SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Mobile phone

A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides access to the public switched telephone network. Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture, therefore, mobile telephones are called cellular telephones or cell phones, in North America. In addition to telephony, 2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, MMS, Internet access, short-range wireless communications, business applications, video games, digital photography. Mobile phones offering only those capabilities are known as feature phones; the development of metal-oxide-semiconductor large-scale integration technology, information theory and cellular networking led to the development of affordable mobile communications.

The first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing c. 2 kilograms. In 1979, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone launched the world's first cellular network in Japan. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. From 1983 to 2014, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew to over seven billion—enough to provide one for every person on Earth. In the first quarter of 2016, the top smartphone developers worldwide were Samsung and Huawei, smartphone sales represented 78 percent of total mobile phone sales. For feature phones as of 2016, the largest were Samsung and Alcatel. A handheld mobile radio telephone service was envisioned in the early stages of radio engineering. In 1917, Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt filed a patent for a "pocket-size folding telephone with a thin carbon microphone". Early predecessors of cellular phones included analog radio communications from trains; the race to create portable telephone devices began after World War II, with developments taking place in many countries.

The advances in mobile telephony have been traced in successive "generations", starting with the early zeroth-generation services, such as Bell System's Mobile Telephone Service and its successor, the Improved Mobile Telephone Service. These 0G systems were not cellular, supported few simultaneous calls, were expensive; the development of metal-oxide-semiconductor large-scale integration technology, information theory and cellular networking led to the development of affordable mobile communications. The first handheld cellular mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing 2 kilograms; the first commercial automated cellular network analog was launched in Japan by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone in 1979. This was followed in 1981 by the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone system in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Several other countries followed in the early to mid-1980s; these first-generation systems could support far more simultaneous calls but still used analog cellular technology.

In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. Digital cellular networks appeared in the 1990s, enabled by the wide adoption of MOSFET-based RF power amplifiers and RF circuits, leading to the introduction of digital signal processing in wireless communications. In 1991, the second-generation digital cellular technology was launched in Finland by Radiolinja on the GSM standard; this sparked competition in the sector as the new operators challenged the incumbent 1G network operators. The GSM standard is a European initiative expressed at the CEPT; the Franco-German R&D cooperation demonstrated the technical feasibility, in 1987 was signed the Memorandum of Understanding, between 13 European countries who agreed to launch a commercial service by 1991. The first version of the GSM standard had 6.000 pages. The IEEE/RSE awarded to Thomas Haug and Philippe Dupuis the 2018 James Clerk Maxwell medal for their contributions to the first digital mobile telephone standard.

In 2018, the GSM was used by over 5 billion people in over 220 countries. The GSM has evolved into 3G, 4G and 5G; the lithium-ion battery, an indispensable energy source for modern mobile phones, was commercialized by Sony and Asahi Kasei in 1991. In 2001, the third generation was launched in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard; this was followed by 3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G enhancements based on the high-speed packet access family, allowing UMTS networks to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity. By 2009, it had become clear that, at some point, 3G networks would be overwhelmed by the growth of bandwidth-intensive applications, such as streaming media; the industry began looking to data-optimized fourth-generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to ten-fold over existing 3G technologies. The first two commercially available technologies billed as 4G were the WiMAX standard, offered in North America by Sprint, the LTE standard, first offered in Scandinavia by TeliaSonera.

5G is a technology and term used in research papers and projects to denote the next major phase in mobile telecommunication standards beyond the 4G/IMT-Advanced standard

Hong Kong–Pakistan relations

Hong Kong–Pakistan relations refers to the bilateral relationship between Hong Kong and Pakistan. Hong Kong and Pakistan were once both British colonies, until Pakistan achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1947, the United Kingdom retreated from Hong Kong in 1997. A Pakistan Consulate was established in Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong. A number of Pakistanis migrated to Hong Kong throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, when many of them worked and traveled as merchant ships sailors. Prior to 1947 when Pakistan was part of British India, these Pakistanis migrated to British Hong Kong under the identity of British Indians. Nowadays, Pakistani descendants form 0.2% of Hong Kong's total population, with most of them being Muslims. Pakistani communities such as the Pakistani Association of Hong Kong were established in Hong Kong to enhance social relations between the two. In 2014, the value of exports from Hong Kong to Pakistan was worth 1232M Hong Kong dollars, while the importing goods from Pakistan to Hong Kong was worth 2917M Hong Kong dollars.

Major exports from Hong Kong are broadcasting accessories. Major exports from Pakistan to Hong Kong are non-retail pure cotton yarn, tanned equine and bovine hides. Pakistan was among the first countries to start an official diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China, and China–Pakistan relations have been among the closest and most supportive diplomatic relationship since then. With the tight binds between Hong Kong and mainland China since 1997, the warmth of Hong Kong–Pakistan relations has continued and that economic ties between the two are expected to increase as both are included in the Chinese strategic One Belt, One Road area; the Hong Kong Government will expand the scope of the Targeted Scholarship Scheme, to cover the whole Belt and Road region, as well as to allocate $200 million to support the professional services sector in launching publicity and arranging exchanges and co-operation with the Belt and Road countries. Hong Kong has a strong presence in the development of Pakistani strategic coastal economic plans.

Gwadar Special Economic Zone is located near a 2,282 acre free trade area in Gwadar, being modelled on the lines of the Special Economic Zones of China. The swathe of land was handed to the China Overseas Port Holding Company in November 2015 as part of a 43-year lease; the company is based in Hong Kong and will be in full charge of Gwadar Port, the third-largest port in Pakistan, the international airport and a sea area management company in Gwadar. Gwadar is speculated by many as "Hong Kong West", "New Hong Kong" or "Pakistan’s Hong Kong". Prime Minister of Pakistan Muhammad Nawaz Sharif arrived in Hong Kong on 16 May 2017 for a three-day visit and meeting with Hong Kong Chief Executive Leung Chun Ying at Government House, Hong Kong on 17 May 2017. China–Pakistan relations

Winter in America

Winter in America is a studio album by American vocalist Gil Scott-Heron and keyboardist Brian Jackson. It was recorded in September to October 1973 at D&B Sound Studio in Silver Spring and released in May 1974 by Strata-East Records. Scott-Heron and Jackson produced the album in a stripped-down fashion, relying on traditional African and R&B sounds, while Jackson's piano-based arrangements were rooted in jazz and the blues; the subject matter on Winter in America deals with the African-American community and inner city in the 1970s. The album serves as Scott-Heron and Jackson's debut release for Strata-East, following a dispute with their former label and departure, it proved to be their sole release for the independent jazz label. Upon its release, Winter in America featured limited distribution in the United States and became rare in print. However, with promotional help from its only single "The Bottle", it obtained larger commercial success than Scott-Heron's and Jackson's previous work.

The album debuted at number six on Billboard's Top Jazz Albums chart and sold over 300,000 copies in the United States. While it was critically overlooked upon its release, Winter in America earned retrospective acclaim from several writers and music critics as Scott-Heron's and Jackson's greatest work together. Along with its critical recognition, it has been noted by several critics for its influence on derivative music forms such as neo soul and hip hop music, as many artists of the genres have been influenced by Scott-Heron's and Jackson's lyrical and musical approach on the album. On March 10, 1998, Winter in America was reissued on compact disc for the first time in the United States through Scott-Heron's Rumal-Gia Records. After leaving his former label Flying Dutchman Records, Gil Scott-Heron signed with the New York City jazz-based Strata-East label in early 1973, accompanied by jazz keyboardist and songwriter Brian Jackson, with whom he had worked with on his previous studio albums, Pieces of a Man and Free Will.

While some sources allege this may have been over financial or creative differences, Scott-Heron maintained the switch was due to producer Bob Thiele's unwillingness to give Jackson co-billing. By the time of their move to Strata-East, Scott-Heron and Jackson had achieved underground notice among R&B and soul music listeners for the political and social nature of their music's themes, as well as Scott-Heron's emphasis on African-American culture and social plight in his compositions, their musical fusion of jazz, blues and spoken word styles helped them earn some notice among less-mainstream black music listeners at the time. Social circumstances and musical events preceded Scott-Heron's and Jackson's signing with Strata-East. After the decline of popularity in traditional jazz forms during the Civil Rights Movement and Black Power movement, black pride and Afrocentric sentiment by many black Americans emerged. During 1970 to 1974, the Black Panther Party organization had been neutralized and pan-Africanism came into vogue.

Following the free jazz and avant-garde breakthroughs of Ornette Coleman and John Coltrane, a creative stasis among most jazz musicians set in during the decade that led to an eclecticism where no style or conception of jazz maintained a zeitgeist among players. However, jazz fusion had gained mainstream notice for its stylistic adoption of rock and funk music, despite being the subject of controversy in jazz purist circles. Highlighted by the works of Roy Ayers, Herbie Hancock, Donald Byrd, jazz-funk emerged in response to the growing popularity of funk, leading to a trend of funk rhythms among jazz musicians of the hard bop tradition as an attempt to reconnect with their African-American audience; this factored into the popularity of Scott-Heron's and Jackson's work in the black underground scene, with the former obtaining a reputation as a "street poet", while his work with Jackson served as an early recording of jazz poetry. Scott-Heron had looked to expand on his conscious, pro black-oriented themes and independently produce a more conceptual album than his previous work had envisioned.

Scott-Heron's and Jackson's search for more creative control over their recordings prompted them to sign with Strata-East Records. Established in 1971 by jazz musicians Charles Tolliver and Stanley Cowell, in response to major record companies' lack of interest in their recordings, the Strata-East label had become known for signing artists who recorded with diverse styles of jazz music with themes of social consciousness and black nationalism, as well as "minimal but eye-grabbing graphic design" for its releases; the label had been known for carrying out the management concept of "condominium". Conceived and penned by Cowell, it gave artists authority and responsibility over their recorded material independently, as well as the ability to assign the master tapes over to the label for distribution. Strata-East artists had more control over their recordings than major labels at the time had offered. Music journalist Kevin Moist wrote of the label's "condominium" concept, "The idea was to try and develop an independent cultural space outside of the mainstream that could function self-sufficiently and be genuinely participatory for its members.

The goal was to live in an engaged way where art, society and politics could all come together holistically in an integrated existence. That cultural renewal is embodied in the kind of music midwifed by Strata-East." The label's philosophy for artist management and recording ethic worked to the advantage of artists such as Gil Scott-Heron and Brian Jackson. Scott-Heron and Jackson were able to release more aesthetically personalized recordings for Strata-East than most mainstream labels would allow