Mother (1996 film)
Mother is a 1996 American comedy-drama film directed by Albert Brooks, co-written by Brooks with Monica Johnson, starring Brooks and Debbie Reynolds as son and mother. Brooks portrays a novelist who moves back home with his mother after his second divorce, hoping to determine why all his relationships with women were unsuccessful. Mother was Reynolds's first major film role in over 20 years; the film was Brooks's most financially successful film as a director. John Henderson is a successful science fiction writer, finalizing his second divorce, he is perplexed by the issues he has with women, realizing that none of them supported or encouraged him. John decides to initiate an experiment that will help him understand what went wrong in his relationships: he moves back in with his widowed mother Beatrice, occupying the same bedroom he had as a child, his sports agent brother Jeff thinks John is oversensitive to their mother's criticisms, while John believes that their mother favors Jeff. John's relationship with his mother is characterized by constant power struggles.
John believes she's overly critical of him, while Beatrice contends that he unfairly blames her for his personal failings. A rare bright spot in their relationship appears when she takes an interest in John's word processor and impresses him with her fast, flawless typing. Beatrice is reluctant to discuss it; when Beatrice cancels her plans to visit Jeff, he has a meltdown and an argument with his wife over his need to keep in constant contact with his mother. Jeff's wife tells him that he may needs to evaluate his relationship with his mother just as much as John. John and Beatrice go to the zoo, where they reach some common ground; when they return home, Jeff is waiting. All three argue and Jeff leaves alone, with John satisfied that Jeff's the "sickie" while John is "pretty darn healthy to begin with." Beatrice tells John that she has a friend, who comes through San Francisco every few weeks and stays over a few days, but while John is there this visit will be just for one day. John is surprised that she would call someone she is intimate with not important, but she dismisses it, saying they "just have sex occasionally".
John meets Charles, who knows a lot about John because, as he tells John, Beatrice brags about him when he's not around. Beatrice and Charles go to dinner. While alone at the house, John discovers a box of novel and short story manuscripts that his mother wrote in her youth, he learns she was a skilled writer who went to college on a scholarship, only to have her talent discouraged by her husband and the prevailing social expectation that mothers should not have careers outside the home. John realizes now that his mother's passive aggression toward him stems from the fact that his career is a reminder of her unfulfilled ambitions. Beatrice admits that John's observation is correct; the film ends with John meeting a single female fan of his novels, Beatrice beginning to write a story based on John's moving in with her. Albert Brooks as John Henderson Debbie Reynolds as Beatrice Henderson Laura Weeks as Karen Henderson Rob Morrow as Jeff Henderson Isabel Glasser as Cheryl Henderson Danielle Quinn as Jill Henderson Spencer Klein as Josh Henderson Paul Collins as the lawyer John C.
McGinley as Carl Vanessa A. Williams as Donna Lisa Kudrow as Linda Anne Haney as Helen Billye Ree Wallace as Alice Peter White as Charles James Gleason as a waiter Ernie Brown as the man at the rest stop Matt Nolan as a Gap salesman Harry Hutchinson as a pet store salesman Kimiko Gelman as a saleswoman at Victoria's Secret Richard Assad and Joey Naber as TV installers Rosalind Allen as the woman at the gas station Brooks wanted a famous actress from the 1950s to play the role of Mother, offered the role to retired actresses Nancy Reagan and Doris Day. Day turned down the offer. Brooks asked his good friend Carrie Fisher if she could send the script to her mother, Debbie Reynolds, who accepted the part. Reynolds hadn't had a starring role since the late 1960s. Mother was filmed on location in and around the Sausalito and Tiburon areas, with additional shooting in San Francisco; the exterior of Beatrice's house and street was shot in Studio City. Mother received positive reviews from critics, holds a 90% rating on review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, based on 41 reviews.
Roger Ebert of The Chicago Sun-Times gave Mother 3.5 stars out of a possible 4, writing that while the premise seemed like the setup for a cheap sitcom, Brooks "is much too smart to settle for the obvious gags and payoffs. The dialogue in "Mother" is written so that some lines carry two or three nuances." The audience laughter wasn't a reaction to obvious punchlines, wrote Ebert, "but the laughter of recognition, of insight sometimes of squirmy discomfort, as the truths hit close to home". Mother remains Brooks' highest-grossing directorial effort to date, earning $19.1 million at the box office. Mother won the most awards of the films. Brooks and co-writer Monica Johnson won the New York Film Critics Circle Award and the National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Screenplay. Debbi
Defending Your Life
Defending Your Life is a 1991 American romantic comedy-fantasy film about a man who dies and arrives in the afterlife only to find that he must stand trial and justify his lifelong fears in order to advance to the next phase of existence. The film was written by, directed by, stars Albert Brooks, it stars Meryl Streep, Rip Torn, Lee Grant and Buck Henry. The film was shot around Los Angeles, California. Despite its comedic overtones, Defending Your Life contains elements of drama and allegory. Daniel Miller, a Los Angeles advertising executive, dies in a car accident on his 39th birthday and is sent to the afterlife, he arrives in Judgment City, a Purgatory-like waiting area populated by the deceased of the western half of the United States, where he is to undergo the process of having his life on Earth judged. Daniel and the rest of the deceased are offered many Earth-like amenities and activities in the city while they undergo their judgment processes—from all-you-can-eat restaurants, to bowling alleys and comedy clubs.
His defense attorney, Bob Diamond, explains to Daniel that people from Earth use so little of their brains that they spend most of their lives functioning on the basis of their fears. "When you use more than five percent of your brain, you don't want to be on Earth, believe me," says Diamond. If the court determines that Daniel has conquered his fears, he will be sent on to the next phase of existence, where he will be able to use more of his brain and thus be able to experience more of what the universe has to offer. Otherwise, his soul will be reincarnated on Earth to live another life in another attempt at moving past his fears. Daniel's judgment process is presided over by two judges. Diamond argues, his formidable opponent is Lena Foster. Diamond informs Daniel that she is known as "the Dragon Lady", despite Diamond insisting the proceeding are "not a trial", there is a contentious rivalry between the two attorneys; each utilizes video-like footage from select days in the defendants' lives, shown to the judges to illustrate their case.
During the procedure, Daniel meets and falls in love with Julia, a woman who lived a perfect life of courage and generosity compared to his. The proceedings do not go well for Daniel. Foster shows a series of episodes in which Daniel did not overcome his fears, as well as various other bad decisions and mishaps. Diamond attempts vigorously to portray Daniel's actions in a more positive light, other than one day in which he misses due to being "trapped near the inner circle of thought". Meanwhile following each days proceedings Danial and Julia spend time exploring Judgement City. On the last day of the hearing, it seems the final nail in Daniel's coffin is when Foster plays footage of Daniel's previous night with Julia, in which he declines to spend the night with her, for what Foster believes is his same fear and lack of courage, it is ruled. Meanwhile, Julia is judged worthy to move on. Before saying goodbye, Diamond comforts Daniel with the knowledge that the court is not infallible and just because Foster won it doesn't mean she's right.
Daniel remains disappointed. Daniel finds himself strapped to a seat on a tram poised to return to Earth, when he spots Julia on a different tram. On impulse, he unstraps himself, escapes from the moving tram, risks electrocution and injury to get to Julia. Unable to enter the tram, he clings precariously to the outside of the moving vehicle, banging on the door and trying to pry it open; the scene pulls back to show that the entire event is being watched by Foster and the judges in the chamber where Daniel's hearing took place. A smiling Diamond remarks "brave enough for you?. Foster has no reply other than letting a bit of a smile slip as well, one of the judges sends a message ordering the tram doors opened. Daniel and Julia reunite to the applause of the other passengers, embrace as they are allowed to move on to the next phase of existence together. Albert Brooks - Daniel Miller Meryl Streep - Julia Rip Torn - Bob Diamond Lee Grant - Lena Foster Buck Henry - Dick Stanley, Daniel's substitute attorney George D. Wallace - Daniel's Judge Lillian Lehman - Daniel's Judge S. Scott Bullock - Daniel's Father Carol Bivens - Daniel's Mother Susan Walters - Daniel's Wife Gary Beach - Car SalesmanShirley MacLaine has a cameo appearance as the holographic host of the "Past Lives Pavilion"— a reference to her publicly known belief in reincarnation.
Defending Your Life was released on VHS and Laserdisc in early 1992. Warner Bros. Home Video released the film on DVD on April 2001, in a cardboard snap case, it features 1.85:1 anamorphic widescreen formatting, subtitles in English, French and Portuguese, cast and crew information, the film's theatrical trailer. Warner re-released the film in 2008 in a two-pack DVD set with Brooks' Looking for Comedy in the Muslim World. Variety called it an "inventive and mild bit of whimsy" in which Brooks has a "little fun with the Liliom idea of being judged in a fanciful afterlife, but he doesn't carry his conceit nearly far enough." Roger Ebert called it "funny in a warm, fuzzy way" and a film with a "splendidly satisfactory ending, unusual for an Albert Brooks film." The New York Times called it "the most perceptive and convincing among a recent spate of carpe diem films" — a reference to films such as Dead Poets Society, Field of Dreams and Ghost. Richard Sc
Real Life (1979 film)
Real Life is a 1979 American comedy film starring Albert Brooks, who co-authored the screenplay. It is a spoof of the 1973 reality television program An American Family and portrays a documentary filmmaker named Albert Brooks who attempts to live with and film a dysfunctional family for one full year. Charles Grodin co-stars as the family's patriarch who consents to permit cameras in his Arizona home. Real-life producer Jennings Lang has an acting role in Real Life. A documentary filmmaker enlists a family for a new cinematic and scientific experiment that intends to capture every waking moment of their daily life on film. Out of all the families that are chosen, the ordinary family of the Yeagers of Phoenix, Arizona are chosen, it is a project Brooks confidently announces to a large gathering in the city greeting them with a song. Two other doctors are enlisted in order to evaluate the family through the progression of the project; the concept is for the Yeagers and their two children to go about their business at their Phoenix home and school as if nothing is different from a typical day, ignoring the fact that men wearing cameras that look like Star Wars helmets are recording every move they make and every word they say.
Brooks promises to be as unobtrusive as possible, taking up a separate residence in the neighborhood and promising not to interfere. Little by little, the stress of everyday life is complicated by the presence of the film crew. Brooks becomes the unwitting object of Mrs. Yeager's attentions. Yeager, a veterinarian, becomes grief-stricken when he is filmed accidentally causing a horse's death. A grandparent's death upsets Jeannette. Soon the couple stops becoming, as Brooks puts it, "lifeless" in their every day life; the unscrupulous man from Hollywood is to go to any lengths to make his film more interesting if it means dressing up as a clown to cheer them up. After a meeting between Brooks and the others, one of the doctors leaves the project, citing how it seems to have lost control, he soon publishes a book, negative of the project, equating it to a cult. At one point, a film crew from a television station attempts to write a "fluff piece" about the family, but Brooks angrily throws them out of the house.
Soon after, the news stations attempt to get coverage of the family, barraging their lives no matter where they go. Not long after, another meeting of Brooks and the people of the institute occurs, revolving around the possibility of ending the project. Brooks attempts to defend keeping the project going by bringing the Yeagers, but the family decides to abandon the project. Despite his pleas for them to stay, they do not change their minds. Soon after, Brooks decides that the only way to keep the project going is to set their house on fire, citing the burning of Atlanta from Gone with the Wind, joyfully exclaiming on how spectacular of an ending this is. Albert Brooks as Albert Brooks Charles Grodin as Warren Yeager Frances Lee McCain as Jeannette Yeager J. A. Preston as Dr. Ted Cleary Matthew Tobin as Dr. Howard Hill Jennings Lang as Martin Brand David Spielberg as Dr. Jeremy Nolan Norman Bartold as Dr. Isaac Steven Hayward Julie Payne as Dr. Anne Kramer Johnny Haymer as Dr. Maxwell Rennert Leo McElroy as Jim Sanders Lisa Urette as Lisa Yeager Robert Stirrat as Eric Yeager As of April 2018, Real Life holds a rating of 89% on Rotten Tomatoes based on 19 reviews.
Mockumentary Reality television Real Life on IMDb Real Life at AllMovie Real Life at the TCM Movie Database Real Life at Rotten Tomatoes
James L. Brooks
James Lawrence Brooks is an American director and screenwriter. While growing up in North Bergen, New Jersey, Brooks endured a fractured family life and passed the time by reading and writing. After dropping out of New York University, he got a job as an usher at CBS, going on to write for the CBS News broadcasts, he moved to Los Angeles in 1965 to work on David L. Wolper's documentaries. After being laid off he met producer Allan Burns who secured him a job as a writer on the series My Mother the Car. Brooks wrote for several shows before being hired as a story editor on My Friend Tony and created the series Room 222. Grant Tinker hired Brooks and Burns at MTM Productions to create The Mary Tyler Moore Show in 1970; the show, one of the first to feature an independent working woman as its lead character, was critically acclaimed and won Brooks several Primetime Emmy Awards. Brooks and Burns created two successful spin-offs from Mary Tyler Moore: Rhoda and Lou Grant. Brooks left MTM Productions in 1978 to co-create the sitcom Taxi which, despite winning multiple Emmys, suffered from low ratings and was canceled twice.
Brooks moved into feature film work when he co-produced the 1979 film Starting Over. His next project was the critically acclaimed film Terms of Endearment, which he produced and wrote, winning an Academy Award for all three roles. Basing his next film, Broadcast News, on his journalistic experiences, the film earned him a further two Academy Award nominations. Although his 1994 work I'll Do Anything was hampered by negative press attention due to the cutting of all of its recorded musical numbers, As Good as It Gets earned further praise, it was seven years until 2004's Spanglish. His sixth film, How Do You Know, was released in 2010. Brooks produced and mentored Cameron Crowe on Say Anything... and Wes Anderson and Owen Wilson on Bottle Rocket. In 1984, Brooks founded Gracie Films. Although he did not intend to do so, Brooks returned to television in 1987 as the producer of The Tracey Ullman Show, he hired cartoonist Matt Groening to create a series of shorts for the show, which led to The Simpsons in 1989.
The Simpsons is still running. Brooks co-produced and co-wrote the 2007 film adaptation of the show, The Simpsons Movie. In total, Brooks has received 47 Emmy nominations. James Lawrence Brooks was born on May 9, 1940 in Brooklyn, New York, United States, raised in North Bergen, New Jersey, his parents, Dorothy Helen and Edward M. Brooks, were both salespeople; the Brooks family was Jewish. Brooks' father abandoned his mother when he found out she was pregnant with him, lost contact with his son when Brooks was twelve. During the pregnancy, Brooks' father sent his wife a postcard stating that "If it's a boy, name him Jim." His mother died when he was 22. He has described his early life as "tough" with a "broken home and sort of lonely, that sort of stuff" adding: "My father was sort of in-and-out and my mother worked long hours, so there was no choice but for me to be alone in the apartment a lot." He has an older sister, who helped look after him as a child and to whom he dedicated As Good as It Gets.
Brooks spent much of his childhood "surviving" and reading numerous comedic and scripted works, as well as writing. Brooks was not a high achiever, he was on his high school newspaper team and secured interviews with celebrities, including Louis Armstrong. He lists some of his influences as Sid Caesar, Jack Benny, Lenny Bruce, Mike Nichols and Elaine May, as well as writers Paddy Chayefsky and F. Scott Fitzgerald. In 1987, the Chicago Sun-Times described Brooks' career as "a non-stop crescendo." Although he dropped out of a New York University public relations course, Brooks' sister got him a job as a host at CBS in New York City, a job requiring a college education, as she was friends with a secretary there. He held it for two and a half years. For two weeks he filled in as a copywriter for CBS News and was given the job permanently when the original employee never returned. Brooks went on to become a writer for the news broadcasts, joining the Writers Guild of America and writing reports on events such as the assassination of President Kennedy.
He moved to Los Angeles in 1965, to write for documentaries being produced by David L. Wolper, something he "still quite figured out how got the guts to do," as his job at CBS was secure and well-paid, he worked as an associate producer on series such as Men in Crisis, but after six months he was laid off as the company was trying to cut back on expenses. Brooks did work for Wolper's company again, including on a National Geographic insect special. Failing to find another job at a news agency, he met producer Allan Burns at a party. Burns got him a job on My Mother the Car where he was hired to rewrite a script after pitching some story ideas. Brooks went on to write episodes of That Girl, The Andy Griffith Show and My Three Sons before Sheldon Leonard hired him as a story editor on My Friend Tony. In 1969 he created for ABC the series Room 222, which lasted until 1974. Room 222 was the second series in American history to feature a black lead character, in this case high school teacher Pete Dixon played by Lloyd Haynes.
The network felt the show
Turner Classic Movies
Turner Classic Movies is an American movie-oriented pay-TV network operated by Warner Bros. Entertainment, a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Launched in 1994, TCM is headquartered at Turner's Techwood broadcasting campus in the Midtown business district of Atlanta, Georgia; the channel's programming consisted of classic theatrically released feature films from the Turner Entertainment film library – which comprises films from Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. However, TCM licenses films from other studios, shows more recent films; the channel is available in the United States, the United Kingdom, Malta, Latin America, Italy, Cyprus, the Nordic countries, the Middle East and Asia-Pacific. In 1986, eight years before the launch of Turner Classic Movies, Ted Turner acquired the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film studio for $1.5 billion. Concerns over Turner Entertainment's corporate debt load resulted in Turner selling the studio that October back to Kirk Kerkorian, from whom Turner had purchased the studio less than a year before.
As part of the deal, Turner Entertainment retained ownership of MGM's library of films released up to May 9, 1986. Turner Broadcasting System was split into two companies; the film library of Turner Entertainment would serve as the base form of programming for TCM upon the network's launch. Before the creation of Turner Classic Movies, films from Turner's library of movies aired on the Turner Broadcasting System's advertiser-supported cable network TNT – along with colorized versions of black-and-white classics such as The Maltese Falcon. Turner Classic Movies debuted on April 14, 1994, at 6 p.m. Eastern Time, with Ted Turner launching the channel at a ceremony in New York City's Times Square district; the date and time were chosen for their historical significance as "the exact centennial anniversary of the first public movie showing in New York City". The first movie broadcast on TCM was the 1939 film Gone with the Wind, the same film that served as the debut broadcast of its sister channel TNT six years earlier in October 1988.
At the time of its launch, TCM was available to one million cable television subscribers. The network served as a competitor to AMC—which at the time was known as "American Movie Classics" and maintained a identical format to TCM, as both networks focused on films released prior to 1970 and aired them in an uncut and commercial-free format. AMC had broadened its film content to feature colorized and more recent films by 2002. In 1996, Turner Broadcasting System merged with Time Warner which, besides placing Turner Classic Movies and Warner Bros. Entertainment under the same corporate umbrella gave TCM access to Warner Bros.' Library of films released after 1950. In the early 2000s, AMC abandoned its commercial-free format, which led to TCM being the only movie-oriented basic cable channel to devote its programming to classic films without commercial interruption or content editing. On March 4, 2019, Time Warner's new owner AT&T announced a planned reorganization that would dissolve Turner Broadcasting.
TCM, along with Cartoon Network, Adult Swim, over-the-top video company Otter Media, will be moved directly under Warner Bros.. Speaking about the move, then-Warner Bros. CEO Kevin Tsujihara explained that TCM was "a natural fit with Warner Bros." due the company's massive film library. In 2000, TCM started the annual Young Composers Film Competition, inviting aspiring composers to participate in a judged competition that offers the winner of each year's competition the opportunity to score a restored, feature-length silent film as a grand prize, mentored by a well-known composer, with the new work subsequently premiering on the network; as of 2006, films that have been rescored include the 1921 Rudolph Valentino film Camille, two Lon Chaney films: 1921's The Ace of Hearts and 1928's Laugh, Clown and Greta Garbo's 1926 film The Temptress. In April 2010, Turner Classic Movies held the first TCM Classic Film Festival, an event—now held annually—at the Grauman's Chinese Theater and the Grauman's Egyptian Theater in Hollywood.
Hosted by Robert Osborne, the four-day long annual festival celebrates Hollywood and its movies, featured celebrity appearances, special events, screenings of around 50 classic movies including several newly restored by The Film Foundation, an organization devoted to preserving Hollywood's classic film legacy. Turner Classic Movies operates as a commercial-free service, with the only advertisements on the network being shown between features – which advertise TCM products, network promotions for upcoming special programs and the original trailers for films that are scheduled to be broadcast on TCM, featurettes about classic film actors and actresses. In addition to this, extended breaks between features are filled with theatrically released movie trailers and classic short subjects – from series such as The Passing Parade, Crime Does Not Pay, Pete Smith Specialties, Robert Benchley – under the banner name TCM Extras (formerly On
Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside
The Academy Awards known as the Oscars, are a set of awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership; the various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more referred to by its nickname "Oscar". The award was sculpted by George Stanley from a design sketch by Cedric Gibbons. AMPAS first presented it in 1929 at a private dinner hosted by Douglas Fairbanks in the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel; the Academy Awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now seen live worldwide, its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2018, was held on February 24, 2019, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, California.
The ceremony was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,072 Oscar statuettes have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 90th ceremony, it was the first ceremony since 1988 without a host. The first Academy Awards presentation was held on 16 May 1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people; the post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period; the ceremony ran for 15 minutes. Winners were announced to media three months earlier; that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards; this method was used until an occasion when the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began.
The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier. At that time, the winners were recognized for all of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on 27 March 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced; until foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture. Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress present the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor.
See § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in tall, weighs 8.5 lb, depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Directors and Technicians; the model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. Sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design; the statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy, plated in copper, nickel silver, 24-karat gold. Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones; the only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base.
The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C. W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, which contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R. S. Owens & Company, it would take between four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes. In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Walden, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry. While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology; the time required to produce 50 such statuettes is three months. R. S. Owens i