Economy of São Paulo
São Paulo is the 10th richest city in the world, is expected to be the 6th richest in 2025. According to data of Fecomercio/SP, its gross domestic product in 2011 was R$450 billion; the biggest financial center in Brazil and one of the biggest financial centers out there in the world, São Paulo's economy is going through a deep transformation. Once a city with a strong industrial character, São Paulo's economy has become based on the tertiary sector, focusing on services and businesses for the country; the city is unique among Brazilian cities for its large number of foreign corporations. Many analysts point to São Paulo as an important global city though this assignment can be criticized considering its serious problems of social exclusion and spatial segregation. Although being the most important financial centre of the country, São Paulo presents a high degree of informality in its economy. São Paulo is the business center of the Mercosur economy. Acclaimed as a city of business tourism, attracting today's biggest and most important international events, be they in the economic, scientific or sporting area.
It holds more than 200 events per day, offering more than 250 thousand square meters of space in pavilions and areas for congresses and fairs. This is without taking into account the supply of spaces within hotels, which adds another 70 thousand square meters, suitable for holding events. According to the International Congress and Convention Association that ranks the greatest event centers in the world, São Paulo is the most important destination for international events in the Americas. São Paulo is among Top 20 destinations for events in the world and left behind destinations like Madrid, Sydney and Vancouver. Adding space in nightclubs and business areas and other alternatives to these numbers, São Paulo boasts 430,000 square meters for the holding of any type of event. There is still the supply of 30,000 apartments of various categories, a number, to grow in the next two years, predicted to reach 50,000 apartments in 2003, catering for those seeking the more luxurious options of the large chains, to simpler and more economical options.
It is worth pointing out that from the tourist attractions the following stand out: gastronomy and culture. With more than 12,000 restaurants of more than 40 different world cuisines, besides the 70 museums, more than 200 cinemas, around 50 theaters, art galleries and cultural centers, São Paulo has one of the liveliest night-lives in the world. If the city of São Paulo were a country, its economy would be the 47th in the world, bigger than Egypt and Kuwait, for example, about the same size as Hungary, New Zealand or Israel; the economy of the city of São Paulo would be bigger than 22 U. S. states, such as Hawaii and New Hampshire. In 2005, the city of São Paulo collected R$90 billion in taxes, the city budget was R$15 billion; the city has 1,500 bank branches. There are 70 shopping malls. Of all the international companies with business in Brazil, 63% have their head offices in São Paulo. According to Mystery Shopping International, the Oscar Freire Street is the eighth most luxurious in the world.
A connected city, always in the vanguard of the greatest cultural movements that changed Brazilian behavior and habits. In higher education, the University of São Paulo is in the top 100 public universities in the world and in the annual raking of the British newspaper The Times, as the first university in South America. There is a wide range of short courses, seminars, literary discussions and a several universities and cultural centers teaching from handicraft to technology; the São Paulo Stock Exchange is Brazil's official stock and bonds exchange. The BM&F Bovespa is the largest stock exchange in Latin America and third largest in the world. In the Stock Exchange, R$6 billion change hands every day. If the Greater São Paulo were a country would be the thirty-third richest nation in the world, ahead of the United Arab Emirates and Hong Kong for example and twenty-eighth richest nation ahead of Belgium and Venezuela. São Paulo is the best city; the large growth of São Paulo GDP is due to the great economic potential of the city and the appreciation of the Brazilian real to the U.
S. dollar. The per capita income for the city was R$39,799. According to PricewaterhouseCoopers annual economic growth of the city is 4.2%. Industrial development, beginning in the late 19th century but intensifying after World War II, has transformed metropolitan São Paulo into the foremost industrial centre in Latin America; the city has outgrown its status as the "Chicago of South America," because it plays a greater role in Brazilian commerce and industry than any one city in the United States. The value of its industrial production is by far the largest of any Brazilian city, its leading industries produce textiles and electrical appliances, furniture and chemical and pharmaceutical products. Heavy metallurgical plants located in nearby Taubaté, oil refineries and chemical plants in Cubatão, plants manufacturing motor vehicles, transportation equipment, farm machinery in Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo, São Caetano do Sul, Diadema make large contributions to production. Computer industries and the manufacturing of electrical appliances are on the rise, as are automobile components.
The several thousand manufacturing establishments in São Paulo provide employment for more than one-tenth of the population. Commerce, both wholesale and retail, is well developed and spread over the ci
The Armory Show known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, was a show organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors in 1913. It was the first large exhibition of modern art in America, as well as one of the many exhibitions that have been held in the vast spaces of U. S. National Guard armories; the three-city exhibition started in New York City's 69th Regiment Armory, on Lexington Avenue between 25th and 26th Streets, from February 17 until March 15, 1913. The exhibition went on to show at the Art Institute of Chicago and to The Copley Society of Art in Boston, due to a lack of space, all the work by American artists was removed; the show became an important event in the history of American art, introducing astonished Americans, who were accustomed to realistic art, to the experimental styles of the European avant garde, including Fauvism and Futurism. The show served as a catalyst for American artists, who became more independent and created their own "artistic language."
The origins of the show lie in the emergence of progressive groups and independent exhibitions in the early 20th century, which challenged the aesthetic ideals, exclusionary policies, authority of the National Academy of Design, while expanding exhibition and sales opportunities, enhancing public knowledge, enlarging audiences for contemporary art. On December 14, 1911 an early meeting of what would become the Association of American Painters and Sculptors was organized at Madison Gallery in New York. Four artists met to discuss the contemporary art scene in the United States, the possibilities of organizing exhibitions of progressive artworks by living American and foreign artists, favoring works ignored or rejected by current exhibitions; the meeting included Jerome Myers, Elmer Livingston MacRae and Walt Kuhn. In January 1912, Walt Kuhn, Walter Pach, Arthur B. Davies joined together with some two dozen of their colleagues to reinforce a professional coalition: AAPS, they intended the organization to "lead the public taste in art, rather than follow it."
Other founding AAPS members included D. Putnam Brinley, Gutzon Borglum, John Frederick Mowbray-Clarke, Leon Dabo, William J. Glackens, Ernest Lawson, Jonas Lie, George Luks, Karl Anderson, James E. Fraser, Allen Tucker, J. Alden Weir. AAPS was to be dedicated to creating new exhibition opportunities for young artists outside of the existing academic boundaries, as well as to providing educational art experiences for the American public. Davies served with Kuhn acting as secretary; the AAPS members spent more than a year planning their first project: the International Exhibition of Modern Art, a show of giant proportions, unlike any New York had seen. The 69th Regiment Armory was settled on as the main site for the exhibition in the spring of 1912, rented for a fee of $5,000, plus an additional $500 for additional personnel, it was confirmed that the show would travel to Chicago and Boston. Once the space had been secured, the most complicated planning task was selecting the art for the show after the decision was made to include a large proportion of vanguard European work, most of which had never been seen by an American audience.
In September 1912, Kuhn left for an extended collecting tour through Europe, including stops at cities in England, the Netherlands, France, visiting galleries and studios and contracting for loans as he went. While in Paris Kuhn met up with Pach, who knew the art scene there intimately, was friends with Marcel Duchamp and Henri Matisse. Together they secured three paintings that would end up being among the Armory Show's most famous and polarizing: Matisse's "Blue Nude" and "Madras Rouge,"and Duchamp's "Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2." Only after Davies and Kuhn returned to New York in December did they issue an invitation for American artists to participate. Pach was the only American artist to be affiliated with the Section d'Or group of artists, including Albert Gleizes, Jean Metzinger, Duchamp brothers Marcel Duchamp, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Jacques Villon and others. Pach was responsible for securing loans from these painters for the Armory Show. Most of the artists in Paris who sent works to the Armory Show knew Pach and entrusted their works to him.
The Armory Show was the first, the only exhibition mounted by the AAPS. It displayed some 1,300 paintings and decorative works by over 300 avant-garde European and American artists. Impressionist and Cubist works were represented; the publicity that stormed the show had been well sought, with the publication of half-tone postcards of 57 works, including the Duchamp nude that would become its most infamous. News reports and reviews were filled with accusations of quackery, insanity and anarchy, as well as parodies, caricatures and mock exhibitions. About the modern works, former President Theodore Roosevelt declared, "That's not art!" The civil authorities did not, close down or otherwise interfere with the show. Among the scandalously radical works of art, pride of place goes to Marcel Duchamp's cubist/futurist style Nude Descending a Staircase, painted the year before, in which he expressed motion with successive superimposed images, as in motion pictures. Julian Street, an art critic, wrote that the work resembled "an explosion in a shingle factory", cartoonists satirized the piece.
Gutzon Borglum, one of the early organizers of the show who for a variety of reasons withdrew both his organizational prowess and his work, labeled this piece A
An arts festival is a festival that can encompass a wide range of art genres including music, film, fine art, poetry etc. and isn't focused on "visual arts." Arts festivals may feature a mixed program that include music, comedy, children's entertainment, science, or street theatre, are presented in venues over a period of time ranging from as short as a day or a weekend to a month. Each event within the program is separately ticketed. Arts festivals are curated by an artistic director who handles the organizations' artistic direction and can encompass different genres, including fringe theater festivals that are open access, making arts festivals distinctive from greenfield festivals, which are weekend camping festivals such as Glastonbury, Visual Arts Festivals, which concentrate on the visual arts. Another type of arts festivals are music festivals, which are outdoor musical events spanning a weekend, featuring a number of bands and musical genres including pop, heavy-metal, more. Since the 1960s, world-music festivals have become popular in a variety of countries.
The most well-recognized music festival was Woodstock, which took place in 1969 in New York. It was attended by 400,000 people and featured performances by The Who, Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, the Grateful Dead; the two oldest arts festivals are located in England. The Three Choirs Festival in the West of England was established as a "yearly musical assembly" by 1719; the other is the Norfolk and Norwich Festival which first took place in 1772. The largest arts festival in England today is the Brighton Festival Fringe. Leading arts festivals include the Edinburgh Festival in Edinburgh, Adelaide Festival of Arts in Adelaide, the Biennale of Sydney, Festival d'Avignon in Avignon and Tongyeong International Music Festival in Tongyeong and Sanskruti Arts Festival, India. One-off arts festivals have included the Liverpool08 European Capital of Culture in 2008. In the summer of 1793, revolutionary France was invaded by foreign armies which resulted in the destruction of all signs of royalty. During this time, French citizens sang and theaters as well as indoor music multiplied.
By 1793, two dozen new venues for music and drama had been established, as a result of the end of restrictive monopolies that ruled. Art dealings were increasing and as a flood of paintings were for sale, this reduced artists to near impoverishment. Therefore, as a result, this called for an attempt to replace the old system of the arts with a new one; this gave rise to festivals that were used not only as an artistic outlet, but for political protest against the old government system. These festivals included religious symbolism, political messages and embodied the spirit of liberty and fraternity. In 1792, The "Festival of Liberty" included a Declaration of the rights of man, busts of Voltaire and Franklin, a hymn to liberty, women in white carrying chains, a large chariot with a seated statue of liberty An Arts Festival is an umbrella-term for a festival that focuses on multiple art genres including fine art, photography and other visual styles Fringe festivals are a type of arts festival focusing on many arts but sometimes focusing on a specific art such as theater more than others.
Some subgenres of an arts festival include art fairs, theater festivals, dance festivals, film festivals, music festivals and more. An art fair is a subgenre of arts festival that focuses on visual art or specific fields of visual art such as new media art festivals. Other subgenres of art festivals are termed photography festivals or street art festivals, for example. An art fair has a wide range of artists, art dealers and curators who buy or sell artwork in a venue, or gallery, open to the public; some items for sale include photography, drawings, handcrafted items and pottery. Festivals of visual arts are not to be confused with commercial art fairs. Artists participate in the most important of such festival exhibitions by invitation, these exhibitions are organised by internationally recognized curators chosen by a committee of peers. Conversely art fairs are market-oriented shows where art dealers exhibit and sell the work of the artists they represent; the first drama festival was at the Athenian Great Dionysia.
At the drama festivals and poets competed to have their plays performed, the actors competed to win the title for best performance. The performances were given in semi-circular auditorium cut into hillsides and capable of seating 10,000–20,000 people; the stage consisted of a dancing floor, an orchestra, dressing room and scene-building area, known as a skene. The actors were men who wore masks appropriate to the characters they represented, each might play several parts. Film festivals are organized events staged by universities, private organizations, local governments, or arts associations, that show films in cinemas or screening venues and provide filmmakers a chance to get notable recognition among fellow film enthusiasts. Films can include international and domestic releases and can be on a specific film-maker, genre or subject matter. Film festivals are annual events and can feature full-length or short films. One of the most notable Film Festivals is the Sundance Film Festival, which originated from Salt Lake City in 1984 as part of the Sundance Institute organization and was founded by Robert Redford.
To this date, it is one of the largest independent cinema festivals in the United States. Poetry festivals are org
Theatro Municipal (São Paulo)
Municipal Theatre of São Paulo is a theatre in São Paulo, Brazil. It is regarded as one of the landmarks of the city, significant both for its architectural value as well as for its historical importance, having been the venue for the Week of Modern Art in 1922, which revolutionised the arts in Brazil; the building now houses the São Paulo Municipal Symphonic Orchestra, the Coral Lírico and the City Ballet of São Paulo. The idea of building a representative theatre for the city of São Paulo was inspired by its increasing importance on the international stage. From the beginning of 20th century it was inhabited by the Brazilian bourgeoisie, of which a great part was involved in the business of coffee farming; the city had quite a large Italian population. So far, the city could only rely on the Teatro São José there was some others quite big modest theatres in the city how, the Polythéama, or the Minerva, the Apolo, but the São José it was the bigger of them, which after a fire was no longer suitable for large foreign productions.
That is why the paulistana aristocracy demanded a creation of a new theatre, with a structure similar to some of the best theatres in the world and suitable for staging large opera productions. The place, chosen for the construction was Morro do Cha', or Tea Hill, the site of the new Teatro São José. Ramos de Azevedo was the engineer assigned to the construction, he was helped by two Italian architects Cláudio Rossi and Domiziano Rossi. In 1903, construction began, São Paulo gained one of the best venues in the world for the presentation of theatre productions operas; as it was customary in those days, the majority of the materials was imported from Europe, the architectural reference was Palais Garnier of Paris. The construction lasted about 8 years; the first staged production was the opera Hamlet by Ambroise Thomas. The initial idea was to present an opera Il Guarany, but the company, directed by an Italian Titta Ruffo, a celebrated baritone voice of the time, did not want to count on putting works by Brazilian composers in its repertoire.
Other problems had happened before the opening night. The stage decorations had not arrived in Brazil in time which caused the postponement of the opening date; when the new date arrived on 12 September 1911, the result surpassed all the expectations of the public and the city's dominant class. Between 1912 and 1926, the theatre presented 88 operas of 41 composers, in 270 performances, but the most important event in the history of the theatre in that period and in all of its existence was not an opera, but something that would infuriate many paulistanos at the time: the Week of Modern Art in 1922. Between 11 February and 18 February the Municipal Theatre hosted a Modernist event that has become known as "Semana de Arte Moderna" of 1922. During the seven days of events there was an exposition of the art of Brazilian Modernismo—a movement that sought to break away with set patterns of European-influenced realistic paintings, drama and music. In the evenings of 13, 15 and 17 February there were presentations of music and lectures on modernity in Brazil and the rest of the world.
Modernism defied all the existing aesthetic and artistic values dominating painting, literature and other arts until that time. The "week" presented artists who were to become some of the most celebrated names in the Brazilian Modernist Movement, such as: Mário de Andrade—a writer and folklorist--, Oswald de Andrade—a writer--, Tarsila do Amaral, Anita Malfatti and Menotti Del Picchia—all three painters; these artists formed the famous "Group of Five". Victor Brecheret—sculptor—Heitor Villa-Lobos—composer—and Di Cavalcanti—painter—were other celebrities who took part in the Week; as the years went by, the theatre, made exclusively for opera presentations, hosted other artistic events, for example performances of dancers such as Anna Pavlova and Isadora Duncan. In the 1960s, under Mayor José Vicente Faria Lima, the building went through its first refurbishment because its walls had been repainted and the original project was deprived of its characteristics. In 1980s, the theatre went through further refurbishments, initiated by Mayor Jânio Quadros.
Its main purpose was to restore the original works of Ramos de Azevedo. The external façade was restored with sandstone, originated in the same mine that had supplied material for the original building conception at the beginning of the century; the restoration was completed in 1991 under the Mayor Luiza Erundina. Now 100 years old, the Municipal Theatre of São Paulo is considered one of the most celebrated cultural venues in South America which has continually been hosting theatrical plays and operas by the greatest national and international playwrights and composers; the Municipal Theatre of São Paulo has the biggest and best lyric production in South America. Renowned artists and celebrities who appeared in the theatre range from actors to ballerinas, coming from the national sphere and from various countries: Carla Fracci, Rudolph Nureyev, Titta Ruffo, Enrico Caruso, Maria Callas, Bidu Sayão, Tito Schipa, Arturo Toscanini, Procópio Ferreira, Cacilda Becker, Vivien Leigh, Raymond Jérôme, Mário de Andrade, Oswald de Andrade, Tarsila do Amaral, Anita Malfatti, Menotti Del Picchia, Victor Brecheret, Heitor Villa-Lobos, Di Cavalcanti, Lasar Segall, Marcia Haydée, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Roger Waters and Paulo Szot.
Week of modern art of 1922 The official page The history and pictures of the Theatro Municipal at "Theatres of Brazil" More on the history of the Theatro Municipal The article about the most recent renovation of the Theatro
Victor Brecheret, born Vittorio Breheret, was an Italian-Brazilian sculptor. He lived most of his life except for his studies in Paris in his early twenties. Brecheret's work combines techniques of European modernist sculpture with references to his native country through the physical characteristics of his human forms and visual motifs drawn from Brazilian folk art. Many of his subjects are figures from classical mythology. Brecheret was one of the first Brazilian modernists to achieve success. In 1921 his sculpture Eve was acquired by the São Paulo city hall. In 1922 his work was exhibited in the foyer of the Municipal Theatre during the Week of Modern Art, his O Grupo was acquired by the French government in 1934 for the Musée du Jeu de Paume. His best-known work, the massive Monument to the Banderas at the entrance of Ibirapuera Park in São Paulo, was proposed in 1920, begun in 1936, completed on January 25, 1953. Brecheret's Brazilian birth certificate lists his birthplace as São Paulo; this Brazilian record, was made in 1930 when the sculptor was 36 years old upon his own request.
Daisy Peccinini, Brecheret's biographer, maintains that he was in fact born in Farnese, based on the original birth register made only four days after his birth. A second-leval judicial sentence from the State Court of São Paulo issued on October 15, 2014 corroborates that Brecheret was born in Italy and emigrated to Brazil in 1904 with his maternal uncle Enrico Nanni. Official Website of the Instituto Victor Brecheret in English The Marajoara art of Victor Brecheret, by the Instituto Victor Brecheret. PECCININI, Daisy. Instituto Victor Brecheret, 2004
São Paulo is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an alpha global city and the most populous city in Brazil, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, besides being the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world; the municipality is the Earth's 11th largest city proper by population. The city is the capital of the surrounding state of São Paulo, the most populous and wealthiest state in Brazil, it exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance and entertainment. The name of the city honors Saint Paul of Tarsus; the city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th most populous on Earth. The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo created the São Paulo Macrometropolis, a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. Having the largest economy by GDP in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere, the city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange.
Paulista Avenue is the economic core of São Paulo. The city has the 11th largest GDP in the world, representing alone 10.7% of all Brazilian GDP and 36% of the production of goods and services in the state of São Paulo, being home to 63% of established multinationals in Brazil, has been responsible for 28% of the national scientific production in 2005. With a GDP of US$477 billion, the São Paulo city alone would have ranked 26th globally compared with countries by 2017 estimates; the metropolis is home to several of the tallest skyscrapers in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale, Edifício Itália, North Tower and many others. The city has cultural and political influence both nationally and internationally, it is home to monuments and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Ibirapuera Park, Museum of Ipiranga, São Paulo Museum of Art, the Museum of the Portuguese Language. The city holds events like the São Paulo Jazz Festival, São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix, São Paulo Fashion Week, the ATP Brasil Open, the Brasil Game Show and the Comic Con Experience.
The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade rivals the New York City Pride March as the largest gay pride parade in the world. São Paulo is a cosmopolitan, melting pot city, home to the largest Arab and Japanese diasporas, with examples including ethnic neighborhoods of Mercado and Liberdade respectively. São Paulo is home to the largest Jewish population in Brazil, with about 75,000 Jews. In 2016, inhabitants of the city were native to over 200 different countries. People from the city are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the state, including the paulistanos; the city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, which translates as "I am not led, I lead." The city, colloquially known as Sampa or Terra da Garoa, is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers. São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city hosted the IV Pan American Games and the São Paulo Indy 300.
The region of modern-day São Paulo known as Piratininga plains around the Tietê River, was inhabited by the Tupi people, such as the Tupiniquim and Guarani. Other tribes lived in areas that today form the metropolitan region; the region was divided in Caciquedoms at the time of encounter with the Europeans. The most notable Cacique was Tibiriça, known for his support for the Portuguese and other European colonists. Among the many indigenous names that survive today are Tietê, Tamanduateí, Anhangabaú, Diadema, Itapevi, Embu-Guaçu etc... The Portuguese village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga was marked by the founding of the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga on January 25, 1554; the Jesuit college of twelve priests included Spanish priest José de Anchieta. They built a mission on top of a steep hill between the Tamanduateí rivers, they first had a small structure built of rammed earth, made by American Indian workers in their traditional style. The priests wanted to evangelize – teach the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga and convert them to Christianity.
The site was separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar, called by the Indians Serra Paranapiacaba. The college was named for a Christian saint and its founding on the feast day of the celebration of the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus. Father José de Anchieta wrote this account in a letter to the Society of Jesus: The settlement of the region's Courtyard of the College began in 1560. During the visit of Mem de Sá, Governor-General of Brazil, the Captaincy of São Vicente, he ordered the transfer of the population of the Village of Santo André da Borda do Campo to the vicinity of the college, it was named "College of St. Paul Piratininga"; the new location was on a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo. It offered better protection from attacks by local Indian groups, it was renamed belonging to the Captaincy of São Vicente. For the next two centuries, São Paulo developed as a poor and isolated village that survived through the cultivation of subsistence crops by the labor of natives.
For a long time, São Paulo was the only village in Brazil's interior, as travel was too difficult for many to reach the area. Mem de Sá forbade colonists to use the "Path Pir
Transport in São Paulo
Transport in São Paulo plays a key role in the date-to-day life of the people of São Paulo. Although lacking in strong infrastructure, various methods of public transport are offered in the city, including a complex bus system run by SPTrans, various subway and railway lines. A contactless smartcard is used for fare collection for the buses and railway systems. São Paulo has three airports. Over 16,000 buses form the bulk of public transport in São Paulo. Except for a small network overseen by the EMTU, all bus lines are operated by concessionaires under the supervision of SPTrans, a municipal company responsible for the planning and management of public transport; some of the SPTrans buses are painted in white, while others are painted with region-specific colors. Until informal transport vans had a large presence in the city, but the vast majority of such vans are now registered with the city council and operating under the same color scheme used in the main system. To increase efficiency in the city, São Paulo is implementing a bus rapid transit system called the Expresso Tiradentes.
There is a system of reserved bus lanes, which are placed on large avenues and connected with the underground or suburban train stations. With 13 lines, 178 stations and a total length of 369 km, the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Transport Network is the largest rail transport system in Latin America; the network transports about 8 million people daily and it is operated by four different companies. Two are state-owned: São Paulo Metro with 6 lines, 84 stations and 96 km of lines, the Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos, with 7 lines, 94 stations and 273 km of lines; the other two are private: ViaQuatro, which won the public-private partnership to operate Line 4 - Yellow for 30 years, renewable for another 30 years. São Paulo used to have tram lines during the first half of the 20th century, but they were eradicated due to the expansion of the bus system. Connections between lines operated by different companies is free, with the only two exceptions being Tatuapé and Corinthians-Itaquera stations, where connections are paid during rush-hours and free during other periods.
There are 4 lines operated by the São Paulo Metro and 2 under construction: Line 1 - Blue: The first Metrô line built. Connects the North and the South Side of São Paulo. Connections are available for the Green, Red and Lilac lines, CPTM trains; the line serves Jabaquara bus terminals. Line 2 - Green: Transverses the Avenida Paulista ridge, connecting Ipiranga to Vila Madalena, connecting to the Blue and Lilac metro lines, as well as to the Silver monorail line, it provides connections to CPTM trains. Line 3 - Red: One of São Paulo's busiest lines, it connects the East Side to the West Side. Connections to the Blue and Yellow lines are possible; the Barra Funda bus terminal is located on this line. Line 6 - Orange: Announced in 2008 and with its construction initiated in 2015, the Orange Line will connect the borough of Freguesia do Ó, in the northwestern side of the city to downtown São Paulo. Connections to the Blue and Yellow lines will be possible, to CPTM trains; as of February 2019, construction is paralyzed due to problems with funding.
Line 15 - Silver: It is the first high-capacity monorail line in the country. It runs east from Vila Prudente station; as of February 2019, six stations are open with an expansion to Jardim Colonial under construction and another to Cidade Tiradentes, further east, is under development. Line 17 - Gold: Monorail line that will connect Morumbi station with the Congonhas Airport. Connection with the Lilac line eill be possible to CPTM train service; as of February 2019, the line is expected to open in late 2020. Further expansion to this line is expected as plans to expand it westward, crossing the Pinheiros River and connecting to the Yellow line, eastward, connecting to the Blue line, are under development; the following line is operated by ViaQuatro: Line 4 - Yellow: Connects the central Luz station to the West and South Sides in a route constructed below the Consolação and Rebouças avenues. Connections are available to the Blue and Red lines and to CPTM trains; the following line is operated by ViaMobilidade Line 5 - Lilac: Connects the South Side of São Paulo to the Blue and Green lines and to CPTM trains.
It will be the only metro line to connect to the Silver monorail line after it opens in 2020. As of February 2019, plans of expanding the line north to Ipiranga are under development. There are seven lines operated by CPTM: Line 7 - Ruby: Formerly the northern part of the old São Paulo Railway, it connects the Luz station downtown to the city of Francisco Morato, crossing all of the northwestern side of the city. An operational extension connects Francisco Morato to the city of Jundiaí; this is the longest line of the railway system in São Paulo. Line 8 - Diamond: Formerly part of the old Estrada de Ferro Sorocabana, it connects the Júlio Prestes station downtown to Itapevi, going across the western side of the city. An operational extension with another train links this line to four more stations in Itapevi; the last station is placed near the border with São Roque. The Júlio Prestes station houses the State of the Art concert hall Sala Cidade de São Paulo. Line 9 - Emerald: It is located along the Nações Unidas Avenue, connects the region of the Interlagos Spee