Mobil known as the Socony-Vacuum Oil Company, is a major American oil company that merged with Exxon in 1999 to form a parent company called ExxonMobil. It was one of the Seven Sisters that dominated the global petroleum industry from the mid-1940s until the 1970s. Today, Mobil continues as a major brand name within the combined company, as well as still being a gas station sometimes paired with its own store or On the Run; the former Mobil headquarters in Fairfax County, was used as ExxonMobil's downstream headquarters until 2015 when ExxonMobil consolidated employees into a new corporate campus in Spring, Texas. Following the break-up of Standard Oil in 1911, the Standard Oil Company of New York, or Socony, was founded, along with 33 other successor companies. In 1920, the company registered the name "Mobiloil" as a trademark. Henry Clay Folger was head of the company until 1923. Beginning February 29, 1928 on NBC, Socony Oil reached radio listeners with a comedy program, Soconyland Sketches, scripted by William Ford Manley and featuring Arthur Allen and Parker Fennelly as rural New Englanders.
Socony continued to sponsor the show when it moved to CBS in 1934. In 1935, it became the Socony Sketchbook, with the Johnny Green orchestra. In 1931, Socony merged with Vacuum Oil to form Socony-Vacuum. In 1933, Socony-Vacuum and Jersey Standard merged their interests in the Far East into a 50–50 joint venture. Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. or "Stanvac", operated in 50 countries, including New Zealand and the region of East Africa, before it was dissolved in 1962. In 1935, Socony Vacuum Oil opened the huge Mammoth Oil Port on Staten Island which had a capacity of handling 250 million gallons of petroleum products a year and could transship oil from ocean-going tankers and river barges. In 1940, Socony-Vacuum's gasoline buying practices led to the major antitrust law case United States v. Socony-Vacuum Oil Co; the case originated with Socony-Vacuum's practices of organizing a cartel among the "major" oil companies in which they bought oil—known as "hot oil"—from independent producers and stored the surplus in tanks to limit the supply of oil available on the market and keep the price of oil artificially high.
In its decision, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled that regardless of the purpose of the price fixing or if the prices varied, such conduct was illegal in and of itself: "Under the Sherman Act a combination formed for the purpose and with the effect of raising, fixing, pegging, or stabilizing the price of a commodity in interstate or foreign commerce is illegal per se..." This rule remains in use today for agreements that appear on their face to always or always restrict competition and reduce output. In 1955, Socony-Vacuum was renamed Socony Mobil Oil Company. In 1963, it changed its trade name from "Mobiloil" to "Mobil", introducing a new logo. To celebrate its 100th anniversary in 1966, "Socony" was dropped from the corporate name. From 1936 to 1968, Mobil sponsored an economy run each year in which domestic automobiles of various manufacturers in several price and size classes were driven by light-footed drivers on cross-country runs; the Economy Run originated with the Gilmore Oil Company of California in 1936 and became the Mobilgas Economy Run, still the Mobil Economy Run.
The cars driven in the economy run were fueled with Mobil gasoline, Mobiloil and lubricants were used. The vehicles in each class that achieved the highest fuel economy numbers were awarded the coveted title as the Mobilgas Economy Run winner. During American involvement in World War II, April 29, 1942, Socony's unescorted tanker, named Mobiloil, was sunk by a German U-boat, all 52 people survived after 86 hours adrift in lifeboats. Socony-Mobil ranked 86th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts. Through the years, Mobil was among the largest sellers of gasoline and motor oils in the United States and held the top spot during the 1940s and much of the 1950s. Various Mobil products during the Socony-Vacuum and Socony-Mobil years included Metro and Mobilgas Special gasolines. In 1954, Mobil introduced a new and improved Mobilgas Special in response to trends toward new automobiles powered by high-compression engines that demanded higher and higher octane gasolines.
The newest formulas of Mobilgas Special were advertised as offering "A Tune-Up in Every Tankful" due to a combination of chemicals known as the "Mobil Power Compound", designed to increase power, check pre-ignition ping, correct spark plug misfiring, control stalling and combat gumming up of carburetors. Mobil campaigns advertised Mobilgas as the "New Car Gasoline" following extensive testing during the annual Mobilgas Economy Run. In 1962, the gasoline product lines marketed as Mobilgas and Mobilgas Special were rebranded as Mobil Regular and Mobil Premium in a move to emphasize the shortened brand name "Mobil" in promotional efforts, although Mobiloil continued as a single-word term until the 1970s. After a few years of advertising Mobil gasolines as "Megatane"-rated and as "High Energy" gasolines, Mobil began, in 1966, to promote both i
David Francis Herbert Marler is a Canadian lawyer in Knowlton, Quebec who specializes in transportation and international law. He has been a candidate for the House of Commons of Canada on two occasions. Marler was born in Montreal, Canada. After graduating from Malvern College in England, Marler received a Bachelor of Arts degree in literature from Bishop's University and a Bachelor of Laws degree from McGill University, he has published articles on maritime law, served as city councillor in Lac-Tremblant-Nord, been a director of the Brome Lake Chamber of Commerce. He is member of the United Church of Canada. Since 1995, he has been Managing Partner at the law firm of Marler & Associates. Marler's family has been active in politics and government for many decades, he is the grandson of Herbert Meredith Marler, who served as a cabinet minister in the government of William Lyon Mackenzie King, a grand-nephew of George Carlyle Marler, a cabinet minister in the governments of Louis St. Laurent and Jean Lesage.
Marler moved to Brome—Missisquoi in 2003 and ran for the Conservative Party of Canada in the 2006 federal election, after defeating Jacques Dalton for the nomination. He highlighted his support for provincial rights within the Canadian constitution and supported his party's promise for more free votes in the House of Commons of Canada. Marler's campaign manager described him as "the least conservative of Conservative candidates." He finished third against Bloc Québécois candidate Christian Ouellet. In December 2006, Marler was appointed as a commissioner on the Eastern Townships School Board to replace an incumbent who had resigned, he did not seek re-election in late 2007. Marler left the Conservative Party in January 2008, he has said that he refused to accept thirty thousand dollars via the party's controversial "in-and-out" transfer scheme during the 2006 election, that party officials informed him they did not want him as a candidate in 2008. The Conservative Party rejected the accusation.
In the 2008 election, Marler published a piece entitled,". He ran as an independent, saying that a Conservative majority government would be dangerous for Canadian democracy
Saskatoon Northwest is a provincial electoral district for the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan, Canada. It covers the neighborhoods of Silverwood Heights and the surrounding area; this constituency includes Wanuskewin Heritage Park, Saskatoon Correctional Centre and the SaskTel Centre. Website of the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan Elections Saskatchewan: Official Results of the 2007 Provincial Election By Electoral Division Elections Saskatchewan - Official Results of the 2011 Provincial Election Saskatchewan Archives Board – Saskatchewan Election Results By Electoral Division
The 2005–06 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was the fifth least-active on record. The Météo-France office on the island of Réunion tracked 13 tropical disturbances, of which six intensified into a moderate tropical storm. Three of these systems proceeded to attain tropical cyclone status – reaching 10 minute maximum sustained winds of at least 120 km/h; the American-based Joint Typhoon Warning Center tracked eight storms in the basin. Activity was below normal due to a powerful Walker circulation, which increased convection over the neighboring Australian basin, but suppressed activity in the western Indian Ocean; as a result, most of the storms developed near or entered from the Australian basin, crossing 90°E to enter the South-West Indian Ocean. A series of four short-lived systems occurred from September to November in the northeastern portion of the basin; these were followed by the first named storm – Alvin –, renamed after it crossed from the Australian region as Tropical Cyclone Bertie in late November.
After another short-lived disturbance in late December, there was a tropical disturbance in the Mozambique Channel in January that killed 26 people when it brought heavy rainfall to Mozambique. In the month, Tropical Cyclone Boloetse took an erratic track across Madagascar, killing six people when it brushed the island's southwest coast. In February, there was a small, short-lived unnamed tropical storm that presented difficulties to warning agencies in determining its structure. Intense Tropical Cyclone Carina was the strongest system of the season, attaining peak 10 minute winds of 205 km/h in the open waters of the eastern portion of the basin. Sprawling Tropical Storm Diwa brought six months' worth of rainfall to the drought-ridden island of Réunion, reaching 2,943 mm in the mountainous peaks; the rains led to flooding and landslides that killed 10 people indirectly. Two of the deaths occurred; the final storm, dissipated on April 17 after entering from the Australian basin. Météo-France's meteorological office in Réunion – the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for the South-West Indian Ocean – tracked and named all tropical cyclones from the east coast of Africa to 90° E, south of the equator.
The Joint Typhoon Warning Center, a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force task force that issues tropical cyclone warnings for the region issued advisories for storms during the season. There were 13 tropical disturbances in the season that were monitored by the MFR. Since the agency began operations in the early 1990s, this season had the second-least number of disturbances that received warning, only behind the 2000–01 season. Since the advent of satellite imagery in 1967, this season was the fifth least-active in terms of storm days and the number of cyclones. There were six systems that attained the intensity of a moderate tropical storm, which has 10 minute sustained winds of at least 65 km/h, below the average of nine. There were 30 days in which a moderate tropical storm was active, less than the average of 48. Three tropical storms attained tropical cyclone status, or 10 minute winds of at least 120 km/h, there were 10 days in which these systems were active; the season was similar to the 1998–99 season.
The third named storm, did not occur until late February, which at the time was the latest such date since naming began in 1960. In general, storms in the season formed in the basin's north of the Mascarene Islands. No systems developed in an unusual occurrence; the overall lack of activity was due to a strong Walker circulation over Indonesia, which increased convection over the Australian region, but suppressed convection over the Indian Ocean. The Intertropical Convergence Zone – a major contributor to tropical cyclogenesis – was active. Conditions became more favorable in February and March, when four of the six tropical storms occurred; the general lack of thunderstorms over the basin caused drought-like conditions. Pierrefonds Airport on Réunion recorded just 18 mm of rainfall from November to January, a record minimum; the island recorded its third-highest average atmospheric pressure from November to April. In the middle of November, a westerly wind burst produced an area of convection southwest of Sumatra, which spawned a circulation at 2º S on November 16.
Two days the BoM classified the system as a tropical low to the north of the Cocos Islands. The low moved southwestward intensifying, prompting the BoM to name it Bertie; the storm moved southwestward and intensified due to favorable water temperatures and atmospheric conditions, reaching winds of 185 km/h on November 22 while just east of 90º E. The track shifted nearly due south, the eye moved along the dividing line between the Australian and south-west Indian Ocean basins. Early on November 24, the cyclone was renamed Alvin; the MFR estimated peak 10 minute winds of 175 km/h within the basin, making it an intense tropical cyclone. The JTWC, which designated Alvin as Tropical Cyclone 03S, estimated 1 minute winds of 195 km/h. A building ridge to the south turned the storm to the west-northwest. By November 25, the increased wind s
An alibi is a form of defense used in criminal procedure wherein the accused attempts to prove that they were in some other place at the time the alleged offense was committed. The Criminal Law Deskbook of Criminal Procedure states: "Alibi is different from all of the other defenses. In Latin, alibī means "somewhere else." In some legal jurisdictions there may be a requirement that the accused disclose an alibi defence prior to the trial. This is an exception to the rule that a criminal defendant cannot be compelled to furnish information to the prosecution. Since the alibi involves evidence of innocence rather than guilt, the privilege against self-incrimination is not implicated. In Canada, the defence must disclose an alibi defence with sufficient time for the authorities to investigate the alibi, with sufficient particularization to allow for a meaningful investigation. Failure to comply with the two requirements will result in the court making an adverse inference against the alibi defence.
Conversely, some judges in other jurisdictions have held the opinion that the mandatory early disclosure of alibis is unfair even unconstitutional. The giving of a false alibi, beside resulting in possible subsequent criminal offences, may, in some jurisdictions, result in negative ramifications for the trial itself. In Canada, the giving of a false alibi may be used by the court as actual evidence of guilt, provided certain requirements are met. Specifically: The alibi must not be believed. An alibi agency called an alibi network, forges explanations for unexcused absences, e.g. due to an extramarital affair or adultery. In other words, alibi agencies are paid to lie for their customers. Originating in 1990s Japan, such services appeared in Europe in 2004, where they were condemned as immoral by the Catholic Church in Germany, they are the subject of the 2006 movie The Alibi
One Miami is a complex of two adjacent skyscrapers in downtown Miami, Florida named One Miami East Tower and One Miami West Tower. It consists of two towers located at the Miami River delta, where the river empties into Biscayne Bay; the East Tower is the taller of the two, at 460 ft. It contains 44 floors, was completed in 2005; the West Tower is 449 ft tall, contains 45 floors. It too was completed in 2005; the development was one of the first announced in the recent Miami building boom. However, due to a slow construction phase, the buildings took over five years to be completed; the complex is located on Southeast 3rd Street. The buildings are residential, consisting of condominiums. However, the complex does contain commercial elements too. A restaurant is featured on the ground floor at the entrance to the towers. List of tallest buildings in Miami One Miami East Tower One Miami West Tower