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Mobile Bay

Mobile Bay is a shallow inlet of the Gulf of Mexico, lying within the state of Alabama in the United States. Its mouth is formed by the Fort Morgan Peninsula on the eastern side and Dauphin Island, a barrier island on the western side; the Mobile River and Tensaw River empty into the northern end of the bay. Several smaller rivers empty into the bay: Dog River, Deer River, Fowl River on the western side of the bay, Fish River on the eastern side. Mobile Bay is the fourth largest estuary in the United States with a discharge of 62,000 cubic feet of water per second. Annually, several times during the summer months, the fish and crustaceans will swarm the shallow coastline and shore of the bay; this event, appropriately named a jubilee, draws a large crowd because of the abundance of fresh caught seafood. Mobile Bay is the only place on earth. Mobile Bay is 413 square miles in area, it is 31 miles long by a maximum width of 24 miles. The deepest areas of the bay are located within the shipping channel, sometimes in excess of 75 feet deep, but the average depth of the bay is 10 feet.

Long occupied by culture of indigenous peoples, this area was still under the chiefs of Mississippian culture at the time of Hernando de Soto's exploration. The recorded history of Mobile Bay begins about 1500, when Spanish explorers were sailing into the area. On early maps, the bay was named as Bahía del Espíritu Santo; the area was explored in more detail in 1516 by Diego Miruelo and in 1519 by Alonso Álvarez de Pineda. In 1528, Pánfilo de Narváez travelled through what was the Mobile Bay area, encountering Native Americans who fled and burned their towns at the approach of the expedition; this response was a prelude to the journeys of Hernando de Soto, more than eleven years later. Hernando de Soto explored the area of Mobile Bay and beyond in 1540, finding the area inhabited by indigenous Mississippian culture people. During this expedition his forces destroyed the fortified town of Mauvila spelled Maubila, from which the name Mobile was derived, it was a town of the paramount Chief Tuscaloosa, located in inland Alabama, well to the north of the current site of Mobile.

The next large expedition was that of Tristán de Luna y Arellano, in his unsuccessful attempt to establish a permanent colony for Spain nearby at Pensacola in 1559. Although Spain's presence in the area had been sporadic, in 1702 French colonists created a deep-sea port at Dauphin Island and founded French Louisiana's capital at Mobile, a few miles north of Mobile Bay on the Mobile River. Following a series of floods, the original settlement of Fort Louis de la Mobile was relocated in 1711 to the head of Mobile Bay. During the American Civil War Mobile Bay was used as a major port for blockade runners bringing in badly needed supplies for the Confederacy. On August 5, 1864, Admiral David Farragut led a Union flotilla through Confederate defenses and sealed off one of the last major Southern ports of the bay in the Battle of Mobile Bay. A number of Civil War-era shipwrecks remain in Mobile Bay, including American Diver, CSS Gaines, CSS Huntsville, USS Philippi, CSS Phoenix, USS Rodolph, USS Tecumseh, CSS Tuscaloosa.

Mobile's role as a seaport has continued to the present day, though the commodities have changed through time. Cotton was the chief commodity in the nineteenth century. During the Second World War, Mobile's shipbuilding industry expanded, the city's population surged as both black and white migrants moved there for work. Growth has been rapid since then; the city has endured several devastating hurricanes in its history, the most recent being Hurricane Frederic in 1979 and Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Areas of low elevation, including the downtown business district, have been flooded in hurricanes. However, much of the city is at an elevation exceeding 200 feet above sea level, unusually high for the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. On September 13, 1979, Hurricane Frederic entered the bay with winds reaching 145 miles per hour, destroying the bridge to Dauphin Island. On August 28–29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina pushed a massive storm surge into Mobile Bay. Thousands of boats and beach houses were damaged by waves exceeding 22 feet high, the battleship USS Alabama was pushed off her moorings, leaving her listing to port.

Downtown Mobile was flooded several feet, the south-end towns of Bayou La Batre and Bon Secour were damaged. Dozens of vessels of various sizes were left stranded inland; the city of Mobile is situated at the head of the bay on the western shore. On the Eastern Shore of the bay are found several small communities, including Spanish Fort, Fairhope, Point Clear, Bon Secour; the town of Gulf Shores lies just outside the bay, on the Fort Morgan peninsula, while the town of Fort Morgan is located directly south of the bay. The Middle Bay Lighthouse has been located in the center of the bay since 1885; the head of the bay is crossed by two major thoroughfares, Interstate 10, known as the Jubilee Parkway, US 90/US 98, known as the Battleship Parkway. These two bridges serve as the primary connections between the city of the Eastern Shore. On warm summer nights, the residents living around Mobile Bay sometimes enjoy the fruits of a mysterious natural phenomenon called a Jubilee, when fish and crabs swarm toward shore and can be harvested by people wading in the shallows.

Gulf Islands National Seashore - offshore islands, includes nearby state

Andrew Findlater

Andrew Findlater was a Scottish editor notable for his work on Chambers's Encyclopaedia. He was born near Aberdour, the son of a small farmer. By hard study in the evening, after his days work on the farm was finished, he qualified himself for entrance at the University of Aberdeen, after graduating as MA he attended the Divinity classes with the idea of entering the ministry, he went to Canada before beginning his association with Chambers. In 1853 he began that connection with the firm of W. & R. Chambers which gave direction to his subsequent activity, his first engagement was the editing of a revised edition of their Information for the People. In this capacity he gave evidence of qualities and acquirements that marked him as a suitable editor for Chambers's Encyclopaedia projected, his was the directing mind that gave it its character. Many of the more important articles were written by him; this work occupied him until 1868, he afterwards edited a revised edition. He had charge of other publications for the same firm, wrote for the Scotsman.

Findlater was associated with John Stuart Mill and George Grote and friends with William Thackeray and the French philologist Émile Littré. In 1864 he was made LL. D. of Aberdeen University. In 1877 he gave up active work for Chambers, he died in Edinburgh in 1885. Works by or about Andrew Findlater at Internet Archive "Findlater, Andrew". Dictionary of National Biography. 1885–1900. "Findlater, Andrew". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920


Abulites was the Achaemenid satrap of Susiana during the reign of Darius III, retained the satrapy as a Hellenistic satrap under Alexander the Great until circa 324 BC, when he was executed for sedition. He may have been of Elamite origin, although his son, bears an Iranian name, "one that seems distinctly Zoroastrian". After the Battle of Gaugamela, the Mesopotamian province of the Achaemenid Empire fell to Alexander. Thereafter, Abulites had no choice. After entering Susa, Alexander captured "a vast collection of treasure, including 50,000 talents of silver in ingots". Treasure from Xerxes' campaign in mainland Greece was taken as well; some statuary from Athens, such as the bronze statue of Harmodius and Haristogiton, "the Tyrant-slayers", was recovered by Alexander in Susa. Susa was the co-capital of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, but the "hoarding of specie" does illustrate the "shortsightedness of Achaemenid fiscal policy" according to C. J. Brunner; as Alexander was preparing to move into Persis, he left a garrison under the Macedonian Xenophilus, reconfirmed Abulites as satrap of Susania, "holding civil jurisdiction".

Abulites remained satrap until Alexander's return from his Indian campaign. Though this remains unclear and his son were "promptly arrested and executed". "Immediately afterwards", Alexander organized the mass weddings at Susa, "thus again showing his commitment to the ideal of Greek and Persian partnership". Plutarch relates a story in which Abulites was requested by Alexander to bring supplies after the disastrous crossing of the Gedrosian desert, but Abulites instead brought huge amounts of coinage, about 3000 tales. In a rage, Alexander threw the coins at horses. Alexander shouted "What good have you done having brought this?". Thereafter Abulites was jailed by Alexander; some of these coins may have been the "Porus" coins of Alexander, struck in 325-323 BC in Babylon or Susa, which bear the initials "AB" and "Ξ" identified with the initials of Abulites and his associated Macedonian general Xenophilus. Brunner, C. J.. "ABOULITES". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. I, Fasc. 3. P. 228. Heckel, Waldemar.

"Alexander's Conquest of Asia". In Heckel, Waldemar. Alexander the Great: A New History. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-1444360158

Estadio Augusto C├ęsar Sandino

Estadio Augusto César Sandino is a multi-use stadium in Santa Clara, Cuba. It is used for baseball games and is the home stadium of Villa Clara Naranjas; the stadium holds 20,000 people. Sandino Stadium "Orange fury" | La furia naranja, el estadio sandino de Santa Clara La Furia Naranja is the nickname of Villa Clara province baseball team, the name given since 2009 to everything painted in orange throughout the city; the architects Emilio Castro and Gustavo R. Arnavat projected the Sandino in 1963 using the technique of articulated precast molding. In an effort to take the National Sport to every corner of the country, they were looking for a design solution, less expensive and easier to adapt to the rest of Cuban cities without baseball facilities, it has capacity for 10,000 people. It opened on January 8, 1965; the substructure is made out of concrete cast in-situ. Prefabricated structures such as vaults and PEPSA joints that hold the ceiling tiles were made using prefabricated reinforced concrete.

The lobby's floor is tiled with Cuban marble, while the rest of the structure has polished concrete floor. The gallery of the stadium has 148 columns from 2 to 12 meters high sustaining 100 beams, it has 10 lighting towers 33 meters high with 320 bulbs of 1500 Watts. The stadium's water supply is provided by gravity from an elevated tank of 10,000 gallon capacity, it has among its facilities a dorm room with 208 beds, bathrooms, lockers and offices. This structure's design was first built in Santa Clara city and subsequently repeated in the cities of Camagüey, Matanzas and Pinar del Rio. To the rest of the country's cities and towns; the Cienfuego's stadium executed on September 5, 1977 is a good example of how the Sandino architectural typology could be re-adapted and modified to create a similar looking building with some variants. The stadium's namesake is Nicaraguan revolutionary Augusto César Sandino. Baseball World Cup 1971 and 1973 Intercontinental Cup 1979 José Antonio Huelga Tournament World Junior Baseball Championship in 2006 Artists that have performed in the stadium: Joan Manuel Serrad Dani Rivera Sonia Silvestre Lucecita Benítez Estadio Sandino on EcuRed Estadio Sandino on

Caracas (album)

Caracas is an album by jazz saxophonist Lou Donaldson, his third recording for the Milestone label, featuring Donaldson with Lonnie Smith, Peter Bernstein, Kenny Washington, Ralph Dorsey. The album was awarded 4 stars in an AllMusic review by Alex Henderson, who states "Caracas was recorded in 1993, but it sounds like it could have been recorded 30 years earlier. Regardless, this CD is excellent... Is Caracas essential? Not quite, but it's still a rewarding album that will please die-hard soul-jazz enthusiasts". All compositions by Lou Donaldson except as indicated"Hot Dog" - 5:16 "Just a Dream" - 6:19 "Ornithology" - 7:07 "I Don't Know Why" - 4:58 "Night Train" - 9:49 "I Be Blue" - 5:55 "Caracas" - 7:32 "Lil' Darlin'" - 7:16 Recorded in New York City in July 1993. Lou Donaldson - alto saxophone, vocals Lonnie Smith - organ Peter Bernstein - guitar Kenny Washington - drums Ralph Dorsey - congas

Hulda from Holland

Hulda from Holland is a 1916 American silent drama film directed by John B. O'Brien, produced by Famous Players Film Company and released by Paramount Pictures, it stars Mary Pickford the biggest movie star in America. The story is an original for the screen called Miss Jinny. Upon the death of her parents, little Hulda find herself sole guardian of her three small brothers, she receives a letter from her wealthy Uncle Peter in Pennsylvania inviting the three orphans to come to America and live with him. Shortly afterwards, Uncle Peter drives to the Port of New York to pick them up, but is injured by an automobile accident and taken to a hospital where he lies unidentified. Uncle Peter's disappearance not only causes distress to the three newly arrived Dutch immigrants, but to a railroad president, trying to buy the right-of-way through Uncle Peter's farmland and has only three deals left in which to close the deal; the search for the old man by both Hulda and Mr. Walton's son result in a blossoming romance between the two.

Mary Pickford as Hulda Frank Losee as John Walton John Bowers as Allan Walton Russell Bassett as Uncle Peter Harold Hollacher as Little Jacob Charles E. Vernon as The Burgomasterunbilled Cesare Gravina as Apartment Neighbor The film survives in two European film archives. Hulda from Holland on IMDb Synopsis at AllMovie Alternate lobby poster