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Model United Nations

Model United Nations known as Model UN or MUN, is an educational simulation and/or academic activity in which students can learn about diplomacy, international relations, the United Nations. MUN involves and teaches participants speaking and writing skills, in addition to critical thinking and leadership abilities. An extracurricular activity, some schools offer Model UN as a class, it is meant to engage students and allow them to develop deeper understanding into current world issues. Participants in Model United Nations conferences, known as delegates, are placed in committees and assigned countries to represent, or other organizations or political figures, where they represent members of that body. Delegates are assigned countries before the conference, along with receiving a topic, or topics, that their committee will discuss. Delegates conduct research before conferences, formulate positions and come up with policy proposals that they will debate with their fellow delegates in the committee, staying true to the actual position of the member they represent.

At the end of a conference, the delegates will vote on written policies, called “draft resolutions”, with the goal of passing them with a majority vote. The best-performing delegates in each committee, as well as delegations, are sometimes recognized with awards. Model UN participants include students at the middle school, high school, college/university levels, with most conferences catering to just one of these three levels. Delegates attend conferences together as delegations sent by their respective schools' or universities' Model UN clubs, though some delegates attend conferences independently. Model UN began as a series of student-led Model League of Nations simulations; the first simulations were called an “International assembly”, the first of, held at Oxford University in 1921. The President of the first Oxford International Assembly, Mir Mahmood, traveled to Harvard in 1922. During his trip urged support for the League of Nations, inspired the Harvard Liberal Club to create the first American International Assembly held in Harvard University in 1923.

The International Assemblies were similar to MUN as participants represented countries, debated to find resolutions and supported the idea of dealing with international disputes around a negotiating table. After the Second World War Model League of Nations transitioned to Model United Nations after the formation of the League's successor organization, the United Nations, in 1945. Today, some Model United Nations conferences include simulations of the League of Nations among their committee offerings; the first recorded instance of a Model United Nations conference was at Swarthmore College on April 5, 1947. Over 150 students from over 41 colleges were reported as participating; the delegates simulated a General Assembly and recommended that member states "establish an international control and development of atomic energy", "conclude a treaty on disarmament", that the UN adopt "a uniform system for citizenship of refugees", that the UN amend the charter to adopt a definition of aggression, that nations "promote the reconstruction of devastated areas through economic assistance through the U.

N."Another historic Model United Nations was held at St. Lawrence University from 11–13 February 1949, it was initiated by Dr. Harry Reiff, Head of the History and Government Department, with the assistance of departmental colleague Otto L. George. Dr. Reiff was a technical advisor on the United States delegation to the 1945 San Francisco Conference and the UN Organizational Conference in London in 1945-46; the 1949 St. Lawrence University Model UN conference included delegates from regional conferences and universities, including Adelphi, Champlain, Clarkson, McGill, Potsdam, St. Michael's, Vermont; the conference continued annually for many years at St. Lawrence and has been revived on the campus; the four oldest conferences in the world that are still active today were established in the early 1950s. Berkeley Model United Nations at Berkeley and Harvard Model United Nations at Harvard featured high school students as delegates, whereas Harvard National Model United Nations has been running college-level conferences since 1954.

Model United Nations of the Far West has held college-level conferences since 1951 with the first at Stanford University where Ralph Bunche was the honored speaker. In the early 1990s Model UN spread to Europe and South Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa. Participation in Model UN is meant to foster negotiation and communication skills. In addition, crisis committees, which deal with crisis scenarios which can be contemporary or historical, can develop leadership skills and the ability to adapt and deal with unexpected situations. Material issues of diplomacy and policy are approached through a quasi-academic process. In preparation for a conference, topics are chosen for each committee, research and background guides are made available by the organizers of a conference for each committee. Delegates of each committee are expected to pre-formulate the position of the country or group they represent, based on these background guides, submit the result of this preparation to their committee in the form of a Position Paper.

The purpose of writing a position paper is to familiarize delegates with the substantial topics of debate, encourage academic research and writing, to enable substantial preparation for conferences. While several guides o

Ivan Nelipić

Ivan Nelipić was a local ruler and Duke of Knin, who held Drniš and the region around the rivers Cetina, Čikola and Zrmanja. He was a member of the Croatian Nelipić noble family. Following the fall of the Šubić noble family, Ivan Nelipić seized Knin and repelled attacks from both King Charles I and the Šubić noble family, becoming the most powerful individual in Croatia between 1322 and 1344. Ivan Nelipić was a son of the nobleman George and had a brother Isan II, whose son Constantine was Nelipić's ally. Ivan Nelipić's career began at the court of Mladen II Šubić of Bribir, where he held the title of Voivode, he was among the nobles who revolted against Mladen's rule and saw his downfall at the 1322 Battle of Bliska. He expelled the royal forces from Knin and made the city his seat, he was supported by the three brothers of Mladen II Šubić. King Charles Robert ordered the new Ban of Slavonia Nicholas Felsőlendvai and Stepan II of Kotroman to launch a joint offensive against Nelipić in Croatia.

Nicholas' expedition failed, although, it did rise up Juraj II Šubić against Nelipić, as well as the Princes from Krka Frangepans, the City of Zadar and the Ban of Bosnia Stepan II himself. The movement wanted to return the Šubić dynasty to power in Croatia with Juraj II Šubić at the Throne. Stepan again changed allegiances and now fought for the Šubićs again, it all turned into an all-out war when the armies of Prince Nelipac and Juraj II Šubić clashed near the waterfalls of Krka in the Summer of 1324. Stepan gave considerable support to the Šubićs, it was good that he didn't, because the Šubić's party was massacred near Knin and Juraj II Šubić himself was captured by Prince Nelipić soon. Stepan had attempted to liberate Juraj II from imprisonment. Prince Nelipić pushed the fight against Stepan II. Nelipić managed to conquer the city of Visuć, but Stepan's long-ago given privileges to the nobility had been proven useful, as Vuk of Vukoslav had helped him to retake the city. Although Stepan's military ambitions only successful he continued to wage war against the enemies of the Šubićs.

His target was the City of Trogir, one of the major supporters of Nelipić's campaigning. Stepan has adopted a harsh tactic, his forces have raided Caravans from Trogir, which forced its denizens to humbly sign peace and addressed to him as the high and mighty lord Stepan free ruler and master of Bosnia and Soli and many other places and Prince of the Hum. It is because of this. Stepan was shown as a tough negotiator and the negotiations have ended in 1326. After seeing that Ban Nicholas Felsőlendvai was unable to weaken the position of Prince Nelipić, Hungarian King Charles I Robert deposed him; the new man for the job was Mikcs Ákos. Ban Mikcs advanced to Croatia in the Summer of 1325. Bosnian Ban Stepan II sent squadrons of troops to assist him in his offensive. In 1326, Mikcs took the cities of the Babonić family advance deeper into Croatia, meeting with Stepan's reinforcements; the expedition reached little success, so Mikcs sent a portion of his army to Bihać which would serve as defence against possible Nelipić's counterattacks and retreated to Hungary, to the King.

Ivan Nelipić had a nephew, who helped him in his reign. Soon after Nelipić's death in 1344, Konstantin died 1355. Nelipić had a son Ivan II Nelipac. House of Šubić Stephen II, Ban of Bosnia Ivan III Nelipac Croatian General Encyclopedia Article Ivan Nelipić on Proleksis Encyclopedia

Barbara Ray

Barbara Ray is a South African singer from Scotland. Ray began singing with the Scottish Group the Sundowners. Moving to South Africa she had chart success with singles such as "I Don't Wanna Play House", "Like I Do" and "Funny Face", she was awarded multiple Gold disks such as for "Silver Threads and Golden Needles", Down The Mississippi,In 1976 together with Bobby Angel she won a SARIE for vocal group and in 1979 together with Lance James she won the same award. Singles "Like I Do" Barbara Ray And The 5th Association "Where the Gypsies Play" Barbara Ray And The 5th Association "Happy Birthday Baby" with The Lindsay Heard Assembly "Silver Threads and Golden Needles" "Valley of the Moon" with The Lindsay Heard Assembly "Divorce" "I Don't Wanna Play House" "Single Girl" "Funny Face" "Joey" "Let Me Be There" "The Greatest Christmas Gift" with Bobby Angel "The Last One To Touch Me" "Republic Of South Africa" "Sad Movies" "After The Fire Is Gone" with Lance James "Bring Him Safely Home To Me" "Womanhood" "Down The Mississippi" "Tears On My Pillow" "Sayonara" "Voices" with Bobby Angel'Wasn't That Love" with Bobby Angel "Walking Talking Dolly" Albums Like I Do The Greatest Hits Featuring Valley Of The Moon with The Lindsay Heard Assembly The Barbara Ray Album Golden Hits Of Barbara Ray Double Gold Serenade of the Bells Dance On Single Girl I Don't Wanna Play House The Magic of Barbara Ray In the Valley of the Moon A Little Bit Country Barbara Bittersweet Republic of South Africa Who's Gonna Tie My Shoes 24 Golden Hits Bedtime Story I Need You Barbara and Lance with Lance James Walk Right Back with Lance James Welcome To My World with Lance James The Barbara Ray Collection Womanhood Barbara Ray Sings Her 20 Greatest Hits Down The Mississippi The Country Music Of Barbara Ray What's Wrong With The Way That We're Doing It Now Sayonara Our Own Like I Do The First Ten Years Sings Country Classics Made For Each Other 16 Greatest Love Songs The Very Best Of Barbara Ray Love Me Or Leave Me

List of emo artists

This is a list of notable musical artists associated with the music genre of emo. Emo is a style of rock music characterized by melodic musicianship and expressive confessional lyrics, it originated in the mid-1980s hardcore punk movement of Washington, D. C. where it was known as "emotional hardcore" or "emocore" and pioneered by bands such as Rites of Spring and Embrace. As the style was echoed by contemporary American punk rock bands, its sound and meaning shifted and changed, blending with pop punk and indie rock and encapsulated in the early 1990s by groups such as Jawbreaker and Sunny Day Real Estate. By the mid-1990s numerous emo acts had emerged from the Midwestern and Central United States, several independent record labels began to specialize in the style. Emo broke into mainstream culture in the early 2000s with the sales success of Jimmy Eat World and Dashboard Confessional, with the genre's popularity continuing in the mid-to-late 2000s with bands such as My Chemical Romance, Fall Out Boy, the Red Jumpsuit Apparatus.

List of screamo bands List of emo pop bands List of post-hardcore bands Andy. Nothing Feels Good: Punk Rock and Emo. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0-312-30863-9

John Erskine, Earl of Mar (1675–1732)

John Erskine, Earl of Mar, KT was a Scottish Jacobite, the eldest son of Charles, Earl of Mar, from whom he inherited estates that were loaded with debt. He was the 23rd Earl of Mar in the first creation of the earldom, he was the sixth earl in the seventh creation.. He was nicknamed "Bobbing John", for his tendency to shift back and forth from faction to faction, whether from Tory to Whig or Hanoverian to Jacobite. Deprived of office by the new king in 1714, Mar raised the standard of rebellion against the Hanoverians. At Fetteresso his cause was lost, Mar fled to France, where he would spend the remainder of his life; the parliament passed a Writ of Attainder for treason against Mar in 1716 as punishment for his disloyalty, not lifted until 1824. He died in 1732. In the early 18th century Mar was associated with a party favourable to the government, was one of the Commissioners for the Union, was made a Scottish Secretary of State. In 1713 Mar was made by the Tories a British Secretary of State, but he seems to have been ready to side with the Whigs, in 1714 he assured the new King, George I, of his loyalty.

However, like other Tories, he was deprived of his office, in August 1715 he went in disguise to Scotland and placed himself at the head of the Jacobite adherents of James Edward, the Old Pretender. Meeting many Highland chieftains at Aboyne, Mar avowed an earnest desire for the independence of Scotland. At Braemar on 6 September 1715, he proclaimed James VIII King of Scotland, England and Ireland, thus beginning the Jacobite rising of 1715; the forces under his command were augmented, but as a general he was a failure. Precious time was wasted at Perth, a feigned attack on Stirling was without result, he could give little assistance to the English Jacobites. At Sheriffmuir, where a battle was fought in November 1715, Mar's forces outnumbered those of his opponent, the Duke of Argyll; the battle was a draw. However, Mar's indecisiveness meant that the aftermath of the battle was strategically a decisive defeat for the Jacobites. Mar met the Pretender at Fetteresso; the Parliament of Great Britain passed a Writ of Attainder for treason against Mar in 1716 as punishment for his disloyalty.

Mar sought to interest foreign powers in the cause of the Stuarts. In 1721 he accepted a pension of £3500 a year from George I, in the following year his name was mentioned in connection with the trial of Bishop Atterbury, who, it was asserted, had been betrayed by Mar; this charge may be summarised as not proven. At the best his conduct was imprudent, so in 1724 the Pretender broke with Mar, his years were spent in Paris and at Aix-la-Chapelle, where he died in 1732. Mar first married Lady Margaret Hay on 6 April 1703, daughter of 7th Earl of Kinnoull, she bore him a son, Thomas, in 1705. Lady Margaret died four years on 26 April 1707. Mar married for his second wife Lady Frances Pierrepont, daughter of Evelyn Pierrepont, 1st Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull; the match was excellent, as it provided Mar with the funds to begin to clear his inherited debts. Lady Frances went mad in 1728 due to the stress of his exile in France, she outlived Mar by 35 years, dying on 4 March 1767. Through his marriage to Lady Frances Pierrepont, Mar was a brother-in-law of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu.

Mar's brother James Erskine, Lord Grange was a noted judge. Mar's son Thomas Erskine, Lord Erskine served as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Scotland; the progressive rock band Genesis wrote a song, "Eleventh Earl of Mar", about Mar and the 1715 Jacobite rising. The lyrics were written by Mike Rutherford, who explains "I had this idea after reading this history book about a failed Scottish rising. I liked the idea of him -- he was a bit gay, a bit camp, a bit well-dressed."He was mentioned in a contemporary folk song "Cam Ye O'er Frae France", recorded by British folk rock band Steeleye Span. He was mentioned in the Starz original series, Outlander season two, episode two; the Alloa branch of Wetherspoons is named'The Bobbing John'. Maurice Bruce,'The Duke of Mar in Exile, 1716-32', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 4th Series, Vol. 20, pp. 61-82 "Archival material relating to John Erskine, Earl of Mar". UK National Archives

Russian Red

Lourdes Hernández González, known professionally as Russian Red, is a Spanish indie and folk singer-songwriter. Known by many as the "Spanish Feist", in reference to the Canadian singer-songwriter who inspires her in many of her attitudes on the microphone, Hernández—who writes and sings all of her compositions in English—states that she sings in that language instinctively because she has always listened to music in English. Russian Red's project began when Hernández met Brian Hunt, a musician with an English father and Spanish mother, with whom she recorded a demo that reached more than 70,000 visits on her MySpace page by 2008; the name Russian Red comes from the color of a lipstick that Hernández herself wears. When asked how she chose the name, Hernández stated: "I had a band without a name some time ago. Since I was haunted by an obsession: to find the ideal artistic name. One day, I fell in love with this colour. I pronounced its name, now it is my pseudonym."Little by little, Hernández has become well known in the Spanish indie arena, performing more than 60 shows during 2007 and taking part in the prestigious Primavera Sound, among other festivals.

The Spanish producer Fernando Vacas asked Hernández to record an album to be issued by his label Eureka. The album, her first, was called I Love Your Glasses and became a success, leading El País columnist Alfonso Cardenal to deem Russian Red the "revelation of the year". With the release of her first album I Love Your Glasses Russian Red became well-known and popular in Spain. In late 2010, Russian Red signed with Octubre of Sony Music Spain. In May 2011, she released her second album Fuerteventura. At the same time, she toured in Asia including China, Hong Kong, Korea, she released a duet with Elvis Presley of his song "Love Me Tender" in the special Spanish edition of the album Viva Elvis. Fuerteventura was recorded in Scotland with producer Tony Doogan. After the release of the album she began promoting it throughout Spain with presentations and concerts in major cities. In the summer of 2011 she started playing in the major festivals and opened in the Asian market with a first visit to Taiwan where she achieved more success than any previous Spanish artist.

In October 2011 it was announced that Russian Red was awarded with MTV award for best Spanish artist of the year. That same month the singer covered the Leonard Cohen song "So Long, Marianne" as a tribute to him. After a short break in the Fuerteventura tour in December 2011 Russian Red was back on the road in January 2012 with a new concert format, accompanied by Hunt and Pablo Serrano. During the rest of the year she travel to Spain and other European countries and Asia, in many of which the Fuerteventura album went on sale. On May 2, 2012, Esperanza Aguirre, the President of the Community of Madrid, awarded her with the Medal of the Community of Madrid, in the Silver category, for her work and career. In 2012, Russian Red recorded the songs "A la luz del sol" and "Volaré" included in the Castilian Spanish version of the soundtrack of the Disney / Pixar film Brave. In late summer of 2012 Pablo Serrano was replaced by Juan Diego "Juandi" Gosálvez and 3 continued with the Fuerteventura tour and combined it with a mini-tour of five concerts as a tribute to the Beatles.

In these five performances, Alex Ferreira joined as singer in one of the songs. In December 2012 she finished the Fuerteventura tour but in 2013, she performed some concerts in Latin America. In January 2013, Hernández went to live in Los Angeles where she prepared and recorded her third studio album, Agent Cooper. Recorded and produced by Joe Chiccarelli at Sunset Studios, the album was mixed by Mark Needham and engineered by Emily Lazar. I Love Your Glasses Fuerteventura Agent Cooper Karaoke "They Don't Believe" "Cigarettes" "Perfect Time" "I Hate You But I Love You" "The Sun, The Trees" "Everyday Everynight" "My Love Is Gone" "Casper" "John Michael" "Michael P" Official website