after an airplane crash in the Irish sea. Agar Stewart Allan Masterton Adamson was born in Ottawa on 25 December 1865, he was the last son of James Adamson and Mary Julia Derbishire. He came from a well-connected Upper Canada family, his paternal grandfather was William Agar Adamson, an Anglo-Irish parson who came to Canada in 1840 and was chaplain to the Governor, Lord Sydenham. His maternal grandfather was Stuart Derbishire, who came to Canada in 1838 as a confidential agent of Lord Durham and was the first elected representative for Bytown for the Province of Canada, his father was clerk of the Senate of Canada. Adamson had a privileged childhood and was educated at the private Trinity College School in Port Hope, Ontario, he studied in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge planning to enter the church.

He was an excellent athlete, played field sports and rowed, won the Newmarket Stakes on his own horse. He did not obtain a degree. After returning to Canada, on 4 February 1890 Adamson became a junior clerk of the Senate, he threw himself into the social life of Ottawa. In 1893 he obtained a commission as 2nd lieutenant in the Number 4 Company of the Governor General's Foot Guards, a militia regiment, he had reached the rank of captain of militia by 1899. Most of his military duties were ceremonial. On 15 November 1899 he married Ann Mabel Cawthra in Toronto, she was a talented artist, with an independent personality. They would have two sons, his wife's family owned a huge amount of property in the western part of Toronto. After his marriage Adamson was transferred to Halifax, Nova Scotia, to serve with the 3rd Battalion, Royal Canadian Regiment of Infantry; this unit had been thrown together so that the regular garrison in Halifax, the Leinster Regiment, could be released for other duties. Adamson was anxious to serve in the Second Boer War.

In March 1900 he used his connections to obtain a position with Lord Strathcona's Horse as a lieutenant in charge of a group of fifty soldiers who were to be sent to South Africa to replace casualties. He left Halifax in late April 1900, he met his draft in Ottawa, left with them on 30 April 1900 for Montreal, sailed for England the next day. The small group, most with little or no real military experience, traveled without incident via Liverpool and London to Cape Town, they reached South Africa early in June 1900. After a stay at Maitland camp, they sailed via Port Elizabeth and East London for Durban, Natal, to join the Natal Field Force led by General Redvers Buller. Adamson's troop saw action on 5 July 1900 at Wolve Spruit, where Sergeant Arthur Herbert Lindsay Richardson showed conspicuous bravery in rescuing a wounded man in face of a group of advancing Boers. After the skirmish Adamson recommended Richardson for a Victoria Cross, awarded. Adamson proved to be a natural leader, was mentioned in dispatches.

He was one of the first to enter Machadodorp. Adamson was sent back to England to recover. In March 1901 he was sent back to Canada. Unable to settle down, in late March 1902 Adamson petitioned for a command and was appointed a junior captain in the 6th Canadian Mounted Rifles. By the time he returned to South Africa in May 1902 the war had ended, he wrote to his wife from Durban expressing his disappointment. A few weeks he was ordered to return. Adamson was unable to obtain a post as a regular officer in a British regiment after the war, he failed in an attempt at farming, in 1903 the Adamsons returned to Canada. In 1904 Grove Farm in Lakeview, was granted to the Cawthras. In 1905 Adamson left the Senate and moved to Toronto, where he became nominal head of the Canadian franchise of the Thornton-Smith Company, a British decorating firm, his wife had established the franchise. With the outbreak of World War I Adamson went to Ottawa and volunteered to serve, despite his age of 48 and poor vision in one eye.

He used his connections to obtain a post as a captain in the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, reached England with this regiment in October 1914. He wrote daily letters to his wife during his three years in the trenches, they give a honest account of his war experiences. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Order for conspicuous bravery, he was wounded in the shoulder, but returned to his regiment in early 1916, on 31 October 1916 was appointed regimental commander and promoted to lieutenant-colonel. Under his leadership the regiment fought with distinction at Vimy Passchendaele. In 1917 Adamson spent a week in hospital, he was back in hospital to recover from mustard gas. He was forced to wear a monacle to supplement his good eye, with that had difficulty moving around the trenches at night, he had to resign. He wrote to his wife "The brigadier was nice about it. Whoever is in command should be full of health and youth." Adamson was 52. The stated reason was his wife's poor health.

Adamson's wife, had been helping in London and with civilian refugees behind the lines in Belgium when she became ill. She soon recovered, but Adamson now became affected by posttraumatic stress disorder, causing depression and lack of judgement, his marriage broke down. Adamson returned to Cana

The Russian Triangle

The Russian Triangle is a 2007 Russian-language Georgian thriller film directed by Aleko Tsabadze. It was Georgia's submission to the 80th Academy Awards for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, but was not accepted as a nominee, it was entered into the 29th Moscow International Film Festival where it won the Special Jury Prize. Contemporary Russia; the main characters of the film are victims of the recent war who are lost in a city inhabited by millions. In this megalopolis a series of murders occurs; the investigation leads law student Kolya Vorontsov to the track of the sniper-killer. This is a former teacher of Russian language and literature in the Chechen school. Having lost his pregnant Chechen wife during the bombing of Grozny, he adopts Islam and goes to the Chechen fighters... Vorontsov feels that Aleshin's fate is somehow connected with the Maltsev brothers - Denis and Lev, miraculously surviving after the brutal torture and Chechen captivity. What do these people have in common?

And why does the tragedy of 10 years ago change the life of Kolya Vorontsov who spent all these years in a city far from military operations? This war demands more victims. Artyom Tkachenko as Kolya Vorontsov Konstantin Khabenskiy as Denis Maltsev Pyotr Mironov as Sniper Mikhaïl Jonine as Lev Maltsev Oleg Primogenov as Redhead Ostap Stupka as Lieutenant Shakalsky Oleg Dolin as Philip Anatoli Barchuk as Captaiin Ovcharov Ramil Sabitov as Mussa Inna Belikova as Polina Cinema of Georgia List of Georgian submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film List of submissions to the 80th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film The Russian Triangle on IMDb