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Mobutu Sese Seko

Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga was a Congolese politician and military officer, the President of Zaire from 1965 to 1997. He served as Chairman of the Organisation of African Unity from 1967 to 1968. During the Congo Crisis, serving as Chief of Staff of the Army and supported by Belgium and the United States, deposed the democratically elected government of nationalist Patrice Lumumba in 1960. Mobutu installed a government that arranged for Lumumba's execution in 1961, continued to lead the country's armed forces until he took power directly in a second coup in 1965 to become the country's military dictator. To consolidate his power, he established the Popular Movement of the Revolution as the sole legal political party in 1967, changed the Congo's name to Zaire in 1971, his own name to Mobutu Sese Seko in 1972. Mobutu claimed that his political ideology was "neither left nor right, nor centre" but in practice he developed a far-right totalitarian regime, amassed vast personal wealth, attempted to purge the country of all colonial cultural influence through his program of "national authenticity".

He was the object of a pervasive cult of personality. During his reign, Mobutu amassed a large personal fortune through economic exploitation and corruption, leading some to call his rule a "kleptocracy"; the nation suffered from uncontrolled inflation, a large debt, massive currency devaluations. Mobutu received strong support from the United States and Belgium, who saw him as the strongest pillar of anti-communism in Francophone Africa. From 1972 onwards, he was supported by Mao Zedong of China due to his anti-Soviet stance, but as part of Mao's attempts to create a bloc of Afro-Asian nations led by him. By 1991, economic deterioration and unrest led him to agree to share power with opposition leaders, but he used the army to thwart change until May 1997, when rebel forces led by Laurent-Désiré Kabila expelled him from the country. Suffering from advanced prostate cancer, he died three months in Morocco. Mobutu became notorious for corruption and the embezzlement of between US$4 billion and $15 billion during his reign.

He was known for extravagances such as shopping trips to Paris via the supersonic and expensive Concorde. He presided over the country for more than three decades, a period of widespread human rights violations. Mobutu, a member of the Ngbandi ethnic group, was born in 1930 in Lisala, Belgian Congo. Mobutu's mother, Marie Madeleine Yemo, was a hotel maid who fled to Lisala to escape the harem of a local village chief. There she married Albéric Gbemani, a cook for a Belgian judge. Shortly afterward she gave birth to Mobutu; the name "Mobutu" was selected by an uncle. Gbemani died. Thereafter he was raised by a grandfather; the wife of the Belgian judge took a liking to Mobutu and taught him to speak and write fluently in the French language. Yemo relied on the help of relatives to support her four children, the family moved often. Mobutu's earliest education took place in Léopoldville, but his mother sent him to an uncle in Coquilhatville, where he attended the Christian Brothers School, a Catholic-mission boarding school.

A physically imposing figure, Mobutu dominated school sports. He excelled in academic subjects and ran the class newspaper, he was known for his impish sense of humor. A classmate recalled that when the Belgian priests, whose first language was Dutch, made an error in French, Mobutu would leap to his feet in class and point out the mistake. Mobutu stowed away aboard a boat to Léopoldville in 1949; the priests found him several weeks later. At the end of the school year, in lieu of being sent to prison, he was ordered to serve seven years in the colonial army, the Force Publique; this was the usual punishment for rebellious students. Mobutu found discipline in army life, as well as a father figure in Sergeant Louis Bobozo. Mobutu kept up his studies by borrowing European newspapers from the Belgian officers and books from wherever he could find them, reading them on sentry duty and whenever he had a spare moment, his favourites were the writings of French president Charles de Gaulle, British prime minister Winston Churchill, Italian Renaissance philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli.

After passing a course in accounting, Mobutu began to dabble professionally in journalism. Still angry after his clashes with the school priests, he did not marry in a church, his contribution to the wedding festivities was a crate of beer, all his army salary could afford. As a soldier, Mobutu wrote pseudonymously on contemporary politics for Actualités Africaines, a magazine set up by a Belgian colonial. In 1956, he quit the army and became a full-time journalist, writing for the Léopoldville daily L'Avenir. Two years he went to Belgium to cover the 1958 World Exposition and stayed to receive training in journalism. By this time, Mobutu had met many of the young Congolese intellectuals who were challenging colonial rule, he joined Lumumba's Mouvement National Congolais. Mobutu became Lumumba's personal aide. Several contemporaries indicate that Belg

Forbes Glacier (Graham Land)

Forbes Glacier is a glacier which flows from Hemimont Plateau west into the northeast corner of Square Bay, on the west coast of Graham Land, Antarctica. It is 10 nautical miles long, 4 nautical miles wide in its central part, narrows to 2 nautical miles at its mouth; the lower reaches of the glacier were first surveyed in 1936 by the British Graham Land Expedition under John Rymill. The survey was completed in 1946–48 by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey who named the glacier for James David Forbes, a Scottish physicist, noted for his pioneer works on glaciology; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Forbes Glacier"

La Poule aux œufs d'or

La Poule aux œufs d'or is the title of two different Canadian television game shows broadcast during two different periods. The first was broadcast by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's French-language television network, Radio-Canada, from 1958 until 1966 and hosted by Roger Baulu, accompanied, at first, by René Caron, by Henri Bergeron and by two hostesses. Two contestants had to respond to each one being worth a certain amount of money; the winner had to choose at random an envelope containing a prize, worth less than, equal to, or greater than the winnings accumulated. With these total winnings, the contestant can buy an egg, containing a prize. There are two possible outcomes: either she/he loses everything, or she/he wins a prize of high value; the second version has been broadcast on the TVA Network, Wednesdays at 7:30pm from September 8, 1993. It is a Loto-Québec game, has been hosted by Guy Mongrain since inception, with Yves Corbeil and Gino Chouinard substituting for Guy when he's been away, assisted by Claudia Ébacher and Anouk Meunier.

After Guy Mongrain has been retired in June 2018 the show has two hosts featuring Julie Houle and Sébastien Benoît, assisted by Richard Turcotte. Guy's last show was a special show marking the show's 25th anniversary, which featured a fourth game alongside clips from the archives and special interviews; the final game concluded with the contestant choosing the jackpot egg. The show offers a progressive jackpot as its grand prize, it starts at $150,000, in Canadian dollars, increases by $25,000 for each week not won. Three games are played every episode, with 2 players per game; the contestants all won their way onto the show by scratching off 3'TELE' symbols in its namesake scratch lottery game. Before each game, the two contestants spin six wheels with numbers from 0 through 9 to determine the winning number for the lottery game. If either of the contestants spin duplicates of a certain number, they spun a bonus wheel, which gave them the chance to win a prize, such as a television set, a vacation, or a new car valued at $25,000.

The second variation of this game had the contestant pick golden eggs off a screen until they made a match. If the contestant spun three of the same number, they were allowed to pick golden eggs until two matches were made, they won the prize of the higher value; the car's value is now around $40,000. The third bonus format, introduced in 2017, has the contestant who spun duplicate numbers play one of three bonus games selected at random: Lucky Egg: The contestant is shown a screen with 14 eggs; the object of the game is to uncover two identical symbols. A player who uncovers two identical symbols wins the matching cash prize. In the case of a tripled number, the player continues to uncover symbols until two pairs of identical symbols are revealed; the player takes home the prize with the highest value. This game bears resemblance to the previous format. Cash prizes range from $2,500 to $25,000. Gener-Eggs: This is played using an electronic wheel divided into 12 segments offering one cash prize each.

The player activates the wheel and wins the cash prize indicated in the segment where the wheel stops. The highest value is $13,000; the Chicken and Ladder Game: This is played with a touch screen displaying a pair of dice. Each die conceals a number from 1 to 6; the player "scrambles" the dice to determine the number of rungs the chicken will climb and reveal the prize the player takes home. The home viewers who play the appropriate lottery tickets win money determined by how many numbers they match on the wheels, they can pick a bonus number, which earns a bonus jackpot if it matches the number of the egg, hiding the jackpot. Once the wheels are spun, the contestants face boards with numbers from 0 through 9. Behind each number is a hidden dollar amount from a golden egg; the contestants alternate picking numbers, their first selections are always the numbers they spun on the wheels. In the event that a contestant spins duplicate numbers, the dollar amount behind their first selection is doubled.

The first contestant to find three eggs advances to the bonus game. Should both contestants find 3 eggs in the same number of turns, the amounts are re-shuffled and another game is played. Losing contestants keep their winnings plus an additional $1,000 for each of the eggs they found. In the show's run, the rule was changed to introduce a new tiebreaker if both contestants find 3 eggs in the same number of turns; each one picks an egg with a number from 0 to 9, the contestant with highest number plays the bonus game. Both players are present at the bonus game, but only the winning contestant can select an egg. If both contestants pick the same number, they keep selecting. In the bonus game, the contestant chooses one of 24 golden eggs. Twenty-three of the eggs have cash amounts ranging from $12,000 to $100,000, while the other one contains the jackpot. If the sound of a rooster crowing is heard after they select an egg, the contestant gets a