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Modern Greek

Modern Greek refers collectively to the dialects of the Greek language spoken in the modern era, includes Standard Modern Greek. The end of the Medieval Greek period and the beginning of Modern Greek is symbolically assigned to the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453 though that date marks no clear linguistic boundary and many characteristic modern features of the language arose centuries earlier, between the fourth and the fifteenth centuries AD. During most of the period, the language existed in a situation of diglossia, with regional spoken dialects existing side by side with learned, more archaic written forms, as with the vernacular and learned varieties that co-existed throughout much of the 19th and 20th centuries. Varieties of Modern Greek include several varieties, including Demotic, Pontic, Mariupolitan, Southern Italian and Tsakonian. Speaking, Demotic refers to all popular varieties of Modern Greek that followed a common evolutionary path from Koine and have retained a high degree of mutual intelligibility to the present.

As shown in Ptochoprodromic and Acritic poems, Demotic Greek was the vernacular before the 11th century and called the "Roman" language of the Byzantine Greeks, notably in peninsular Greece, the Greek islands, coastal Asia Minor and Cyprus. Today, a standardised variety of Demotic Greek is the official language of the Hellenic Republic and Cyprus, is referred to as "Standard Modern Greek", or less simply as "Modern Greek" or "Demotic". Demotic Greek comprises various regional varieties with minor linguistic differences in phonology and vocabulary. Due to the high degree of mutual intelligibility of these varieties, Greek linguists refer to them as "idioms" of a wider "Demotic dialect", known as "Koine Modern Greek". Most English-speaking linguists however refer to them as "dialects", emphasising degrees of variation only when necessary. Demotic Greek varieties are divided into two main groups and Southern; the main distinguishing feature common to Northern variants is a set of standard phonological shifts in unaccented vowel phonemes: becomes and and are dropped.

The dropped vowels' existence is implicit, may affect surrounding phonemes: for example, a dropped palatalizes preceding consonants, just like an, pronounced. Southern variants do not exhibit these phonological shifts. Examples of Northern dialects are Rumelian, Macedonian, Thracian, Northern Euboean, Samos and Sarakatsanika; the Southern category is divided into groups that include: Old Athenian-Maniot: Megara, Athens and Mani Peninsula Ionian-Peloponnesian: Peloponnese, Ionian Islands, Attica and Southern Euboea Cretan-Cycladian: Cyclades and several enclaves in Syria and Lebanon Southeastern: Chios, Ikaria and Cyprus. Demotic Greek has been taught in monotonic Greek script since 1982. Polytonic script remains popular in intellectual circles. Katharevousa is a semi-artificial sociolect promoted in the 19th century at the foundation of the modern Greek state, as a compromise between Classical Greek and modern Demotic, it was the official language of modern Greece until 1976. Katharevousa is written in polytonic Greek script.

While Demotic Greek contains loanwords from Turkish, Italian and other languages, these have for the most part been purged from Katharevousa. See the Greek language question. Pontic was spoken along the mountainous Black Sea coast of Turkey, the so-called Pontus region, until most of its speakers were killed or displaced to modern Greece during the Pontic genocide, followed by the population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1923, it hails from Hellenistic and Medieval Koine and preserves characteristics of Ionic due to ancient colonizations of the region. Pontic evolved as a separate dialect from Demotic Greek as a result of the region's isolation from the Greek mainstream after the Fourth Crusade fragmented the Byzantine Empire into separate kingdoms. Cappadocian is a Greek dialect of central Turkey of the same fate as Pontic. Cappadocian Greek diverged from the other Byzantine Greek dialects earlier, beginning with the Turkish conquests of central Asia Minor in the 11th and 12th centuries, so developed several radical features, such as the loss of the gender for nouns.

Having been isolated from the crusader conquests and the Venetian influence of the Greek coast, it retained the Ancient Greek terms for many words that were replaced with Romance ones in Demotic Greek. The poet Rumi, whose name means "Roman", referring to his residence amongst the "Roman" Greek speakers of Cappadocia, wrote a few poems in Cappadocian Greek, one of the earliest attestations of the dialect. Rumeíka or Mariupolitan Greek is a dialect spoken in about 17 villages around the northern coast of the Sea of Azov in southern Ukraine and Russia. Mariupolitan Greek is related to Pontic Greek and evolved from the dialect of Greek spoken in Crimea, a part of the Byzantine Empire and the Pontic Empire of Trebizond, until that latter state fell to the Ottomans in 1461. Thereafter, the Crimean Greek state continued to exist as t

Edward Aglionby (died 1553)

For others named Edward Aglionby, see the Edward Aglionby navigation page Edward Aglionby, of Carlisle, was an English politician. Aglionby was the son of Thomas Aglionby of Joan Aglionby. Aglionby held a number of public offices, including Escheator of Cumberland and Westmorland, gentleman usher of the chamber in 1534 and constable of Penrith Castle in 1534, he was the Governor of Carlisle Castle from 1542 until his death, High Sheriff of Cumberland for 1544–45 and Mayor of Carlisle in 1545. He was a collector of customs at Newcastle in 1538. In June 1516 he joined with Thomas, 2nd Lord Dacre of Gilsland, a number of others in commissioning the reconstruction of the bridge over the river Eden. During the rebellions of 1536 he helped to hold Carlisle against Richard Dacre, Thomas Lamplugh, he was made captain of the new citadel of Carlisle and served a term as mayor and after several nominations was pricked sheriff of Cumberland in 1544. His last appointment was to the commission on church goods in Cumberland in March 1553.

He was appointed by King Henry VIII as a Captain on the Scottish borders in 1524, he remained militarily active under successive Wardens of the Western March until 1543. He accompanied the king's embassy to France in 1532. Aglionby was a Member of Parliament for Carlisle in 1529 and 1547, he had three sons and three other daughters whose names are not recorded. His sons were: 1) Thomas Aglionby 2) John Aglionby 3) Edward Aglionby His son John Aglionby was a member of Parliament of Carlisle. Edward Aglionby died on 4 July 1553. Kirk, L. M.. T. he History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1509-1558, Boydell and Brewer

Fort de Boncelles

The Fort de Boncelles is one of twelve forts built as part of the Fortifications of Liège in the late 19th century in Belgium. It was built between 1884 according to the plans of General Henri Alexis Brialmont. Contrasting with the French forts built in the same era by Raymond Adolphe Séré de Rivières, the fort was built of unreinforced concrete, a new material, rather than masonry; the fort was bombarded by German artillery in the Battle of Liège. Boncelles was upgraded in the 1930s to become part of the fortified position of Liège in an attempt to forestall or slow an attack from Germany, it saw action in 1940 during the Battle of Belgium, was captured by German forces. It is abandoned and buried, surrounded by housing; the Fort de Boncelles is located about 8.3 kilometres south of the center of Liège. The fort forms an isosceles triangle whose base is 300 metres long and whose sides measure 235 metres. A 6-metre deep by 8-metre ditch encircles the fort; the principal armament was concentrated in the central massif.

The ditches were defended in enfilade by 57mm guns in casemates resembling counterscarp batteries, firing at shot traps at the other end of the ditch. It is one of the larger forts of Liège. With the exception of the Fort de Loncin, the Belgian forts made little provision for the daily needs of their wartime garrisons, locating latrines, showers and the morgue in the fort's counterscarp, a location that would be untenable in combat; this would have profound effects on the forts' ability to endure a long assault. The service areas were placed directly opposite the barracks, which opened into the ditch in the rear of the fort, with lesser protection than the two "salient" sides; the Brialmont forts placed a weaker side to the rear to allow for recapture by Belgian forces from the rear, located the barracks and support facilities on this side, using the rear ditch for light and ventilation of living spaces. In combat heavy shellfire made the rear ditch untenable, German forces were able to get between the forts and attack them from the rear.

The Brialmont forts were designed to be protected from shellfire equaling their heaviest guns: 21 cm. The top of the central massif used 4 metres of unreinforced concrete, while the caserne walls, judged to be less exposed, used 1.5 metres. Under fire, the forts could not withstand heavier artillery. Boncelles' armament included a two rotating Grüsonwerke turrets with two 21 cm guns, a15cm Creusot turret with twin guns and two 12 cm Châtillon-Commentry turret with two guns, all for distant targets. Four retractable 57 mm Grüsonwerke gun turrets were provided for local defense; the fort mounted an observation turret with a searchlight. Eight rapid-fire 57 mm Grüsonwerke guns were provided in casemates for the defense of the ditches and the postern, as well as two mobile guns; the fort's heavy guns were German Krupp, while the turret mechanisms were from a variety of sources. The fort was provided with signal lights to permit communication with the neighboring Fort de Flémalle across the Meuse and Fort d'Embourg across the Ourthe.

The guns were fired using black powder rather than smokeless powder, producing choking gas in the confined firing spaces that spread throughout the fort. Boncelles first came under attack on 6 August 1914; because the Liège fortifications had proved to be unexpectedly stubborn, the Germans brought heavy siege artillery to bombard the forts with shells far larger than they were designed to resist. Boncelles resisted until the 14th, when it was unable to continue to resist due to the asphyxiating fumes that permeated the fort. In 1915 the Germans undertook an improvement program for the Liège positions, modifying entrances, adding concrete cover and adding metal decking under concrete ceilings. Non-structural improvements included forced ventilation and moving latrines and the bakery into the main fort. Boncelle's armament was upgraded in the 1930s to become part of the Fortified Position of Liège II, planned to deter a German incursion over the nearby border. Protection was increased; this was accompanied by improvements to ventilation, sanitary facilities and electrical power.

A fortified air intake tower was provided to improve ventilation. The fort was bombarded from the air and by artillery in May 1940 by the Germans, killing the commandant, Numa Charlier, others of the garrison; the fort was taken on May 16: it did not surrender. The Germans occupied the fort until 1944, it became a military depot after the war, was sold to the commune of Seraing in 1983. The fort is buried and inaccessible hemmed in by housing that follows the trace of the former ditch. Only the postern, central massif, air intake tower and two nearby bunkers remain; the site includes a memorial to the dead of World Wars I and II, a small cemetery. A museum opened next to the fort at the end of 2012. Donnell, The Forts of the Meuse in World War I, Osprey Publishing, Oxford, 2007, ISBN 978-1-84603-114-4. Kauffmann, J. E. Jurga, R. Fortress Europe: European Fortifications of World War II, Da Capo Press, USA, 2002, ISBN 0-306-81174-X. La Tour d'Air, museum scheduled to open at the end of 2012 Fort de Boncelles at fortiff.be