Modern dance is a broad genre of western concert or theatrical dance arising out of Germany and the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Modern dance is considered to have emerged as a rejection of, or rebellion against, classical ballet. Socioeconomic and cultural factors contributed to its development. In the late 19th century, dance artists such as Isadora Duncan, Maud Allan, Loie Fuller were pioneering new forms and practices in what is now called aesthetic or free dance for performance; these dancers disregarded ballet's strict movement vocabulary, the particular, limited set of movements that were considered proper to ballet, stopped wearing corsets and pointe shoes in the search for greater freedom of movement. Throughout the 20th century, sociopolitical concerns, major historical events, the development of other art forms contributed to the continued development of modernist dance in the United States and Germany. Moving into the 1960s, new ideas about dance began to emerge, as a response to earlier dance forms and to social changes.
Postmodern dance artists would reject the formalism of modern dance, include elements such as performance art, contact improvisation, release technique, improvisation. American modern dance can be divided into eras. In the Early Modern period, characterized by the work of Isadora Duncan, Loie Fuller, Ruth St. Denis, Ted Shawn, Eleanor King, artistic practice changed radically, but distinct modern dance techniques had not yet emerged. In the Central Modern period, choreographers Martha Graham, Doris Humphrey, Katherine Dunham, Charles Weidman, Lester Horton sought to develop distinctively American movement styles and vocabularies, developed defined and recognizable dance training systems. In the Late Modern period, José Limón, Pearl Primus, Merce Cunningham, Talley Beatty, Erick Hawkins, Anna Sokolow, Anna Halprin, Paul Taylor introduced clear abstractionism and avant-garde movements, paved the way for postmodern dance. Modern dance has evolved with each subsequent generation of participating artists.
Artistic content has morphed and shifted from one choreographer to another, as have styles and techniques. Artists such as Graham and Horton developed techniques in the Central Modern Period that are still taught worldwide, numerous other types of modern dance exist today. Modern dance is considered to have emerged as a rejection of, or rebellion against, classical ballet, although historians have suggested that socioeconomic changes in both the United States and Europe helped to initiate shifts in the dance world. In America, increasing industrialization, the rise of a middle class, the decline of Victorian social strictures led to, among other changes, a new interest in health and physical fitness. "It was in this atmosphere that a'new dance' was emerging as much from a rejection of social structures as from a dissatisfaction with ballet." During that same period, "the champions of physical education helped to prepare the way for modern dance, gymnastic exercises served as technical starting points for young women who longed to dance."
Women's colleges began offering "aesthetic dance" courses by the end of the 1880s. Emil Rath, who wrote at length about this emerging artform at the time stated, "Music and rhythmic bodily movement are twin sisters of art, as they have come into existence simultaneously...today we see in the artistic work of Isadora Duncan, Maud Allan, others the use of a form of dancing which strives to portray in movements what the music master expresses in his compositions—interpretative dancing." 1877: Isadora Duncan was a predecessor of modern dance with her stress on the center or torso, bare feet, loose hair, free-flowing costumes, incorporation of humor into emotional expression. She was inspired by classical Greek arts, folk dances, social dances, natural forces, new American athleticism such as skipping, jumping and abrupt movements, she thought that ballet was meaningless gymnastics. Although she returned to the United States at various points in her life, her work was not well received there, she returned to Europe and died in Nice in 1927.
1891: Loie Fuller began experimenting with the effect that gas lighting had on her silk costumes. Fuller developed a form of natural movement and improvisation techniques that were used in conjunction with her revolutionary lighting equipment and translucent silk costumes, she patented her apparatus and methods of stage lighting that included the use of coloured gels and burning chemicals for luminescence, patented her voluminous silk stage costumes. 1905: Ruth St. Denis, influenced by the actress Sarah Bernhardt and Japanese dancer Sada Yacco, developed her translations of Indian culture and mythology, her performances became popular and she toured extensively while researching Oriental culture and arts. In Europe, Mary Wigman in Germany, Francois Delsarte, Émile Jaques-Dalcroze, Rudolf Laban developed theories of human movement and expression, methods of instruction that led to the development of European modern and Expressionist dance. Other pioneers included Kurt Jooss and Harald Kreutzberg.
Disturbed by the Great Depression and the rising threat of fascism in Europe, the radical dancers tried to raise consciousness by dramatizing the economic, social and political crises of their time. Hanya Holm, a student of Mary Wigman and instructor at the Wigman School in Dresden, founded the New York Wigman School of Dance in 1931 introducing Wigman technique, Laban's th
Peter Meechan was a Scottish professional footballer who played as a full-back. He won the English league championship in 1894–95 with Sunderland and the Scottish Football League championship with Celtic in 1895–96, he played in the 1897 FA Cup Final for Everton and the 1900 FA Cup Final for Southampton, made one appearance for Scotland in 1896. Meechan was born in Broxburn, West Lothian, the son of a shale miner who had migrated from Donegal in Ireland. In his youth, he played amateur football for three local football clubs, Broxburn Emmett, Broxburn Shamrock and Broxburn F. C. before joining Hibernian in February 1892. In December 1891, Broxburn Shamrock played the holders of the Scottish Cup, Heart of Midlothian, in a sixth round tie. Despite being the team captain, Meechan refused to play in the match, won 5–4 by Hearts, because of a dispute over the "terms" under which he would play. In June 1893, he moved south of the border to join Sunderland for whom he made 60 appearances, scoring once, helping them to become Football League champions in 1894–95.
While at Sunderland, he was the subject of a dispute in the West Lothian Courier, when a contributor challenged his right to register to vote at Broxburn, while living and working in England. In May 1895, Meechan returned to Scotland to join Celtic, helping them take the Scottish championship in 1895–96. In his time at Celtic, he made an appearance for the Scottish Football League against the Irish League on 15 February 1896, followed by his sole international appearance for Scotland, in a 3–3 draw with Ireland on 28 March 1896, his Celtic career ended on a controversial note when he, two other players, refused to play a match against Hibernian in November 1896. Meechan together with John Divers and Barney Battles refused to play because of the presence at the stadium of a reporter who had criticised Celtic following a Glasgow Cup defeat against Rangers the previous week. Following his "strike", Celtic suspended the three men, with Divers being released. In January 1897, Meechan and Divers joined Everton, with Meechan helping them reach the final of the FA Cup in 1897, won 3–2 by Aston Villa.
In his one and a half seasons with Everton, Meechan made a total of 28 appearances. In August 1898, Meechan moved to the south coast for a club record fee of £200, when he joined a Southampton team, dominating the Southern League and contained a host of international and ex-First Division players. So good were they that they despatched three top flight clubs, including Meechan's former Everton teammates on their way to the 1900 Cup Final against Bury. On the day of the game Meechan, his Scottish colleagues were angered by the selection of an out of form English forward, Jack Farrell, over the free scoring Roddy McLeod who had played brilliantly in the games leading up to the final; the English players got their way. The bitterness between the two camps led to a 4 -- 0 defeat. Following the bitter dispute at Southampton, Meechan joined Manchester City in September 1900, for whom he made six appearances in the 1900–01 season, he made his City debut in a 2–1 win against Sheffield United. He left Manchester at the end of the season to join Barrow in the Lancashire League for a season before re-joining Broxburn F.
C. in March 1902. He spent the 1903–04 season in the Scottish Second Division with Clyde before returning to his home town to play out his career with Broxburn Shamrock. In 1905, Meechan migrated to Nova Scotia in Canada, where he failed to find employment as a football coach and returned to mining. Meechan died in Port Morien in mid-1915, aged 43, with his wife, Annie Thompson, expecting their eighth child; the cause of his death was variously attributed to appendicitis or pneumonia brought about after spending a night in the snow looking for a missing relative aggravated by his work as a miner. Sunderland Football League champions: 1894–95Celtic Scottish Football League champions: 1895–96Everton FA Cup finalist: 1897Southampton Southern League champions: 1898–99 FA Cup finalist: 1900 Sunderland profile Scotland profile on www.londonhearts.com Peter Meechan at the Scottish Football Association
The Polo Lounge is located inside the Beverly Hills Hotel at 9641 Sunset Boulevard, Beverly Hills, California. The lounge has been described as "done up in peachy pink, with deep carpets and dark green booths, each booth featuring a plug-in phone. Legend has it that Mia Farrow was banned from the Polo Lounge for wearing pants."Hernando Courtright, who ran The Beverly Hills Hotel in the'30s and'40s, had a friend named Charles Wrightsman, who led a national champion polo team. Wrightsman felt it unseemly to keep a silver bowl, in his own home. Courtright, on hearing his friend's dilemma, offered to display the bowl in the hotel's bar, being redecorated at the time; the name for the bar and its lounge sprang from that favor. The Polo Lounge was seen as the premier power dining spot in all of Los Angeles. There are three dining areas complete with green motif; the photograph behind the bar depicts Will Rogers and Darryl F. Zanuck, two lounge regulars, playing polo; the menu "still offers a classic Neil McCarthy salad, named after the polo-playing millionaire."
Both the lounge and the hotel play a small yet significant role in the history of the Watergate political affair in 1972. The high command of the Committee to Re-Elect the President in 1972 was staying at the hotel during a West Coast fundraising trip, having a breakfast meeting in the Polo Lounge when Watergate burglar G. Gordon Liddy placed his fateful call to Committee Deputy Director, Jeb Stuart Magruder. Magruder took the call at his table in the Lounge, when Liddy realized that Magruder was in a public setting he insisted that he travel to an Air Force base in Los Angeles to reach a private setting and a secure telephone line. In the event, McGruder left the lounge and went to one of the hotel’s pay phone stations and called Liddy back. Once briefed, Magruder went to one of the hotel’s famous suites and participated in a meeting with Committee Director and U. S. Attorney General John Mitchell, his special assistant Fred LaRue, Committee Deputy Robert Mardian; the hotel’s logged and charged long-distance-call records of the calls made from that suite, on the morning after the burglary, formed the basis of the evidence which convicted each of the participants of conspiracy and obstruction of justice in January 1975.
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