Moctezuma I

Moctezuma I known as Moteuczomatzin Ilhuicamina, Huehuemoteuczoma or Montezuma I, was the second Aztec emperor and fifth king of Tenochtitlan. During his reign, the Aztec Empire was consolidated, major expansion was undertaken, Tenochtitlan started becoming the dominant partner of the Aztec Triple Alliance. Mistaken for his popular descendant, Moctezuma II, Moctezuma I contributed to the famed Aztec Empire that thrived until Spanish arrival, he ruled over a period of peace from 1440 to 1453. Moctezuma brought social and political reform to strengthen Aztec rule, Tenochititlan benefited from relations with other tribes. Moctezuma was the son of queen Miahuaxihuitl, he was a brother of Chimalpopoca, Tlacaelel I, Huehue Zaca. He was the grandson of the first ruler of Tenochtitlan, his name meant “he is angry like a lord”. After emperor Huitzilihuitl's death, Moctezuma's brother Chimalpopoca was ruler for ten years until his assassination. During his reign and his brother Tlacaelel I lead an opposition group of young nobles.

This group was militant in nature and they chose Itzcoatl as the next ruler. Under Itzcoatl and Tlacaelel were generals in his army. Moctezuma was elected to power in 1440 by this group of nobles, at the age of 42, after the death of his half-uncle Itzcoatl, he held the title of "Great Speaker". This was distinguished from the title of "Speaker" since he spoke for both the Aztecs and the other tribes under their control, his coronation was a large ceremony. Moctezuma was crowned by the ruler of Texoco, his crown was a turquoise diadem known as the fire crown. As tlatoani, Moctezuma solidified the alliance with two neighboring states and Texcoco. Tlacopan, located on the western shore of Lake Texcoco, controlled 7 city-states to the northwest, while Texcoco was located on the eastern shore and rule over 9 city-states in the northeast; as the two regions were added to Moctezuma's empire, the Aztecs relied on established city-states to increase military power. In this skillfully crafted Triple Alliance, 4/5ths of a newly conquered territory would be divided between Texcoco and the Aztecs, with the remaining 1/5 given to Tlacopan.

Among the Aztecs' greatest achievements and Nezahualcoyotl of Texcoco organized the construction and completion of a double aqueduct pipe system, supplying the city of Tenochtitlan with fresh water. The newly adopted water source provided an ample supply of fresh water to Texcoco's various communities, which extended over a distance of 12-kilometers from their lakeshore to the hills of Tetxcotxinco. Early in his rule, he led a conquest against the state of Oaxaca in 1445. Moctezuma then went on to extend the boundaries of the Aztec empire beyond the Valley of México to the Gulf Coast, known as the "Sea of the Sky", for the first time, subjugating the Huastec people and Totonac peoples and thereby gaining access to exotic goods such as cocoa, cotton, fruits and seashells; the Aztec were known as the "Neighbors of the Sea of the Sky", as they controlled all the territory up to the Gulf of Mexico. As a ruler, Moctezuma overcame many natural disasters. In 1446, a swarm of locusts destroyed the region's crops.

In 1450, a frost and drought again destroyed the region's crops. These droughts and frosts continued for four years; the famines resulted in some selling their children or themselves into slavery, the city lost most of its population. This drought resulted in Moctezuma's period of peace ending. After the famine ravaged through Aztec agricultural resources, a series of conflicts, known as the Flower War, involved the Triple Alliance, the city-states of Huejotzingo, Cholula, in the Tlaxcala-Pueblan Valley of Central Mexico. Believing the famine to have occurred due to their gods' anger, Moctezuma supported the order for an increase of human sacrifices to please them. Thus, began the war to accumulate as many victims as possible for sacrifice; the war lasted until Spanish Conquest in Mexico, where Spaniards recruited enemy tribes of the Triple Alliance to conquer all of Mexico. In preparation for the war, Moctezuma would issue three declarations of war and provide weapons to the enemy region. If the last declaration was not accepted by the enemy region within 20 days the Aztecs would attack.

In about 1458, Moctezuma led an expedition into Mixtec territory against the city-state of Coixtlahuaca, the pretext being the mistreatment of Aztec merchants. Despite the support of contingents of Tlaxcala and Huexotzinco warriors, traditional enemies of the Aztecs, the Mixtecs were defeated. While most of the defeated chieftains were allowed to retain their positions, the Mixtec ruler Atonal was ritually strangled and his family was taken as slaves; the Codex Mendoza records that the tribute owed by Coixtlahuaca consisted of 2000 blankets, 2 military outfits with headdresses and shields, green gemstone beads, 800 bunches of green feathers, 40 bags of cochineal dye, 20 bowls of gold dust. He had ten harems all to himself, he stole three of them from his dead brother Zaca. Similar campaigns were conducted against Cosamaloapan and Cuetlachtlan, it is reported. However, ot

Ch√Ęteau de Herrenstein

The Château de Herrenstein is a ruined castle in the commune of Neuwiller-lès-Saverne in the Bas-Rhin département of France. The seigneurie of Herrenstein, with the villages of Dettwiller, Hattmatt and Kugelberg, belonged to the Bishop of Metz who entrusted it to his advocatus to protect the Neuviller Abbey. Though the site has been fortified since the 9th century, the present castle was built at the start of the 11th century, by the Counts of Eguisheim-Dabo advocatus. Around 1005, Hugues d’Eguisheim sided with the Holy Roman Emperor against the Bishop of Metz, his castle was ruined by the latter's troops. The castle was rebuilt. Under the episcopate of Philippe de Florange, it was again ravaged, this time by Henri II de Lichtenberg and the Bishop of Strasbourg. From the end of the 13th century, the castle was ceded to Lichtenberg. Guillaume de Diest captured the castle around 1396; the castle's domains were bought bit by bit by the free town of Strasbourg, which became dominant in 1480. The castle housed a garrison of six to twelve men.

In the 16th century, it was modernised by Daniel Specklin, architect of the town of Strasbourg, to make it a fortress capable of resisting early artillery. Herrenstein protected the seigneurie where Protestants sought refuge, Strasbourg having adopted the Protestant Reformation. During the French occupation of Alsace by the troops of Louis XIV, as part of his politique des réunions, Herrenstein was bought by Reinhold de Rosen, the king's lieutenant general, who modernised it and lived there. In 1673, the castle was destroyed by the French troops of Joseph de Montclar and it was used as a quarry for the fortification of Lichtenberg. A document dated 1778 describes Herrenstein as a "vieux château partiellement en ruines avec une habitation pour le garde-chasse et le garde-forestier"; the castle is not classified as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture, but does appear on the Ministry's database. List of castles in France Ministry of Culture listing for Château de Herrenstein

Parish of Mount King

Mount King, New South Wales is a civil parish of Poole County in far North West New South Wales, located at. The Geography, of Mt King is the flat, arid landscape of the Channel Country but includes a series of mesa known as the "Jump ups" for which it is named. Mt King is to the west of the Silver City Highway and lies within the Sturt National Park; the Queensland-New South Wales border forms the northern boundary of the parish, marked by The Dingo Fence. The parish has a Köppen climate classification of BWh; the County is inhabited with a population density of less than 1 person per 150 km² and the landscape is a flat arid scrubland. The parish is the traditional lands of the Karengali people. Charles Sturt explored the area in 1845; the Mount King Station was established in the latter half of the 19th century, is today one of seven former cattle stations in the Sturt National Park