Panagiotis Soutsos, was a Greek poet and journalist born in Constantinople. He was the brother of the satirist Alexandros Soutsos and cousin of writer and diplomat Alexandros Rizos Rangavis. Soutsos is known to be one of the pioneers of romanticism in Greek poetry and prose as well as a visionary behind the new Olympic Games who inspired Evangelis Zappas to sponsor their revival; the Soutzos family was an important family of Phanariotes in Constantinople, many members of which were men of letters: his maternal uncle was Iakovos Pizos Neroulos, while his sister, Aikaterini Soutsou, was a poet. He was homeschooled by many important intellectuals of that time, from 1818 till 1820, he and his brother studied in the School of Chios by educators such as Neophytos Vamvas and Constantinos Vardalachos. In 1820, due to the passing of their father, Konstantinos Soutsos, the two brothers moved to Transylvania where they stayed for a short while with their uncle. In April of the same year they departed to Paris with a recommendation letter of their uncle in order to meet Adamantios Korais.
After moving again to Italy two years they both moved to Greece in 1825. Following his arrival in Greece, he settled down in Nafplio in 1833, at the time the capital of the newly formed Greek State. There he began writing his first poems. In 1830, he was appointed secretary of the senate by Ioannis Kapodistrias. However, he lost his position, he was enthusiastic about the coming of King Otto and supported the work of the regency in his newspaper Helios until the enactment of the heterogeneous law in 1843, under which citizens born in occupied territories no longer had the right of employment in the public sector. His political ideas turned into staunch conservatism since, something that became evident through his use of an at times atticizing language, his life was marked by several misfortunes. His first wife, Florentia Kopanitsa, died in 1841 at the age of 25 and his second one, Smaragda Soutsou, in 1845, his third wife, Marina Logotheti, left him in 1861. During the same period his brother Alexandros was dealing with many prosecutions due to his anti-governmental sentiments.
Soutsos died in 1868 with most of his wealth gone. Panagiotis Soutsos, along with his brother, was the originator of romanticism in poetry and prose of the First Athenian School with his poem The Wayfarer in 1831 and his novel Leander in 1834; the Wayfarer is a dialogic poem with a dramatic form but no scenic intention. The story revolves around the love between two young people, the Wayfarer and Rallou, presented in accordance with romantic motifs. Central to the poem are themes of distraction and heartbreak. Soutsos kept editing the poem throughout his life, every edition contained an archaic form of Greek, whereas his first edition was written in plain Katharevousa. Overall, Soutsos' poems are dominated by the lyric and elegiac tone, with the main subjects being religion and freedom, all influenced by French Romanticism. Leander, the first novel of the freed Greek State, is an epistolary novel with heavy influence from Ugo Foscolo's The Last Letters of Jacopo Ortis and Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther.
His second novel, Charitine, or The Beauty of the Christian Faith, according to its subtitle "Antidote for the nonsense of Ernest Renan against the deity of Jesus Christ" has as its goal to refute the ideas of Ernest Renan. Other noteworthy stories of his were anonymously published in his newspaper. Memoirs of a Parrot follows the narrative of a talking animal commenting on and criticizing the behavior of humans, Τρισχιλιόπηχος is a science fiction story. In 1853, Soutsos' opinions on language were laid out in his essay New School of the Written Word, or Resurrection of the Ancient Greek Language Understood by All, in which he objects to Korais' "middle way" in language reform in favour of reviving Ancient Greek, since in his eyes, the language understood by most Greeks, he goes on to dismiss Demotic Greek as a language ridden with dialects and not always intelligible. Soutsos' linguistic positions were in response to a larger topic of discussion popular in mid-19th century Greece, the Greek language question.
His written proposal drew an immediate counter-attack from academic Konstantinos Asopios, notably in his essay The Soutseia, or Mr Panagiotis Soutsos scrutinized as a Grammarian, Schoolmaster and Poet. After pointing out errors and solecisms in Soutsos' own language, Asopios went on to defend Korais' "simplifying" approach on language, albeit with the addition of his own selection of archaisms, their feud sparked a small war of pamphlets from other pedants competing to expose grammatical inconsistencies and phrases translated from French in the works of their rivals, with proposals for implementing their own sets of rules. Soutsos admired the ancient Greek tradition and wandered in the ancient ruins. In 1833 he published the poem Dialogue of the Dead, in which the ghost of Plato surveys his tattered land in dismay, wonders if he is looking at Greece and addresses: Thi
Adamantios Korais or Koraïs was a Greek scholar credited with laying the foundations of Modern Greek literature and a major figure in the Greek Enlightenment. His activities paved the way for the Greek War of Independence and the emergence of a purified form of the Greek language, known as Katharevousa. Encyclopædia Britannica asserts that "his influence on the modern Greek language and culture has been compared to that of Dante on Italian and Martin Luther on German". Korais was born in Smyrna, in 1748, his father Ioannis, of Chian descent, was demogérontas in Smyrna. He was exceptionally passionate about philosophy and linguistics and studied throughout his youth, he studied in his home place, where he graduated from the Evangelical Greek School. After his school years, he lived for a while in Amsterdam as a merchant, but soon he decided that he wanted to study in a university, he studied the Jewish, Dutch and English languages, apart from his knowledge of ancient Greek and Latin. Korais studied at the school of medicine of the University of Montpellier from 1782 to 1787.
His 1786 diploma thesis was entitled Pyretologiae Synopsis, while his 1787 doctoral thesis was entitled Medicus Hippocraticus. He traveled to Paris. There he decided to translate ancient Greek authors and produced thirty volumes of those translations, being one of the first modern Greek philologists and publishers of ancient Greek literature. After 1788 he was to spend most of his life as an expatriate in Paris. A classical scholar, Korais was repelled by the Byzantine influence in Greek society and was a fierce critic of the lack of education amongst the clergy and their subservience to the Ottoman Empire, although he conceded it was the Orthodox Church that preserved the national identity of Greeks. While in Paris, he was witness to the French Revolution, he was influenced by the liberal sentiments of his age. He admired Thomas Jefferson. A typical man of the Enlightenment, Korais encouraged wealthy Greeks to open new libraries and schools throughout Greece. Korais believed that education would ensure not only the achievement of independence but the establishment of a proper constitution for the new liberated Greek state.
He envisioned a democratic Greece. Korais died in Paris aged 84 soon after publishing the first volume of his autobiography. In 1877, his remains were sent to Greece. Korais's most lasting contributions were literary; those who were instrumental in publishing, presenting his work to the public were merchants from Chios. He felt eternally grateful to these merchants, since without them, it would have been financially impossible for him to publish his works; these works included Strabo in Greek, another on Marcus Aurelius, his translation of Herodotus, the translation of the Iliad, his main literary work, the seventeen volumes of the "Library of Greek Literature". His political writing begins with the publication at the opening of the nineteenth century of Asma Polemistirion and Salpisma Polemistirion, celebrating the presence of Greek troops fighting alongside the French in Egypt. Earlier he had attacked with his Adelphiki Didaskalia the Patriarch of Jerusalem for urging the Sultan's Christian subjects to support him in the war against the'atheistic' French.
Korais went on to publish in 1803 his Report on the Present State of Civilization in Greece, based on a series of lectures he had given in Paris, extolling the link between the rise of a new Greek mercantile class and the advance of the Greek Enlightenment or Diafotismos. In What should we Greeks do in the Present Circumstances?, a work of 1805, he tried to win his compatriots over to Napoleon and away from the cause of their Russian co-religionists. In years, his enthusiasm for the French Emperor diminished, he ended by referring to him as the'tyrant of tyrants.' Away from contemporary politics, Korais did much to revive the idea of Greece with the creation of the Hellenic Library, devoted to new editions of some of the classic texts, starting with Homer in 1805. Over the following twenty years many others appeared, with lengthy prefaces by Korais entitled'Impromptu Reflections', with his views on political and linguistic matters. Although the broad mass of the Greek people was beyond his reach, he played an important part in the shaping of a new consciousness among the intelligentsia, to play a part in the creation of a new national movement.
With the breakout of the Greek revolution in 1821, he was too old to join the struggle. However his house in Paris became a centre for informations, meetings among the Parisian Greeks and financial aid, he wrote many letters advising the revolutionaries. A supporter of Kapodistrias he opposed his policies. Korais was a Greek Orthodox but a critic of many practices of the Orthodox church, he was a fierce critic of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, considering it as a useful tool in the hands of the Ottomans against the Greek independence. So he was one of the supporters of the new established Church of Greece, he was critic of the monasticism, the ignorance of the clergy, practices like that of the "Holy Fire". He was a supporter of religious freedom, empiricism and tolerance, he set himself in opposition to some metaphysical ideals of Gre
Athanasios Christopoulos was a Greek poet. Christopoulos was born at Kastoria in Macedonia, he studied at Buda and Padua, became tutor to the children of Alexander Mourousis, Prince of Wallachia. After the fall of that prince in 1811, Christopoulos was employed by John Caradja, appointed hospodar of Walachia, in drawing up a code of laws for that country. On the removal of Caradja, Christopoulos retired into private life and devoted himself to literature, he wrote drinking songs and love ditties which are popular among the Greeks. He is the author of a tragedy, of Politika Parallela, of translations of Homer and Heraclitus, of some philological works on the connection between ancient and modern Greek, his Hellenika Archaiologemata contains an account of his life. Thomas K. Papathomas, a poet from Kastoria himself, published Christopoulos's "Complete Works" in 1931-1932 in Thessaloniki, he died at Bucharest. ΑΘΑΝΑΣΙΟΥ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΠΟΛΟΥ ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΙΚΕ. ΤΗΣ ΑΙΟΛΟΔΟΡΙΚΕΣ ΗΤΟΙ ΤΗΣ ΟΜΙΛΟΥΜΕΝΗΣ ΤΩΡΙΝΗΣ ΤΩΝ ΕΛΛΗΝΩΝ ΓΛΟΣΣΑΣ.
Vienna, 1805 ΑΘΑΝΑΣΙΟΥ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΠΟΛΟΥ ΛΥΡΙΚΑ ΕΡΩΤΙΚΑ ΚΑΙ ΒΑΚΧΙΚΑ. Β' Ἔχδοσις τοῦ Ἐθνικοῦ Ἡμερολογίου. Paris, 1864 Collection de monuments pour servir a l'étude de la lengue néo-hellénique. N° 11. Le premier chant de l'Iliade traduit en vers grecs vulgaires par Ath. Khristopoulos. – IΛIΑΔΟΣ ΡΑΨΩΔΙΑ Α. Μεταφρασθεῖσα εἰς δημοτικοὺς στίχους ὙΠΟ ΑΘΑΝΑΣΙΟΥ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΠΟΥΛΟΥ ΕΚΔΙΔΟΝΤΟΣ ΑΙΜΥΛΙΟΥ ΛΕΓΡΑΝΔΙΟΥ. Paris, 1870 Poésies lyriques de l'Anacréon moderne, Athanase Christopoulos, publiées et corrigées par G. Théocharopoulos, de patras. Avec la traduction française en regard. Strasbourg List of Macedonians Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article: Αθανάσιος Χριστόπουλος Works by Athanasios Christopoulos at Project Gutenberg
Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. Crete and a number of surrounding islands and islets constitute the region of Crete, one of the 13 top-level administrative units of Greece; the capital and the largest city is Heraklion. As of 2011, the region had a population of 623,065. Crete forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece, while retaining its own local cultural traits, it was once the centre of the Minoan civilisation, the earliest known civilisation in Europe. The palace of Knossos lies in Crete; the island is first referred to as Kaptara in texts from the Syrian city of Mari dating from the 18th century BC, repeated in Neo-Assyrian records and the Bible. It was known in ancient Egyptian as Keftiu suggesting a similar Minoan name for the island; the current name of Crete is thought to be first attested in Mycenaean Greek texts written in Linear B, through the words ke-re-te, ke-re-si-jo, "Cretan".
In Ancient Greek, the name Crete first appears in Homer's Odyssey. Its etymology is unknown. One proposal derives it from a hypothetical Luwian word, *kursatta. In Latin, it became Creta; the original Arabic name of Crete was Iqrīṭiš, but after the Emirate of Crete's establishment of its new capital at ربض الخندق Rabḍ al-Ḫandaq, both the city and the island became known as Χάνδαξ or Χάνδακας, which gave Latin and Venetian Candia, from which were derived French Candie and English Candy or Candia. Under Ottoman rule, in Ottoman Turkish, Crete was called Girit. Crete is the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, it is located in the southern part of the Aegean Sea separating the Aegean from the Libyan Sea. The island has an elongated shape: it spans 260 km from east to west, is 60 km at its widest point, narrows to as little as 12 km. Crete covers an area of 8,336 km2, with a coastline of 1,046 km, it lies 160 km south of the Greek mainland. Crete is mountainous, its character is defined by a high mountain range crossing from west to east, formed by three different groups of mountains: The White Mountains or Lefka Ori 2,454 m The Idi Range (Psiloritis 35.18°N 24.82°E / 35.18.
The island has a number of gorges, such as the Samariá Gorge, Imbros Gorge, Kourtaliotiko Gorge, Ha Gorge, Platania Gorge, the Gorge of the Dead and Richtis Gorge and waterfall at Exo Mouliana in Sitia. The rivers of Crete include the Ieropotamos River, the Koiliaris, the Anapodiaris, the Almiros, the Giofyros, Megas Potamos. There are only two freshwater lakes in Crete: Lake Kournas and Lake Agia, which are both in Chania regional unit. Lake Voulismeni at the coast, at Aghios Nikolaos, was a freshwater lake but is now connected to the sea, in Lasithi. Lakes that were created by dams exist in Crete. There are three: the lake of Aposelemis Dam, the lake of Potamos Dam, the lake of Mpramiana Dam. A large number of islands and rocks hug the coast of Crete. Many are visited by tourists, some are only visited by biologists; some are environmentally protected. A small sample of the islands includes: Gramvousa the pirate island opposite the Balo lagoon Elafonisi, which commemorates a shipwreck and an Ottoman massacre Chrysi island, which hosts the largest natural Lebanon cedar forest in Europe Paximadia island where the god Apollo and the goddess Artemis were born The Venetian fort and leper colony at Spinalonga opposite the beach and shallow waters of Elounda Dionysades islands which are in an environmentally protected region together the Palm Beach Forest of Vai in the municipality of Sitia, LasithiOff the south coast, the island of Gavdos is located 26 nautical miles south of Hora Sfakion and is the southernmost point of Europe.
Crete straddles two climatic zones, the Mediterranean and the North African falling within the former. As such, the climate in Crete is Mediterranean; the atmosphere can be quite humid, depending on the proximity to the sea, while winter is mild. Snowfall is rare in the low-lying areas. While some mountain tops are snow-capped for most of the year, near the coast snow only stays on the ground for a few minutes or hours. However, a exceptional cold snap swept the island in February 2004, during which period the whole island was blanketed with snow. During the Cretan summer, average temperatures reach the high 20s-low 30s Celsius, with maxima touching the upper 30s-mid 40s; the south coast, including the Mesara Pla
Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus, a distinct city prior to its 5th century BC incorporation with Athens. A center for the arts and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum, it is referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, in particular the Romans. In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, industrial, maritime and cultural life in Greece. In 2012, Athens was ranked the world's 39th richest city by purchasing power and the 67th most expensive in a UBS study. Athens is a global one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe.
It has a large financial sector, its port Piraeus is both the largest passenger port in Europe, the second largest in the world. While at the same time being the sixth busiest passenger port in Europe; the Municipality of Athens had a population of 664,046 within its administrative limits, a land area of 38.96 km2. The urban area of Athens extends beyond its administrative municipal city limits, with a population of 3,090,508 over an area of 412 km2. According to Eurostat in 2011, the functional urban area of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union, with a population of 3.8 million people. Athens is the southernmost capital on the European mainland; the heritage of the classical era is still evident in the city, represented by ancient monuments and works of art, the most famous of all being the Parthenon, considered a key landmark of early Western civilization. The city retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a smaller number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery.
Landmarks of the modern era, dating back to the establishment of Athens as the capital of the independent Greek state in 1834, include the Hellenic Parliament and the so-called "architectural trilogy of Athens", consisting of the National Library of Greece, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and the Academy of Athens. Athens is home to several museums and cultural institutions, such as the National Archeological Museum, featuring the world's largest collection of ancient Greek antiquities, the Acropolis Museum, the Museum of Cycladic Art, the Benaki Museum and the Byzantine and Christian Museum. Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, 108 years it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics, making it one of only a handful of cities to have hosted the Olympics more than once. In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural. In earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη, it was rendered in the plural on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι.
The root of the word is not of Greek or Indo-European origin, is a remnant of the Pre-Greek substrate of Attica. In antiquity, it was debated whether Athens took its name from its patron goddess Athena or Athena took her name from the city. Modern scholars now agree that the goddess takes her name from the city, because the ending -ene is common in names of locations, but rare for personal names. During the medieval period, the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα. However, after the establishment of the modern Greek state, due to the conservatism of the written language, Ἀθῆναι became again the official name of the city and remained so until the abandonment of Katharevousa in the 1970s, when Ἀθήνα, Athína, became the official name. According to the ancient Athenian founding myth, the goddess of wisdom, competed against Poseidon, the god of the seas, for patronage of the yet-unnamed city. According to the account given by Pseudo-Apollodorus, Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring welled up.
In an alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics, Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse. In both versions, Athena offered the Athenians the first domesticated olive tree. Cecrops declared Athena the patron goddess of Athens. Different etymologies, now rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος or ἄνθος meaning "flower", to denote Athens as the "flowering city". Ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- to denote Athens as having fertile soil. In classical literature, the city was sometimes referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindar's ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι, or as τὸ κλεινὸν ἄστυ. In medieval texts, variant names include Setines and Astines, all derivations involving false splitting of p
A pastoral lifestyle is that of shepherds herding livestock around open areas of land according to seasons and the changing availability of water and pasture. It lends its name to a genre of literature and music that depicts such life in an idealized manner for urban audiences. A pastoral is a work of this genre known as bucolic, from the Greek βουκολικόν, from βουκόλος, meaning a cowherd. Pastoral is a mode of literature in which the author employs various techniques to place the complex life into a simple one. Paul Alpers distinguishes pastoral as a mode rather than a genre, he bases this distinction on the recurring attitude of power. Thus, pastoral as a mode occurs in many types of literature as well as genres. Terry Gifford, a prominent literary theorist, defines pastoral in three ways in his critical book Pastoral; the first way emphasizes the historical literary perspective of the pastoral in which authors recognize and discuss life in the country and in particular the life of a shepherd.
This is summed up by Leo Marx with the phrase "No shepherd, no pastoral." The second type of the pastoral is literature that "describes the country with an implicit or explicit contrast to the urban." The third type of pastoral depicts the country life with derogative classifications. Hesiod's Works and Days presents a ` golden age'; this Golden Age shows that before the Alexandrian age, ancient Greeks had sentiments of an ideal pastoral life that they had lost. This is the first example of literature that has pastoral sentiments and may have begun the pastoral tradition. Ovid's Metamorphoses is much like the Works and Days with the description of ages but with more ages to discuss and less emphasis on the gods and their punishments. In this artificially constructed world, nature acts as the main punisher. Another example of this perfect relationship between man and nature is evident in the encounter of a shepherd and a goatherd who meet in the pastures in Theocritus' poem Idylls 1. Traditionally, pastoral refers to the lives of herdsmen in a romanticized, but representative way.
In literature, the adjective'pastoral' refers to rural subjects and aspects of life in the countryside among shepherds and other farm workers that are romanticized and depicted in a unrealistic manner. The pastoral life is characterized as being closer to the Golden age than the rest of human life; the setting is a Locus Amoenus, or a beautiful place in nature, sometimes connected with images of the Garden of Eden. An example of the use of the genre is the short poem by the 15th-century Scottish makar Robert Henryson Robene and Makyne which contains the conflicted emotions present in the genre. A more tranquil mood is set by Christopher Marlowe's well known lines from The Passionate Shepherd to His Love: Come live with me and be my Love, And we will all the pleasures prove That hills and valleys and field, And all the craggy mountains yield."There will we sit upon the rocks And see the shepherds feed their flocks, By shallow rivers, to whose falls Melodious birds sing madrigals."The Passionate Shepherd to His Love" exhibits the concept of Gifford's second definition of pastoral.
The speaker of the poem, the titled shepherd, draws on the idealization of urban material pleasures to win over his love rather than resorting to the simplified pleasures of pastoral ideology. This can be seen in the listed items: "lined slippers," "purest gold," "silver dishes," and "ivory table"; the speaker takes on a voyeuristic point of view with his love, they are not directly interacting with the other true shepherds and nature. Pastoral shepherds and maidens have Greek names like Corydon or Philomela, reflecting the origin of the pastoral genre. Pastoral poems are set in beautiful rural landscapes, the literary term for, "locus amoenus", such as Arcadia, a rural region of Greece, mythological home of the god Pan, portrayed as a sort of Eden by the poets; the tasks of their employment with sheep and other rustic chores is held in the fantasy to be wholly undemanding and is left in the background, leaving the shepherdesses and their swains in a state of perfect leisure. This makes them available for embodying perpetual erotic fantasies.
The shepherds spend their time chasing pretty girls — or, at least in the Greek and Roman versions, pretty lads as well. The eroticism of Virgil's second eclogue, Formosum pastor Corydon ardebat Alexin is homosexual. Pastoral literature continued after Hesiod with the poetry of the Hellenistic Greek Theocritus, several of whose Idylls are set in the countryside and involve dialogues between herdsmen. Theocritus may have drawn on authentic folk traditions of Sicilian shepherds, he wrote in the Doric dialect but the metre he chose was the dactylic hexameter associated with the most prestigious form of Greek poetry, epic. This blend of simplicity and sophistication would play a major part in pastoral verse. Theocritus was imitated by the Greek poets Moschus; the Roman poet Virgil adapted pastoral into Latin with his influential Eclogues. Virgil introduces two important uses of pastoral, the contrast between urban and rural lifestyles and political allegory most notably in Eclogues 1 and 4 respectively.
In doing so, Virgil presents a more idealized portrayal of the lives of sheph
A revue is a type of multi-act popular theatrical entertainment that combines music and sketches. The revue has its roots in 19th century popular entertainment and melodrama but grew into a substantial cultural presence of its own during its golden years from 1916 to 1932. Though most famous for their visual spectacle, revues satirized contemporary figures, news or literature. Similar to the related subforms of operetta and musical theatre, the revue art form brings together music and sketches to create a compelling show. In contrast to these, revue does not have an overarching storyline. Rather, a general theme serves as the motto for a loosely-related series of acts that alternate between solo performances and dance ensembles. Due to high ticket prices, ribald publicity campaigns and the occasional use of prurient material, the revue was patronized by audience members who earned more and felt less restricted by middle-class social mores than their contemporaries in vaudeville. Like much of that era's popular entertainments, revues featured material based on sophisticated, irreverent dissections of topical matter, public personae and fads, though the primary attraction was found in the frank display of the female body.
George Lederer's The Passing Show is held to be the first successful American "review." The English spelling was used until 1907. "Follies" is now sometimes employed as an analog for "revue," though the term was proprietary to Ziegfeld until his death in 1932. Other popular proprietary revue names included George White's "Scandals" and Earl Carroll's "Vanities." Revues are most properly understood as having amalgamated several theatrical traditions within the corpus of a single entertainment. Minstrelsy's olio section provided a structural map of popular variety presentation, while literary travesties highlighted an audience hunger for satire. Theatrical extravaganzas, in particular, moving panoramas, demonstrated a vocabulary of the spectacular. Burlesque, itself a bawdy hybrid of various theatrical forms, lent to classic revue an open interest in female sexuality and the masculine gaze. Revues enjoyed great success on Broadway from the World War I years until the Great Depression, when the stock market crash forced many revues from cavernous Broadway houses into smaller venues.
The high ticket prices of many revues helped ensure audiences distinct from other live popular entertainments during their height of popularity. In 1914, the Follies charged $5.00 for an opening night ticket. Among the many popular producers of revues, Florenz Ziegfeld played the greatest role in developing the classical revue through his glorification of a new theatrical "type," "the American girl." Famed for his bizarre publicity schemes and continual debt, Ziegfeld joined Earl Carroll, George White, the Shubert Brothers as the leading producing figure of the American revue's golden age. Revues took advantage of their high revenue stream to lure away performers from other media offering exorbitant weekly salaries without the unremitting travel demanded by other entertainments. Performers such as Eddie Cantor, Anna Held, W. C. Fields, Bert Williams, Ed Wynn, the Marx Brothers and the Fairbanks Twins found great success on the revue stage. One of Cole Porter's early shows was Raymond Hitchcock's revue Hitchy-Koo.
Composers or lyricists such as Richard Rodgers, Lorenz Hart, Irving Berlin, George M. Cohan enjoyed a tremendous reception on the part of audiences. Sometimes, an appearance in a revue provided a key early entry into entertainment. Due to their centralization in New York City and adroit use of publicity, revues proved adept at introducing new talents to the American theatre. Rodgers and Hart, one of the great composer/lyricist teams of the American musical theatre, followed up their early Columbia University student revues with the successful Garrick Gaieties. Comedian Fanny Brice, following a brief period in burlesque and amateur variety, bowed to revue audiences in Ziegfeld's Follies of 1910. Specialist writers and composers of revues have included Sandy Wilson, Noël Coward, John Stromberg, George Gershwin, Earl Carroll, the British team and Swann. In Britain predominantly, Tom Arnold specialised in promoting series of revues and his acts extended to the European continent and South Africa.
With the introduction of talking pictures, in 1927, studios began filming acts from the stage. Such film shorts replaced the live entertainment that had accompanied cinema exhibition. By 1928, studios began planning to film feature-length versions of popular musicals and revues from the stage; the lavish films, noted by many for a sustained opulence unrivaled in Hollywood until the 1950s epics, reached a breadth of audience never found by the stage revue, all while underpricing the now-faltering theatrical shows. A number of revues were released by the studios, many of which were filmed in color; the most notable examples of these are The Show of Shows, The Hollywood Revue of 1929, Fox Movietone Follies of 1929, Paramount on Parade, New Movietone Follies of 1930 and King of Jazz. Britain jumped on the bandwagon and produced expensive revues such as Harmony Heaven