click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Moïse Tshombe

Moïse Kapend Tshombe was a Congolese businessman and politician. He served as the president of the secessionist State of Katanga from 1960 to 1963 and as prime minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1964 to 1965. A member of the Lunda tribes, Tshombe was born near Musumba, Belgian Congo, the son of a successful businessman, he received his education from an American missionary school and trained as an accountant. In the 1950s, he became involved in politics. Along with Godefroid Munongo, he founded the Confédération des associations tribales du Katanga party. CONAKAT promoted a federal Congo independent of the Belgian colonial empire. CONAKAT won control of the Katanga provincial legislature in the May 1960 general elections. One month the Congo became an independent republic. Tshombe became President of the autonomous province of Katanga. Patrice Lumumba was tasked with forming a national government. Members of his party, the Mouvement National Congolais, were given charge of the portfolios of national defence and interior, despite Tshombe's objections.

The portfolio for economic affairs was awarded to a CONAKAT member, but this was undercut by the positioning of nationalists in control of the Ministry and Secretariat for Economic Coordination. Mines and land affairs were placed under separate portfolios. Tshombe declared that this diluting of CONAKAT's influence rendered his agreement to support the government "null and void". On the evening of 11 July, accusing the central government of communist leanings and dictatorial rule, announced that Katanga was seceding from the Congo. Favoring continued ties with Belgium, he asked the Belgian government to send military officers to recruit and train a Katangese army. Tshombe demanded United Nations recognition for independent Katanga, he announced that any intervention by UN troops would be met with force. Nonetheless, Congolese Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba and his successor, Cyrille Adoula requested intervention from UN forces. UN forces were sent under the direction of UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld.

France, wishing to take advantage of Katangese minerals, sent to Tshombe the reinforcement of the mercenary Bob Denard and his men. It was supported by the networks of the "Mr. Africa" of the French government. Lumumba's government was dissolved, Lumumba taken prisoner by Mobutu and detained at Camp Hardy in Thysville. Harold Charles d'Aspremont Lynden sent a confidential telegram on 16 January 1961 to the government in Léopoldville to send Lumumba to Katanga; that would have stemmed from Lumumba's increasing popularity among soldiers. Meanwhile, soldier mutinies and unrest increased at Prison Camp Hardy in Thysville; the telegram has still not been shown to exist. Whilst being flown in a Sabena Douglas DC-4 plane to Katanga, Lumumba was beaten by the Congolese soldiers escorting him. In custody in Katanga, Lumumba was visited by Katangese notables and Belgian officers, who included Tshombe, Godefroid Munongo, Kitenge, Son, Huyghé, Tignée, Verscheure and Rougefort. Lumumba's execution, on 17 January, was carried out by a firing squad led by a Belgian mercenary, Julien Gat.

In 1963, UN forces succeeded in suppressing Katanga, driving Tshombe into exile in Northern Rhodesia to Spain. In July 1964, he returned to the Congo to serve as prime minister in a new coalition government, his cabinet was sworn in on 10 July. Tshombe's national support was derived from the backing of provincial political bosses, customary chiefs, foreign financial interests. Among his first acts in office were the lifting of a curfew in Léopoldville, the release of 600 political prisoners—including Antoine Gizenga, the ordering of Katangese gendarmes to return from their exile in Angola to the Congo and join the national army. In a New Year's message at the beginning of 1965, Tshombe rejected conciliation with the Simba rebels and called for their total defeat, he was dismissed from his position in October 1965 by President Kasa-Vubu. In November, General Mobutu, who had staged a successful coup against Kasa-Vubu, brought charges of treason against Tshombe, who again fled the country and settled in Francoist Spain.

In 1967, Tshombe was sentenced to death in absentia. On 30 June 1967, he was in a Hawker Siddeley jet aircraft, hijacked by Francis Bodenan, an agent of the SDECE of France. According to the Congolese government, Tshombe was going to Africa. Tshombe was taken to Algeria and placed under house arrest; the pilots of the plane, Britons Trevor Coppleston and David Taylor, were released and returned to the United Kingdom. The Congolese government demanded his extradition to Congo, his Western supporters agitated for his release; the Algerians resisted both demands. "Moïse Tshombe nearly became the'savior' of the Congo on his return from exile. But history decided otherwise, the Congolese people found themselves under the leadership of Mobutu". Tshombe died in 1969, he was buried in a Methodist service near Brussels, Belgium. Owing to his role in the death of Lumumba and his association with Western interests, Tshombe's surname to black African nationalists became synonymous with "sellout"; the plot of the 1978 war film The Wild Geese is based in part on speculation that Tshombe's plane had been diverted to Rhodesia before being sent to Algeria.

The film's characters Col. Allen Faulkner and President Julius Limbani were based on Tshombe and his military ally Maj. "Mad

David Bohm

David Joseph Bohm was an American scientist, described as one of the most significant theoretical physicists of the 20th century and who contributed unorthodox ideas to quantum theory and the philosophy of mind. Bohm advanced the view that quantum physics meant that the old Cartesian model of reality – that there are two kinds of substance, the mental and the physical, that somehow interact – was too limited. To complement it, he developed a mathematical and physical theory of "implicate" and "explicate" order, he believed that the brain, at the cellular level, works according to the mathematics of some quantum effects, postulated that thought is distributed and non-localised just as quantum entities are. Bohm warned of the dangers of rampant reason and technology, advocating instead the need for genuine supportive dialogue, which he claimed could broaden and unify conflicting and troublesome divisions in the social world. In this, his epistemology mirrored his ontology. Due to his Communist affiliations, Bohm was the subject of a federal government investigation in 1949, prompting him to leave the United States.

He pursued his scientific career in several countries, becoming first a Brazilian and a British citizen. He abandoned Marxism in the wake of the Hungarian Uprising in 1956. Bohm's main concern was with understanding the nature of reality in general and of consciousness in particular as a coherent whole, which according to Bohm is never static or complete. Bohm was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, to a Hungarian Jewish immigrant father, Samuel Bohm, a Lithuanian Jewish mother, he was raised by his father, a furniture-store owner and assistant of the local rabbi. Despite being raised in a Jewish family, he became an agnostic in his teenage years. Bohm attended Pennsylvania State College, graduating in 1939, the California Institute of Technology, for one year, he transferred to the theoretical physics group directed by Robert Oppenheimer at the University of California, Berkeley Radiation Laboratory, where he obtained his doctorate. Bohm lived in the same neighborhood as some of Oppenheimer's other graduate students and with them became involved in radical politics.

He was active in communist and communist-backed organizations, including the Young Communist League, the Campus Committee to Fight Conscription, the Committee for Peace Mobilization. During his time at the Radiation Laboratory, Bohm was in a relationship with the future Betty Friedan and helped to organize a local chapter of the Federation of Architects, Engineers and Technicians, a small labor union affiliated to the Congress of Industrial Organizations. During World War II, the Manhattan Project mobilized much of Berkeley's physics research in the effort to produce the first atomic bomb. Though Oppenheimer had asked Bohm to work with him at Los Alamos, the project's director, Brigadier General Leslie Groves, would not approve Bohm's security clearance after seeing evidence of his politics and his close friendship with Weinberg, suspected of espionage. During the war, Bohm remained at Berkeley, where he taught physics and conducted research in plasma, the synchrotron and the synchrocyclotron.

He completed his Ph. D. in 1943 by an unusual circumstance. According to biographer F. David Peat, "The scattering calculations that he had completed proved useful to the Manhattan Project and were classified. Without security clearance, Bohm was denied access to his own work. To satisfy the University, Oppenheimer certified that Bohm had completed the research. Bohm performed theoretical calculations for the Calutrons at the Y-12 facility in Oak Ridge, used for the electromagnetic enrichment of uranium for the bomb dropped on Hiroshima in 1945. After the war, Bohm became an assistant professor at Princeton University, he worked with Albert Einstein at the nearby Institute for Advanced Study. In May 1949, the House Un-American Activities Committee called upon Bohm to testify because of his previous ties to suspected communists. Bohm invoked his Fifth Amendment right to refuse to testify, he refused to give evidence against his colleagues. In 1950, Bohm was arrested for refusing to answer the committee's questions.

He was acquitted in May 1951, but Princeton had suspended him. After his acquittal, Bohm's colleagues sought to have him reinstated at Princeton, but Princeton President Harold W. Dodds decided not to renew Bohm's contract. Although Einstein considered appointing him as his research assistant at the Institute, Oppenheimer "opposed the idea and advised his former student to leave the country." His request to go to the University of Manchester was unsuccessful. Bohm left for Brazil to assume a professorship of physics at the University of São Paulo, at Jayme Tiomno's invitation and on the recommendation of both Einstein and Oppenheimer. During his early period, Bohm made a number of significant contributions to physics quantum mechanics and relativity theory; as a postgraduate at Berkeley, he developed a theory of plasmas, discovering the electron phenomenon now known as Bohm diffusion. His first book, Quantum Theory, published in 1951, was well received among others, but Bohm became dissatisfied with the or

Christine Erickson

Christine Marie Erickson is an American politician. A member of the Republican Party, she has been an at-large member of the Sioux Falls City Council since 2014, she was a member of the South Dakota House of Representatives, representing District 11 from 2013 to 2014. Erickson earned her associate degree in business administration from National American University and her bachelor's degree from the University of Sioux Falls. In 2012, when incumbent Republican Representative Lora Hubbel ran for South Dakota Senate and left a District 11 seat open, Erickson ran in the four-way June 5, 2012 Republican Primary and placed first with 539 votes ahead of incumbent Representative Mark Willadsen. In 2014, Erickson ran for the at-large B seat of the Sioux Falls City Council, when Jim Entenman chose not to seek re-election, she defeated her Democratic challenger Denny Pierson by 17,489 votes to 9,470. She resigned her District 11 seat after the election, her vacancy was filled by Willadsen, appointed by Governor of South Dakota, Dennis Daugaard, to finish her term.

In 2018, she defeated Nick Weiland 67% to 33%. Profile at Vote Smart

Igor Maksymenko

Igor Volodymyrovych Maksymenko — — master of sports of Ukraine of the international class in kickboxing and taekwondo, winner of World Cup in kickboxing. He was born in September 6, 1984 in the Ukrainian SSR of the Soviet Union. Igor is a Ukrainian by nationality. Mother is teacher of the elementary classes. Father is metal worker/welder. Brothers are Ivan and Maksym, sisters are Iryna and Anastasiia. 1991 – went to the first grade of the secondary school #66 of Kharkiv. 1993 – moved to the village of Komsomolske of Kharkiv Oblast. In the same year moved up to the secondary school #1 of Komsomolske which finished in 2001. 2002 – became the winner of the World Cup Peter the Great Cup in taekwondo. The same year he entered Kharkiv state academy of physical education at the specialty of trainer-instructor in taekwondo. 2004 – left the university due to personal reasons. 2004 – achieved the status of master of spots of Ukraine in taekwondo. The same year became the silver prize winner of World Cup in kickboxing.

2005 – became the Champion of Europe in taekwondo and passed international class of master of sports of Ukraine. 2007 – began the trainer activity in the All-Ukrainian Union of taekwondo, where has been working till nowadays. 2009 – became the winner of the World Cup of Europe in taekwondo. 2010 – became the winner of the professional tournament of PRO TKD. In the following year updated the studies at the KSAPE. April 2011 – acquired the status of champion in the All-Ukrainian Union of taekwondo. June 2011 – acquired the title of winner of the World Cup in kickboxing, held in Rimini. World Cup winner of “Peter the Great Cup” in taekwondo — 2002. Sport, modern music, travelling

Canada Post stamp releases (2005–09)

In the latter half of the decade, Canada Post continued to issue a large number of stamps with different designs and themes. One of the key changes in the decade was. An example is the 400th Anniversary of the French Settlement in North America; these stamps began in 2004 and continue until 2008. Another example of an ongoing collection is the Chinese Lunar New Year stamps; the stamps have been released on an annual basis with a different animal featured every year. Continuing the trend of putting people that are still alive on its stamps, Canada Post featured Oscar Peterson, the first member of the Order of Canada on a stamp in 2005; the year would mark the final year of the popular NHL legends series, which would feature legends such as 11-time Stanley Cup champion Henri Richard and Johnny Bucyk. A four stamp series in 2007 was produced with Canadian music legends. Said legends include Paul Anka, Gordon Lightfoot, Joni Mitchell, Anne Murray, with the stamps printed on a MetalFX process Please see Canada Post stamp releases for any stamps produced between 2000-2004.

Conservation stamps and stamp products are issued on an annual basis. These are issued by Quebec Wildlife Foundation and help to fund initiatives tied to the preservation and protection of Quebec's wildlife habitat; these annual issues are featured in the Canada Post Stamp Details Magazine. On an annual basis, Canadian Stamp News holds an annual survey; this gives collectors the opportunity to voice their opinions on what are their favourite stamps, least favourite stamps. The categories include: Favourite Canadian Stamps, Most Relevant Stamps, Least Favourite Stamps, Least Relevant Stamps; the results are as follows: THIS IS A WORK IN PROGRESS. ANYONE WITH DETAILS IS WELCOME TO CONTRIBUTE. Although Canada Post is responsible for stamp design and production, the corporation does not choose the subjects or the final designs that appear on stamps; that task falls under the jurisprudence of the Stamp Advisory Committee. Their objective is to recommend a balanced stamp program that will have broad-based appeal and culturally, reflecting Canadian history and tradition.

Before Canada Post calls a meeting of the committee, it welcomes suggestions for stamp subjects from Canadian citizens. Ideas for subjects that have appeared on a stamp are declined; the committee works two years in advance and can approve 20 subjects for each year. Once a stamp subject is selected, Canada Post's Stamp Products group conducts research. Designs are commissioned from two firms; the designs are presented anonymously to the committee. The committee's process and selection policy have changed little in the thirty years since it was introduced. Any ideas for a stamp should be sent to: Chairperson of the Stamp Advisory Committee, Canada Post, 2701 Riverside Drive Suite N1070, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0B1. Canada Post won the Desheng Cup for best printing of a stamp at the 5th Annual Best Foreign Stamp Poll; the cup was awarded for the Big Cats Canada/China joint issue, featuring the Canadian cougar and Amur leopard. Canada Post and Bradbury Branding and Design won a Promotional or Specialty Items Award of Honour in 2006 from ACE Awards.

The award was won for the Saskatchewan 1905-2005 stamp issue. In 2006, Canada Post and the Lowe-Martin Group were honoured with three awards from the 32nd Annual IAPHC International Gallery of Superb Printing for superb craftsmanship in the production of stamps. Gold awards were received for the Year of the Dog Uncut Press Sheet and the Biosphere Reserves Canada/Ireland joint issue, featuring the Canadian cougar and Amur leopard; the IAPHC is an international organization dedicated to the development and success of the printing and graphic art industry in society

List of Category A listed buildings in Clackmannanshire

This is a list of Category A listed buildings in Clackmannanshire, Scotland. In Scotland, the term listed building refers to a building or other structure designated as being of "special architectural or historic interest". Category A structures are those considered to be buildings of "national or international importance, either architecturally or historically". Listing was begun by a provision in the Town and Country Planning Act 1947, the current legislative basis for listing is the Planning Act 1997; the authority for listing rests with Historic Environment Scotland, an executive agency of the Scottish Government, which inherited this role from the Scottish Development Department in 1991. Once listed, severe restrictions are imposed on the modifications allowed to a building's structure or its fittings. Listed building consent must be obtained from local authorities prior to any alteration to such a structure. There are 47,000 listed buildings in Scotland, of which around 8 percent are Category A.

The council area of Clackmannanshire covers 159 square kilometres, has a population of around 50,000. Some 300 listed buildings are recorded in the Clackmannanshire Development Plan, of which 18 are Category A; these represent a variety of ages of structure. Listed structures range in size from William Henry Playfair's Greek-revival Dollar Academy, to the tiny Johnstone Mausoleum at Alva. Many of the earliest buildings, including the Old Kirk at Tullibody, several late-medieval castles and tower houses, are now in ruins, although Alloa Tower is still habitable. Dwellings include the 17th-century Menstrie Castle, 18th-century Brucefield, 20th-century Gean House; the 19th-century cast iron bridge at Cambus is one of the earliest in Scotland. The textile mills and warehouse of the former Kilncraigs factory represent 20th-century heritage, were restored in 2004. Scheduled monuments in Clackmannanshire Media related to Category A listed buildings in Clackmannanshire at Wikimedia Commons