SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Model (person)

A model is a person with a role either to promote, display or advertise commercial products, or to serve as a visual aid for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography. Modelling is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not considered to be "modelling". Types of modelling include: fashion, fitness, fine art, body-part and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, films, newspapers and television. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films. Celebrities, including actors, sports personalities and reality TV stars participate in modelling contests, assignments as well as contracts in addition to their regular work. Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed.

The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. This became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs. With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained anonymous, poorly paid, until the late 1950s. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, popular in the 1930s. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Gerard Ford in New York. One of the most popular models during the 1940s was Jinx Falkenburg, paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940s and 1950s, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain recognition in Paris.

However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33". In the 1960s, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960s, Italy was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay, they would pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents.

It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumoured; this led many agencies to form worldwide chains. By the late 1960s, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling, it was during this period. Models such as Jean Shrimpton, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Penelope Tree, dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of'66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £ 80 an hour. In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents; the formation of this association changed the fashion industry.

With a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding; that same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960s, models were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing; the innovations of the 1960s flowed into the 1970s fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and

Afrin River

The Afrin River (Arabic: نهر عفرين‎ Nahr ʻIfrīn. It rises in the Kartal Mountains in Gaziantep Province, flows south through the city of Afrin in Syria reenters Turkey, it joins the Karasu at the site of the former Lake Amik, its waters flow to the Orontes by a canal. The total length of the river is 131 kilometres. About 250,000,000 cubic metres of the annual flow of the river comes from the Hatay Province of Turkey, while about 60,000,000 cubic metres originates in Syria; the river is impounded by the Afrin Dam to the north of the city of Afrin. The Afrin was known as Apre to the Assyrians, Oinoparas in the Seleucid era, as Ufrenus in the Roman era. Abu'l-Fida mentions it as Nahr Ifrîn

Stentinello culture

Stentinello culture was a middle Neolithic culture, widespread in Sicily and Calabria, dated to the fifth millennium BC. Under different names this culture is present in the Aeolian islands and Malta. Kronio culture, a variant of that of Stentinello was widespread in western Sicily. In the eponymous site were found the remains of buildings with rectangular plan enclosed in a ditch dug in the rock forming an oval space of about 180 x 200 meters; the burials of this culture, found in various places in Sicily, but not in Stentinello, were oval pit carved into the rock in which the deceased lie buried in a crouched position. The material culture includes lithic industry of industry of bone and ceramics; the vases, black, or dark in color, are always decorated with intricate geometric, or, more anthropomorphic, patterns etched or engraved. The economy was based on the cultivation of cereals wheat and barley, on fishing and shellfish harvesting. Luigi Bernabò Brea, La Sicilia prima dei Greci, Il Saggiatore, Milano, 1958.

Paolo Orsi. Stazione neolitica di Stentinello. Istituto italiano di preistoria e protostoria. Atti della XXXVII Riunione scientifica: preistoria e protostoria della Calabria: Scalea, Praia a Mare, Tortora, 29 settembre-4 ottobre 2002, Volume 1. S Tinè. Notizie preliminari su recenti scavi nel villaggio neolitico di Stentinello. Archivio Storico Siracusano