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Mode (music)

In the theory of Western music, a mode is a type of musical scale coupled with a set of characteristic melodic behaviors. Musical modes have been a part of western musical thought since the Middle Ages, were inspired by the theory of ancient Greek music; the name mode derives from the Latin word modus, "measure, manner, size, limit of quantity, method". Regarding the concept of mode as applied to pitch relationships Harold S. Powers proposed mode as a general term but limited for melody types, which were based on the modal interpretation of ancient Greek octave species called tonos or harmonia, with "most of the area between... being in the domain of mode". This synthesis between tonus as a church tone and the older meaning associated with an octave species was done by medieval theorists for the Western monodic plainchant tradition. Musicologists assume that Carolingian theorists imported monastic Octoechos propagated in the patriarchates of Jerusalem and Constantinople, which meant the eight echoi they used for the composition of hymns, though direct adaptations of Byzantine chants in the surviving Gregorian repertoire are rare.

Since the end of the 18th century, the term "mode" has applied to pitch structures in non-European musical cultures, sometimes with doubtful compatibility. The concept is heavily used with regard to Western polyphony before the onset of the common practice period, as for example "modale Mehrstimmigkeit" by Carl Dahlhaus or "Tonarten" of the 16th and 17th centuries found by Bernhard Meier; the word encompasses several additional meanings, however. Authors from the 9th century until the early 18th century sometimes employed the Latin modus for interval. In the theory of late-medieval mensural polyphony, modus is a rhythmic relationship between long and short values or a pattern made from them. A musical scale is a series of pitches in a distinct order; the concept of "mode" in Western music theory has three successive stages: in Gregorian chant theory, in Renaissance polyphonic theory, in tonal harmonic music of the common practice period. In all three contexts, "mode" incorporates the idea of the diatonic scale, but differs from it by involving an element of melody type.

This concerns particular repertories of short musical figures or groups of tones within a certain scale so that, depending on the point of view, mode takes on the meaning of either a "particularized scale" or a "generalized tune". Modern musicological practice has extended the concept of mode to earlier musical systems, such as those of Ancient Greek music, Jewish cantillation, the Byzantine system of octoechos, as well as to other non-Western types of music. By the early 19th century, the word "mode" had taken on an additional meaning, in reference to the difference between major and minor keys, specified as "major mode" and "minor mode". At the same time, composers were beginning to conceive of "modality" as something outside of the major/minor system that could be used to evoke religious feelings or to suggest folk-music idioms. Early Greek treatises describe three interrelated concepts that are related to the medieval idea of "mode": scales, tonos—pl. Tonoi—, harmonia —pl. harmoniai—this third term subsuming the corresponding tonoi but not the converse.

The Greek scales in the Aristoxenian tradition were: Mixolydian: hypate hypaton–paramese Lydian: parhypate hypaton–trite diezeugmenon Phrygian: lichanos hypaton–paranete diezeugmenon Dorian: hypate meson–nete diezeugmenon Hypolydian: parhypate meson–trite hyperbolaion Hypophrygian: lichanos meson–paranete hyperbolaion Common, Locrian, or Hypodorian: mese–nete hyperbolaion or proslambnomenos–mese These names are derived from an Ancient Greek subgroup, a small region in central Greece, certain neighboring peoples from Asia Minor. The association of these ethnic names with the octave species appears to precede Aristoxenus, who criticized their application to the tonoi by the earlier theorists whom he called the "Harmonicists". Depending on the positioning of the interposed tones in the tetrachords, three genera of the seven octave species can be recognized; the diatonic genus, the chromatic genus, the enharmonic genus. The framing interval of the perfect fourth is fixed. Within the basic forms, the intervals of the chromatic and diatonic genera were varied further by three and two "shades", respectively.

In contrast to the medieval modal system, these scales and their related tonoi and harmoniai appear to have had no hierarchical relationships amongst the notes that could establish contrasting points of tension and rest, although the mese may have had some sort of gravitational function. The term tonos was used in four senses: "as note, i

The One That Got Away (1996 film)

The One That Got Away is a 1996 ITV television film directed by Paul Greengrass and starring Paul McGann. It is based on the book of the same name by Chris Ryan telling the true story of a Special Air Service patrol during the Gulf War in 1991. Special Air Service patrol Bravo Two Zero is inserted into Iraq by helicopter to locate and destroy Iraqi Scud missile launchers. En route they find an unexpected group of Bedouin tribesmen and hide until they are noticed by a shepherd and exchange fire with armed fighters, they escape and return to the initial landing point but there is no helicopter waiting for them. While attempting to make contact, the patrol accidentally splits into a group of five soldiers heading to the road to hijack a vehicle and a group of three soldiers heading through the desert. Several days of travel seven of the soldiers have either died of hypothermia, been killed or been captured. Corporal Ryan journeys 180 miles to the Syrian border to escape. Bravo Two Zero Bravo Two Zero The One That Got Away Bravo Two Zero Soldier Five The One That Got Away on IMDb

Simon Corlett

Simon Charles Corlett is a former Irish cricketer. Corlett attended Worksop College, a public school in North Nottinghamshire, Exeter College, Oxford. A right-handed batsman and right-arm fast-medium bowler with a right arm off spin, he made his debut for Ireland in a match against the Netherlands in June 1974, went on to play for Ireland on 73 occasions, his last match coming in August 1987 against Wales. Of his matches for Ireland, fifteen had first-class status and seven had List A status. Of the first-class matches he played for Ireland, all but one was against Scotland, the other coming against Sri Lanka. Prior to his international career for Ireland, he played for Oxford University, playing 18 first-class matches for them, he served as president of the Irish Cricket Union in 2003

Vasilis Michaelides

Vasilis Michaelides is considered by many and referred to as the national poet of Cyprus. Michaelides was born in Lefkoniko, a village in the Famagusta District of Cyprus, between 1849 and 1853. In 1862 he moved to Nicosia to attend Secondary School, his first contact with the arts came in the form of religious icons in the archbishopric in Nicosia, where he trained as an artist. He subsequently moved to the Diocese of Larnaca where concentrated on painting in the care of his uncle. In 1873 he published his first poems "Usury" and "Nightingales and Owls" and in 1875 he moved to Naples, Italy for further studies in painting. Michaelides left Italy in 1877 and went to Greece where he enlisted as a volunteer in the Greek army and fought for the liberation of Thessaly. With the end of Ottoman rule of Cyprus in 1878, he returned to Limassol, staying at the local premises of the Diocese of Larnaca. There he began to write for the local newspaper "Alithia". Michaelides wrote several poems in Katharevousa and the Cypriot Dialect.

His first poetry collection, "The Weak Lyre", was published in 1882. In 1884 he was appointed to work as a nurse thereby securing an income and board, he began to write for the newspaper "Salpinga". In 1888 he began the publication of the satirical magazine "Diavolos". In 1883 he wrote "The Fairy", followed by his most famous work "The 9th of July 1821", a poem written in the Cypriot dialect detailing the events leading to the execution of the Greek Cypriot leadership, including Archbishop Kyprianos, by the Ottoman rulers of the time. —from Ἑννάτη Ἰουλίου, Βασίλης ΜιχαηλίδηςThe "9th of July" was followed by "The Woman From Chios". The latter part of his life was plagued by alcoholism. In 1910 he lost his job as a nurse, but the Limassol Municipality gave him a new job as a Health Inspector as well as a room to stay at the town hall. In 1911 he published "Poems". In 1915 he ended up at the Limassol poorhouse where he wrote "The Dream of the Greek", he died penniless and an alcoholic on 18 December 1917.

In 1978, his portrait was depicted on one of a series of stamps themed on Cypriot poets. Full text of "The 9th of July 1821" in Cypriot dialect and English translation Cyprus Stamp Issue: Cypriot Poets: Demetrios Lipertis and Vasilis Michaelides

Live from the Bataclan

Live from the Bataclan is a live EP by singer-songwriter Jeff Buckley, released in October 1995. It was recorded at the Bataclan in Paris, France on February 11, 1995, "Dream Brother" – 7:26 "The Way Young Lovers Do" – 12:12 Also includes a short improv of "Ivo" at about 9:10 "Medley" – 5:40 "Je n'en connais pas la fin" – 5:40 "Hymne à l'amour" – 5:40 "Hallelujah" – 9:25 "The Way Young Lovers Do" – 12:12 Also includes a short improv of "Ivo" at about 9:10 "Medley" – 5:40 "Je n'en connais pas la fin" – 5:40 "Hymne à l'amour" – 5:40 "Hallelujah" – 9:25 Jeff Buckley – guitar, vocals Producer: Steve Berkowitz Mastering: Vlado Meller

Tony Sandler

Tony Sandler is a singer, half the vocal duo Sandler and Young, popular from the 1960s–1980s. Sandler began performing as a boy with the Belgian choir « les petits chanteurs des sept croix » of Mouscron. In 1954, he recorded his first hit "Song of the Sea" while serving with the Belgian Air Force during the Korean War, he attracted international audiences in Austria, Germany and Britain, became a stage and television star with dozens of hit records. He starred in four German/Italian films as well as musical productions. Sandler starred and headlined with singing engagements at the'Roof Garden' of the renowned Café Roma in Alassio on the Italian Riviera leading him to his U. S. debut. On 29 November 1963 Sandler joined the cast of the "Casino de Paris" revue at the Dunes Hotel in Las Vegas. In this extravaganza Tony Sandler performed side by side with French star Line Renaud and one American entertainer Ralph Young. Tony Sandler and Ralph Young stayed for two seasons committed to the Casino de Paris show.

In 1965 Tony Sandler and Ralph Young decided to start a solo act and perform together as a singing team and, the beginning of the successful story of Sandler and Young. The hit duo Sandler & Young performed for two decades as headliners in the main showrooms of the major Las Vegas hotels and casinos and all over the country, they secured guest spots on many national TV shows and sold millions of records, making them one of the most popular acts in show business. In the mid-eighties, Ralph Young wanted to retire from the act to spend more time with his family in Palm Springs and Los Angeles. Tony Sandler, two decades younger, continued to produce. Sandler is still active, singing European repertory. On special occasions and Young reteamed to perform to sellout crowds, their last appearance together was at the 2003 All Stars benefit show Let Freedom Ring in Palm Springs to honor the victims of 9/11. Ralph Young died at his Palm Springs home on 22 August 2008 at the age of 90. Several Sandler and Young albums have been re-released by the Butterfly label.

In 1985, for the TV network PBS he hosted the programs Portrait of Europe: Flanders and For the Night of Christmas from Bruges. In the nineties he toured solo with his one-man show, Maurice & Me, with the symphony–pop production My Paris, arranged by Peter Matz. Sandler portrayed the work of Maurice Chevalier. In 2005 Sandler produced Mijn Moederspraak, An Anthology of Flemish Art and Folk Songs, containing Flemish folk songs arranged by pianist Gregory Theisen, he hosted the television special Tony Sandler's Holiday Greetings with the Viking Choir, broadcast on PBS. "Tony Sandler: A holiday warmup performer brings'true spirit of Christmas' to the Fritz". Grand Forks Herald. 20 November 1992. P. 4C. Retrieved 29 September 2010.2019, Tony Sandler is in the process of restoring and digitizing all of his own music and videos as well as that of Sandler & Young. Tony is releasing all of this music for sale as the Tony Sandler Legacy Series at: Media related to Tony Sandler at Wikimedia Commons