Moab is a city on the southern edge of Grand County in southeastern Utah in the western United States. The population was 5,046 at the 2010 census, in 2018 the population was estimated to be 5,322, it is largest city in Grand County. Moab attracts many tourists annually visitors to the nearby Arches and Canyonlands national parks; the town is a popular base for mountain bikers who ride the extensive network of trails including the Slickrock Trail, for off-roaders who come for the annual Moab Jeep Safari. The Biblical name Moab refers to an area of land located on the eastern side of the Jordan River; some historians believe the city in Utah came to use this name because of William Andrew Peirce, the first postmaster, believing that the biblical Moab and this part of Utah were both "the far country". However, others believe the name has Paiute origins, referring to the word moapa, meaning "mosquito"; some of the area's early residents attempted to change the city's name, because in the Christian Bible, Moabites are demeaned as incestuous and idolatrous.
One petition in 1890 had 59 signatures and requested a name change to "Vina". Another effort attempted to change the name to "Uvadalia". Both attempts failed. During the period between 1829 and the early 1850s, the area around what is now Moab served as the Colorado River crossing along the Old Spanish Trail. Latter-day Saint settlers attempted to establish a trading fort at the river crossing called the Elk Mountain Mission in April 1855 to trade with travellers attempting to cross the river. Forty men were called on this mission. There were repeated Indian attacks, including one on September 23, 1855, in which James Hunt, companion to Peter Stubbs, was shot and killed by a Native American. After this last attack, the fort was abandoned. A new round of settlers from Rich County, led by Randolph Hockaday Stewart, established a permanent settlement in 1878 under the direction of Brigham Young. Moab was incorporated as a town on December 20, 1902. In 1883 the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad main line was constructed across eastern Utah.
The rail line did not pass through Moab, instead passing through the towns of Thompson Springs and Cisco, 40 miles to the north. Other places to cross the Colorado were constructed, such as Lee's Ferry, Navajo Bridge and Boulder Dam; these changes shifted. Moab farmers and merchants had to adapt from trading with passing travelers to shipping their goods to distant markets. Soon Moab's origins as one of the few natural crossings of the Colorado River were forgotten; the U. S. military deemed the bridge over the Colorado River at Moab important enough to place it under guard as late as World War II. In 1943, a former Civilian Conservation Corps camp outside Moab was used to confine Japanese American internees labeled "troublemakers" by authorities in the War Relocation Authority, the government body responsible for overseeing the wartime incarceration program; the Moab Isolation Center for "noncompliant" Japanese Americans was created in response to growing resistance to WRA policies within the camps.
On January 11, 1943, the sixteen men who had initiated the two-day protests were transferred to Moab from the town jails where they were booked after the riot. Having closed just fifteen months prior, all 18 military-style structures of the CCC camp were in good condition, the site was converted to its new use with minimal renovation. 150 military police guarded the camp, director Raymond Best and head of security Francis Frederick presided over administration. On February 18, thirteen transfers from Gila River, were brought to Moab, six days ten more arrived from Manzanar. An additional fifteen Tule Lake inmates were transferred on April 2. Most of these new arrivals were removed from the general camp population because of their resistance to the WRA's attempts to determine the loyalty of incarcerated Japanese Americans, met with confusion and anger because of a lack of explanation as to how and why internees would be assessed; the Moab Isolation Center remained open until April 27, when most of its inmates were bused to the larger and more secure Leupp Isolation Center.
In 1994, the "Dalton Wells CCC Camp/Moab Relocation Center" was added to the National Register of Historic Places, although no marker exists on the site, an information plaque at the current site entrance and a photograph on display at the Dan O'Laurie Museum in Moab mention the former isolation center. Moab's economy was based on agriculture, but shifted to mining. Uranium and vanadium were discovered in the area in the 1920s. Potash and manganese came next, oil and gas were discovered. In the 1950s Moab became the so-called "Uranium Capital of the World" after geologist Charles Steen found a rich deposit of uranium ore south of the city; this discovery coincided with the advent of the era of nuclear weapons and nuclear power in the United States, Moab's boom years began. The city population grew nearly 500% over the next few years, bringing the population to near 6,000 people; the explosion in population caused much construction of schools. Charles Steen donated a great deal of money and land to create new houses and churches in Moa
The Pashto alphabet is transliterated vis-à-vis Perso-Arabic scriptural denotation with additional glyphs added to accommodate phonemes used in Pashto. In the 16th century, Bayazid Pir Roshan from Waziristan invented the Roshani script to write Pashto, it had 41 letters: 28 of his letters came from the Arabic alphabet. He introduced 13 new letters into the Pashto alphabet. Most of the new letters he introduced i.e. ګ,ښ,ړ,ډ,څ,ټ and ڼ are still written in the same form and are pronounced in the same way in modern Pashto. The sound system of the southern dialect of modern Pashto preserves the distinction between all the consonant phonemes of his orthography. Pir Roshan introduced the letter ږ to represent /ʒ/, like the ⟨s⟩ in pleasure, for which modern Pashto uses ژ instead. Modern Pashto uses the letter ږ to represent the sound /ʐ/, but for that sound, Pir Roshan used a letter looking like ·د, his letter ڊ to represent /d͡z/ has been replaced by ځ in modern Pashto. He used ڛ, an obsolete letter from the medieval Nastaʿlīq script, to denote the letter س only in the isolated form.
The Arabic ligature ﻻ was used. Two of his letters, پ and چ, were borrowed from the Persian alphabet. In August 1958, Pashtun intellectuals held a congress in Kabul, with the goal of standardizing the Pashto alphabet. During the congress, a number of standardizations were proposed in the use of the modern Pashto alphabet. Pashto is written in the Arabic Naskh, it has several letters. The letters representing the retroflex consonants /ʈ/, /ɖ/, /ɭ̆/ and /ɳ/ are written like the standard Arabic te, dāl, re and nun with a small circle attached underneath: ړ, ډ, ټ, ڼ, respectively; the letters ښ and ږ look like sīn and re with a dot above and beneath. The letters representing / t͡s / and / d͡z / look like a ح with three an hamza above. Pashto has ی, ې, ۀ, ۍ for additional vowels and diphthongs as well. Pashto uses all 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet, shares 3 letters with Persian and Urdu in the additional letters. Pashto has 4 diacritic marks; the Southern and Northern dialects of Pashto are included.
^1 In the beginning of a word, آ represents the long vowel /ɑ/ in words borrowed from other languages. In the beginning of a word, the alphabet ا represents the consonant /a/, e.g. اسپه – aspa, "mare". In the middle or end of a word, ا represents the long vowel /ɑ/, following a consonant. In the beginning of a word, the alphabet Alif can be used with a diactric mark e.g. اِ as in اِسلام – Islām, "Islam". ^2 Ten letters, ق ف ع ظ ط ض ص ح ﺫ ث, appear only in loanwords which of Arabic origin through Persian borrowings. Eight of these, ع ظ ط ض ص ح ﺫ ث, represent no additional phonemes of Pashto, their pronunciation is replaced with other phonemes. ^3 ح /h/ tends to be omitted in pronunciation when at the end of a word, e.g. اصلاح is always pronounced as. ^ 4 The letter ړ represents / ɺ̢ /. It tends to be replaced with /p/ پ. ^6 The phoneme /q/ ق occurs only in loanwords. It tends to be replaced with /k/ ک. ^7 It is common to write the letter ک as ك. ^8 It is common to write the letter ګ as گ. ^9 In informal texts, ی as well as ې, ۍ and ئ are sometimes replaced by the letter ے in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
In some official texts, edited till to the middle of the 20th century, the ے corresponds only to ې, while ۍ and ئ are used as in official typing nowadays. ^10 ی represents /ai/ when it is following a consonant, represents /j/ when it is following a vowel. ^11 The letter ئ represents /j/ after a vowel, e.g. جدائي – judāyī, "separation". ^12 It is common to write ﺉ with the hamza over the right side of the letter – ٸ. ^13 The letter ۀ is only represented at the end of a word, e.g. تېرۀ – terə, "sharp". The vowel /ə/ when present between consonants is unrepresented by the ۀ alphabet, e.g. ننوتل – nənawatəl, "to enter". ^14 Pashtuns tend to omit or not pronounce the letter غ and some words, e.g. consider the following words. Such shape of the upper element of the letter is hard to find in modern fonts. Since the time of Bayazid Pir Roshan, ڊ was used for /d͡z/, still used in the Diwan of Mirza written in 1690 CE, but this sign was replaced by ځ. Another rare glyph for /d͡z/ is ج֗, a ج with the same dot above.
The four diacritic marks are: The diacritic marks are not considered separate letters. Their use is optional and are not written. In Arabic loanwords, the tanwin fatha can be used, e.g. مَثَلاً – masalan, "for example". ^1 If ى follows a consonant in a word, it indicates the word is masculine singular and in the direct case. ^ 2 ۍ always indicates the word. ^3 If ئ occurs at the end of a verb, it indicates the verb is in second person plural
Lynn Jenner is a poet and essayist from New Zealand. Jenner was born in Taranaki, she worked as a educational psychologist and counsellor until 2003. She began studying writing at Whitireia Polytechnic and completed an MA in Creative Writing at Victoria University of Wellington, she received her PhD in 2013 from the International Institute of Modern Letters at the Victoria University of Wellington. Jenner lives on the Kapiti Coast. Jenner published her first collection of poetry, Dear Sweet Harry, in 2010, her second book and Gone Away, was published in 2015 and is a memoir, including essays, poetry. A third book titled "PEAT" was published by Otago University Press in July 2019; this book weaves Jenner's reactions to the building of the Kapiti Expressway near her home together with her relationship with the late poet and philanthropist Charles Brasch. Poems by Jenner have been included in the Best New Zealand Poems series in 2008, 2009, 2010, she has published in several literary journals including Turbine and 4th Floor.
Jenner was published in the anthology Oxford Poets 2013. Jenner's MA thesis won the 2008 Adam Foundation Prize for Creative Writing. In 2011, Dear Sweet Harry won the NZSA Jessie Mackay Award for Best First Book of Poetry at the New Zealand Post Book Awards. Lost and Gone Away was named a Metro Best Books in 2015 and a finalist in the general non-fiction category of the 2016 Ockham New Zealand Book Awards. Official website