Modena is a city and comune on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. An ancient town, seat of an archbishop, it is known for its automotive industry since the factories of the famous Italian sports car makers Ferrari, De Tomaso, Lamborghini and Maserati are, or were, located here and all, except Lamborghini, have headquarters in the city or nearby. One of Ferrari's cars, the 360 Modena, was named after the town itself; the University of Modena, founded in 1175 and expanded by Francesco II d'Este in 1686, focuses on economics and law, is the second oldest athenaeum in Italy. Italian military officers are trained at the Military Academy of Modena, housed in the Baroque Ducal Palace; the Biblioteca Estense houses 3,000 manuscripts. The Cathedral of Modena, the Torre della Ghirlandina and Piazza Grande are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1997. Modena is known in culinary circles for its production of balsamic vinegar. Famous Modenesi include Mary of the Queen consort of England and Scotland.
Modena lies on the Pianura Padana, is bounded by the two rivers Secchia and Panaro, both affluents of the Po River. Their presence is symbolized by the Two Rivers Fountain by Giuseppe Graziosi; the city is connected to the Panaro by the Naviglio channel. The Apennines begin some 10 kilometres from the city, to the south; the comune is divided into four circoscrizioni. These are: Centro storico Crocetta Buon Pastore San Faustino Modena has a humid subtropical climate, with continental influences, it has an average annual precipitation of 809 millimetres. Summers are warm and winters are chilly and wetter, with the possibility of snowfall; this climate is described by the Köppen climate classification as Cfa. City government From 1946 to 1992, Modena had a series of Communist mayors. From the 1990s, the city has been governed by center-left coalitions; the legislative body of the municipality is the City Council, composed by 35 members elected every five years. Modena's executive body is the City Committee composed by 9 assessors, the deputy-mayor and the mayor.
The current mayor of Modena is member of the Democratic Party. The territory around Modena was inhabited by the Villanovans in the Iron Age, by Ligurian tribes and the Gaulish Boii. Although the exact date of its foundation is unknown, it is known that it was in existence in the 3rd century BC, for in 218 BC, during Hannibal's invasion of Italy, the Boii revolted and laid siege to the city. Livy described it as a fortified citadel; the outcome of the siege is not known, but the city was most abandoned after Hannibal's arrival. Mutina was refounded as a Roman colony in 183 BC, to be used as a military base by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, causing the Ligurians to sack it in 177 BC. Nonetheless, it was rebuilt, became the most important centre in Cisalpine Gaul, both because of its strategic importance and because it was on an important crossroads between Via Aemilia and the road going to Verona. In the 1st century BC Mutina was besieged twice; the first siege was by Pompey in 78 BC. The city surrendered out of hunger, Brutus fled, only to be slain in Regium Lepidi.
In the civil war following Caesar's assassination, the city was besieged again, this time by Mark Antony, in 44 BC, defended by Decimus Junius Brutus. Octavian relieved the city with the help of the Senate. Cicero called it Mutina splendidissima in his Philippics; until the 3rd century AD, it kept its position as the most important city in the newly formed province Aemilia, but the fall of the Empire brought Mutina down with it, as it was used as a military base both against the barbarians and in the civil wars. It is said that Mutina was never sacked by Attila, for a dense fog hid it, but it was buried by a great flood in the 7th century and abandoned. In December 2008, Italian researchers discovered the pottery center where the oil lamps that lit the ancient Roman empire were made. Evidence of the pottery workshops emerged in Modena, during construction work to build a residential complex near the ancient walls of the city. "We found a large ancient Roman dumping filled with pottery scraps.
There were vases, bricks, but most of all, hundreds of oil lamps, each bearing their maker's name", Donato Labate, the archaeologist in charge of the dig, stated. Its exiles founded a new city a few miles to the northwest, still represented by the village of Cittanova. About the end of the 9th century, Modena was refortified by its bishop, Ludovicus. At about this time the Song of the Watchmen of Modena was composed; the city was part of the pos
The Cardiff Bay Retail Park in Grangetown, Cardiff was once the site of the Ferry Road landfill site. It was built in around 1997, it is home to businesses which include Asda and Argos. The retail park is built on the edge of a former Ferry Road refuse site, which closed in 1994 after being filled with 4 million cubic metres of commercial and domestic rubbish; the ownership of the land passed to Cardiff Bay Development Corporation who created the retail park on an area of industrial units to the east of the site. Grangemoor Park was created opposite the retail park on the 20 metre hill landscaped on the old refuse site. Maples was a homeware store that closed in around 2000. Over the years, the unit has been split into 3 smaller units. Furnitureland and Powerhouse both closed their units in 2007. BHS refurbished both to create one large unit until they ceased trading in 2016. JJB closed their unit here once they moved to the Capital Retail Park in Leckwith, which included a gym; the Dunleavy Drive section of the Cardiff Bay Retail Park was built in 2008.
Matsushiro Domain was a feudal domain under the Tokugawa shogunate of Edo period Japan. It is located in Shinano Province, Honshū; the domain was centered at Matsushiro Castle, located in what is now part of the city of Nagano in Nagano Prefecture. Kawanakajima in northern Shinano Province was the site of numerous battles in the Sengoku period between Takeda Shingen and Uesugi Kenshin. After the start of the Tokugawa shogunate, this area was awarded as a domain to Mori Tadamasa for his efforts in the Battle of Sekigahara by Tokugawa Ieyasu; the marked the start of the 137,000 koku Kawanakajima Domain. Mori was transferred three years to Tsuyama Domain in Mimasaka Province in 1603; the domain was awarded in 1610 to Matsudaira Tadateru, the 6th son of Tokugawa Ieyasu. In 1616, Matsudaira Tadamasa, the son of Yūki Hideyasu was awarded a 130,000 koku holding in northern Shinano, chose Matsushiro as the location for his castle; the marked the start of Matsushiro Domain. He was transferred to Takada Domain in Echigo Province after only three years, the domain went to Sakai Tadakatsu, in turn transferred to Shonai Domain in Dewa Province in 1622.
The Sanada clan had ruled the neighbouring Chiisagata District in Shinano Province during the Sengoku period under the Takeda clan and subsequently most of northern Shinano and Kōzuke Province as retainers of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Following the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate, Sanada Nobuyuki was confirmed as daimyō with Ueda Domain, with holdings assessed at 95,000 koku. However, in 1622 he was transferred to Matsushiro Domain, with an increase in kokudaka to 120,000 koku; the Sanada clan remained in at Matsushiro until the Meiji restoration. The domain was reduced to 100,000 koku when Numata Domain in Kōzuke Province was split off as a separate domain; the Sanada enjoyed close ties with the Tokugawa clan, as Sanada Nobuyuki married an adopted daughter of Tokugawa Ieyasu. Although classed as tozama daimyō, the Sanada were accorded the same status and privileges as fudai daimyō in their audiences with the Shōgun, received significant financial assistance when Matsushiro Castle was destroyed by a fire in 1717, when the castle town was ravaged by a flood in 1742.
A han school was founded in 1758, the 8th daimyō, Sanada Yukitsura, served as a rōjū. However, towards the Bakumatsu period, the domain suffered from financial difficulties; the Zenkoji earthquake of 1847 destroyed most of the town, the domain's finances were depleted by demands from the shogunate for guard duty in Edo Bay against the return of Perry's "blackships". The Bakumatsu period reformer Sakuma Shōzan was a samurai from Matsushiro domain, many of the domain's samurai supported his efforts toward modernization of the domain's military. During the Boshin War, the domain was one of the first in Shinano to side with the imperial cause, sent forces to fight in the Battle of Hokuetsu and Battle of Aizu. In July 1871, with the abolition of the han system, Matsushiro Domain became Matsushiro Prefecture, was merged into the newly created Nagano Prefecture. Under the new Meiji government, Sanada Yukimoto, the last daimyo of Matsushiro Domain was given the kazoku peerage title of shishaku, was elevated to hakushaku.
As with most domains in the han system, Matsushiro Domain consisted of several discontinuous territories calculated to provide the assigned kokudaka, based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. Shinano Province 102 villages in Minochi District 26 villages in Hanishina District 117 villages in Sarashina District List of Han The content of this article was derived from that of the corresponding article on Japanese Wikipedia. Papinot, E. Historical and Geographic Dictionary of Japan. Tuttle 1972. "Matsushiro" Domain on "Edo 300 HTML"