A model aircraft is a small sized unmanned aircraft or, in the case of a scale model, a replica of an existing or imaginary aircraft. Model aircraft are divided into two basic groups: flying and non-flying. Non-flying models are termed static, display, or shelf models. Flying models range from simple toy gliders made of balsa wood, card stock or foam polystyrene to powered scale models made from materials such as balsa wood, plastic, carbon fiber, or fiberglass and are sometimes skinned with tissue paper or mylar covering; some can be large when used to research the flight properties of a proposed full scale design. Static models range from mass-produced toys in white metal or plastic to accurate and detailed models produced for museum display and requiring thousands of hours of work. Many models are available in kit form made of injection-moulded polystyrene. Aircraft manufacturers and researchers make wind tunnel models not capable of free flight, used for testing and development of new designs.
Sometimes only part of the aircraft is modelled. Static model aircraft are scale models built using plastic, metal, fiberglass or any other suitable material; some static models are scaled for use in wind tunnels, where the data acquired is used to aid the design of full scale aircraft. Models are available that have been built and painted, they are sometimes used for commercial use such as displays in travel agencies, but might be obtained by hobbyists as a collection. Most of the world's airlines allow their fleet aircraft to be modelled as a form of publicity; these include Delta Air Lines, Air France, British Airways, Aerolíneas Argentinas, Aeroméxico, FedEx, Polar Air Cargo, Air New Zealand, China Airlines, Singapore Airlines, South African Airways, American Airlines, United Airlines, Japan Airlines, Royal Jordanian, Korean Airlines, Asiana Airlines. In the early days, airlines would order large models of their aircraft and supply them to travel agencies as a promotional item. In addition and airplane makers hand out desktop model airplanes to airport and government officials as a way of promoting their airline, celebrating a new route or an achievement.
Former Puerto Rico governor Alejandro García Padilla, for example, has models of JetBlue, Lufthansa and Seaborne Airlines which were given to him by those airlines after starting or increasing flights to San Juan during his tenure. Static model aircraft are available commercially in a variety of scales from as large as 1:18 scale to as small as 1:1250 scale. Plastic model kits requiring assembly and painting are available in 1:144, 1:72, 1:50, 1:48, 1:32, 1:24 scale depending on the size of the original subject. Die-cast metal models are available in 1:400, 1:200, 1:72, 1:600, 1:500, 1:300, 1:250, 1:48. A variety of odd scales are available, but less common. Scales are not random, but are based upon simple divisions of either the Imperial system, or the Metric system. For example, 1:48 scale is 1/4" to 1-foot and 1:72 is 1" to 6 feet, while metric scales are simpler, such as 1:100th, which equals 1 centimeter to 1 meter. 1:72 scale was first introduced in the Skybirds wood and metal model aircraft kits in 1932.
Skybirds was followed by Frog which produced 1:72 scale aircraft in 1936 under the "Frog Penguin" name. According to Fine Scale Modeler magazine, 1:72 was popularized by the US War Department during the Second World War when it requested models of single engine aircraft at that scale; the War Department requested models of multi-engine aircraft at a scale of 1:144. The War Department was hoping to educate Americans in the identification of aircraft; these scales provided the best compromise between detail. After WWII, manufacturers continued to favor these scales, however kits are available in 1:48, 1:35, 1:32, 1:24 scales; the French firm Heller SA is one of the few manufacturer to offer models in the scale of 1:125, while 1:50th and 1:100th are more common in Japan and France which both use Metric. Herpa and others produce promotional models for airlines in scales including 1:200, 1:400, 1:500, 1:600, 1:1000 and more. A few First World War aircraft were offered at 1:28 by Revell, such as the Fokker Dr.
I and Sopwith Camel. A number of manufacturers have made 1:18th scale aircraft to go with cars of the same scale. Aircraft scales have been different from the scales used for military vehicles, figures and trains. For example, a common scale for early military models was 1:76, whereas companies such as Frog were producing aircraft with a scale of 1:72. Military vehicles have adapted to the aircraft standards of 1:72; this has resulted in a substantial amount of duplication of the more famous subjects in a large variety of sizes, which while useful for forced perspective box dioramas has limited the number of possible subjects to those that are more well known. Less produced scales include 1:64, 1:96, 1:128. Many older plastic models do not conform to any established scale as they were sized to fit inside standard commercially available boxes, leading to the term "Box Scale" to describe them; when reissued, these kits retain their unusual scales. The most common form of manufacture for kits is injection molded polystyrene plastic, using carbon steel molds.
Hwang Jung-oh is a retired judoka from South Korea, who represented his native country at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, California. There he won the silver medal in the men's half-lightweight division, after having been defeated by Seoi nage in the final match, he is the founder of Hwang's Martial Arts. Hwang has over 30 years of teaching experience in Taekwondo and the Martial Arts, still going to classes today, he holds a 6th degree Black Belt in Taekwondo, 6th degree Black Belt in Judo, a 7th degree Black Belt in Hapkido. He won the Silver Medal in Judo in the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics. Hwang has taught Taekwondo and Hapkido at the University of Tennessee at Martin, Paducah Community College and each of the Hwang's Martial Arts Academies, he has participated in many conferences on Comparative Physical Education and Sports held around the world and has an international reputation as a Martial Arts Master and Educator. He teaches weekly at elementary school P. E. classes, teaches the tenets of martial arts and basic taekwondo Hwang has made outstanding contributions to various organizations such as: WHAS Crusade for Children, Easter Seals Center in Paducah, KY and the MDA.
In 1997, Mayor Jerry Abramson of Louisville, KY proclaimed June 27 as "Hwang's Martial Arts Day" in honor of Grandmaster Hwang's contributions to the Louisville community. Grandmaster Hwang has focused his most recent efforts in improving the lives of those in his community and the commonwealth of Kentucky; the philosophy at Hwang's Martial Arts is "The family that kicks together sticks together." By promoting families to participate in tae kwon do and judo together, Grandmaster Hwang has not only helped many people get into better physical condition, but improve their lives through camaraderie and discipline. Furthermore, HMA has a strong sense of charity; each year, HMA hosts many charitable events designed to raise money for the WHAS Crusade for Children and many other charitiessuch as Norton Children's hospital. Grandmaster Hwang is in Charge of Taekwondo classes every week night and Saturday, helps the masters be their best. Profile Hwang's Martial Arts Academy 1984 Los Angeles Summer Games Judo Event Magazine
Michael F. Schober is an American psychologist, the dean of the New School for Social Research in New York City, he began teaching at The New School in 1992 as an assistant professor. His own academic background began at Brown University, where he earned a Bachelor of Science in cognitive science, he pursued a Ph. D. at Stanford University in psychology. Further credits to his name include: the editor of the journal Discourse Processes, a member of the Society of Experimental Social Psychology and the Psychonomic Society. Schober actively engages in research while fulfilling his duties as professor at the New School for Social Research; some of his research interests are within the fields of, but not limited to: linguistics, music, public opinion research analysis, artificial intelligence. His interest in music may stem from the fact, his sister, Monica Schober is a German Lieder recitalist. He specializes in chamber and collaborative music. In February 2003, Michael Schober accompanied his sister in a performance of Wagner’s Wesendonck Lieder and selected songs of Richard Strauss, Hugo Wolf, Johannes Brahms at Steinway Hall in New York City.
Schober identifies himself on his personal webpage as a psychologist who "studies how people coordinate their actions, the mental processes underlying that coordination, how new technologies mediate coordination." Schober's publications are used in many psycholinguistic-based classes at universities across the United States to achieve an up-to-date look at empirical research in the field of psychology psycholinguistics. Schober's work focuses on concepts important to understanding human communications; some of these most popular publications were in collaboration with Herbert H. Clark, a professor at Stanford University. Michael Schober studied with Clark while attending Stanford University, Clark being a professional and academic mentor to Schober. Schober's first recorded publication was in 1989, it was published with Herbert H. Clark. In this article the collaborative view is used to discuss the way individuals understand each other during a conversation, or any situation where a speaker addresses another individual to convey information.
Schober and Clark propose that addressees have an advantage to speakers and overhearers because in conversations individuals accumulate information based on common ground. The research leading to the publication of this article included experiments using students at the university level. In the first experiment 10 pairs of students were given two roles: matcher; the director was recorded while giving directions for the matcher on how to complete an arrangement of twelve in a particular order. The recording of the director was played for 40'overhearers.' The second experiment used the same task and number of pairs, but this time the overhearers joined the groups and listened to the conversations. The participants were all separated from each other by visual barriers and precautions were taken to rule out extraneous variables. A more recent publication in 2004 in collaboration with Fredrick G. Conrad and Scott S. Fricker was entitled “Misunderstanding standardized language in research interviews.
In this study two types of experiments were used to understand the way in which individuals interpret words in survey interviews, aptitude tests, instructions accompanying an experiment. One experiment was a factorial experiment, the other was a more naturalistic investigation. Participants were required to interpret ordinary survey concepts such as: household furniture; the results show that an investigators actions influence the participants’ answers in both experiments. Study one suggests that interviewers should, in fact, be trained to give clarification when conveying instructions to participants of a study/experiment. Study two suggests that following a script too can lead to a poorer understanding of the information that the interviewer is trying to convey. Professional Profile Michael F. Schober Homepage The New School for Social Research Faculty Page Sample Michael Schober's Music