Gansu is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country. It lies between the Tibetan and Loess plateaus, borders Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia to the north and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south, Shaanxi to the east; the Yellow River passes through the southern part of the province. Gansu covers an area of 453,700 square kilometres; the capital is Lanzhou, located in the southeast part of the province. The State of Qin originated in what is now southeastern Gansu, went on to form the first dynasty of Imperial China; the Northern Silk Road ran through the Hexi Corridor. Gansu is a compound of the names of Ganzhou and Suzhou, the seat of Jiuquan Prefecture the two most important Chinese settlements in the area. Gansu is abbreviated as "甘" or "陇", is known as Longxi or Longyou, in reference to the Long Mountain east of Gansu. Gansu’s name is a compound name first used during the Song dynasty of two Sui and Tang dynasty prefectures: Gan and Su, its eastern part forms part of one of the cradles of ancient Chinese civilisation.
In prehistoric times, Gansu was host to Neolithic cultures. The Dadiwan culture, from where archaeologically significant artifacts have been excavated, flourished in the eastern end of Gansu from about 6000 BC to about 3000 BC; the Majiayao culture and part of the Qijia culture took root in Gansu from 3100 BC to 2700 BC and 2400 BC to 1900 BC respectively. The Yuezhi lived in the western part of Gansu until they were forced to emigrate by the Xiongnu around 177 BCE; the State of Qin to become the founding state of the Chinese empire, grew out from the southeastern part of Gansu the Tianshui area. The Qin name is believed to have originated, from the area. Qin tombs and artifacts have been excavated from Fangmatan near Tianshui, including one 2200-year-old map of Guixian County. In imperial times, Gansu was an important strategic outpost and communications link for the Chinese empire, as the Hexi Corridor runs along the "neck" of the province; the Han dynasty extended the Great Wall across this corridor, building the strategic Yumenguan and Yangguan fort towns along it.
Remains of the wall and the towns can be found there. The Ming dynasty built the Jiayuguan outpost in Gansu. To the west of Yumenguan and the Qilian Mountains, at the northwestern end of the province, the Yuezhi and other nomadic tribes dwelt figuring in regional imperial Chinese geopolitics. By the Qingshui treaty, concluded in 823 between the Tibetan Empire and the Tang dynasty, China lost much of western Gansu province for a significant period. After the fall of the Uyghur Khaganate, a Buddhist Yugur state called the Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom was established by migrating Uyghurs from the Khaganate in part of Gansu that lasted from 848 to 1036 AD. Along the Silk Road, Gansu was an economically important province, as well as a cultural transmission path. Temples and Buddhist grottoes such as those at Mogao Caves and Maijishan Caves contain artistically and revealing murals. An early form of paper inscribed with Chinese characters and dating to about 8 BC was discovered at the site of a Western Han garrison near the Yumen pass in August 2006.
The province was the origin of the Dungan Revolt of 1862-77. Among the Qing forces were Muslim generals, including Ma Zhan'ao and Ma Anliang, who helped the Qing crush the rebel Muslims; the revolt had spread into Gansu from neighbouring Qinghai. There was another Dungan revolt from 1895 to 1896; as a result of frequent earthquakes and famines, the economic progress of Gansu was slower than that of other provinces of China until recently. Based on the area's abundant mineral resources it has begun developing into a vital industrial center. An earthquake in Gansu at 8.6 on the Richter scale killed around 180,000 people in the present-day area of Ningxia in 1920, another with a magnitude of 7.6 killed 275 in 1932. The Muslim Conflict in Gansu was a conflict against the Guominjun. While the Muslim General Ma Hongbin was acting chairman of the province, Muslim General Ma Buqing was in virtual control of Gansu in 1940. Liangzhou District in Wuwei was his headquarters in Gansu, where he controlled 15 million Muslims.
Xinjiang came under Kuomintang control. Gansu's Tienshui was the site of a Japanese-Chinese warplane fight. Gansu was vulnerable to Soviet penetration via Xinjiang. Gansu was a passageway for Soviet supplies during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Lanzhou was a destination point via a road coming from Dihua. Lanzhou and Lhasa were designated to be recipients of a new railway; the Kuomintang Islamic insurgency in China was a prolongation of the Chinese Civil War in several provinces including Gansu. Gansu has an area of 454,000 square kilometres, the vast majority of its land is more than 1,000 metres above sea level, it lies between the Tibetan Plateau and the Loess Plateau, bordering Mongolia to the northwest, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia to the north, Shaanxi to the east, Sichuan to the south, Xinjiang to the west. The Yellow River passes through the southern part of the province; the province contains the geographical centre of China, marked by the Center of the Country Monument at 35°50′40.9″N 103°27′7.5″E.
Part of the Gobi Desert is loca
The Wusun were an Indo-European semi-nomadic steppe people mentioned in Chinese records from the 2nd century BCE to the 5th century CE. The Wusun lived between the Qilian Mountains and Dunhuang near the Yuezhi. Around 176 BCE the Yuezhi were raided by the Xiongnu, who subsequently attacked the Wusun, killing their king and seizing their land; the Xiongnu adopted the surviving Wusun prince and made him one of their generals and leader of the Wusun. Around 162 BCE the Yuezhi were driven into the Ili River valley in Zhetysu and Tian Shan, inhabited by the Saka; the Wusun resettled in Gansu as vassals of the Xiongnu. In 133 -- 132 BCE, the Wusun settled the area; the Wusun became close allies of the Han dynasty and remained a powerful force in the region for several centuries. The Wusun are last mentioned by the Chinese as having settled in the Pamir Mountains in the 5th century CE due to pressure from the Rouran, they became subsumed into the Hephthalites. Wusun is a modern pronunciation of the Chinese Characters'烏孫'.
The Chinese name'烏孫' means wū'crow, raven' + sūn'grandson, descendant'. There are several theories about the origin of the name. Sinologist Victor H. Mair compared Wusun with Sanskrit áśva'horse', aśvin'mare' and Lithuanian ašvà'mare'; the name would thus mean'the horse people'. Hence he put forward the hypothesis that the Wusun used a satem-like language within the Indo-European languages. However, the latter hypothesis is not supported by Edwin G. Pulleyblank. Christopher I. Beckwith's analysis is similar to Mair's, reconstructing the Chinese term Wusun as Old Chinese *âswin, which he compares to Old Indic aśvin'the horsemen', the name of the Rigvedic twin equestrian gods; the Wusun were first mentioned by Chinese sources as vassals of the Yuezhi living between the Qilian Mountains and Dunhuang, although different locations have been suggested for these toponyms. Beckwith suggests that the Wusun were an eastern remnant of the Indo-Aryans, pushed to the extremities of the Eurasian Steppe by the Iranian peoples in the 2nd millennium BCE.
Around 210–200 BCE, prince Modu Chanyu, a former hostage of the Yuezhi and prince of the Xiongnu, who were vassals of the Yuezhi, became leader of the Xiongnu and conquered the Mongolian Plain, subjugating several peoples. Around 176 BCE Mody Chanyu launched a fierce raid against the Yuezhi. Around 173 BCE, the Yuezhi subsequently attacked the Wusun, at that time a small nation, killing their king Nandoumi. According to legend Nandoumi's infant son Liejiaomi was left in the wild, he was miraculously saved from hunger being suckled by a she-wolf, fed meat by ravens. The Wusun ancestor myth shares striking similarities with those of the Hittites, the Zhou Chinese, the Scythians, the Romans, the Koguryo, Turks and Dzungars. Based on the similarities between the ancestor myth of the Wusun and Turkic peoples, Denis Sinor has suggested that the Wusun and/or Sogdians could represent an Indo-European Iranian influence, or origin of the royal Ashina Türks. In 162 BCE, the Yuezhi were defeated by the Xiongnu, after which they fled Gansu.
According to Zhang Qian, the Yuezhi were defeated by the rising Xiongnu empire and fled westward, driving away the Sai from the Ili Valley in the Zhetysu and Dzungaria area. The Sai would subsequently migrate into South Asia, where they founded various Indo-Scythian kingdoms. After the Yuezhi retreat the Wusun subsequently settled the modern province of Gansu, in the valley of the Ushui-he, as vassals of the Xiongnu, it is not clear whether the river was named after the vice versa. The Xiongnu ruler was impressed with Liejiaomi, considering him a supernatural being, adopted the child; when the child grew up the Chanyu made him leader of a Xiongnu general. He won many victories for the Xiongnu and the Wusun became powerful. Liejiaomi requested the Xiongnu ruler for permission to revenge his father, around 133–132 BCE, he attacked the Yuezhi in the Ili Valley; the Yuezhi migrated to Sogdia and Bactria, where they became unified under Kujula Kadphises and expanded into South Asia, founding the Kushan Empire, which at its peak under Kanishka stretched from Turpan in the Tarim Basin to Pataliputra on the Gangetic plain and played an important role in the development of the Silk Road and the transmission of Buddhism to China.
The Wusun subsequently took over the Ili Valley, expanding over a large area and trying to keep away from the Xiongnu. According to Shiji, Wusun was a state located west of the Xiongnu; when the Xiongnu ruler died, Liejiaomi refused to serve the Xiongnu. The Xiongnu sent a force to against the Wusun but were defeated, after which the Xiongnu more than before considered Liejiaomi a supernatural being, avoiding conflict with him. After settling in the Ili Valley the Wusun became so strong that the Han was compelled to win their friendship in alliance. Chinese sources name the Scythian Sai, the Yuezhi who are identified as Tocharians, among the people of the Wusun state in the Zhetysu and Dzungaria area; the Wusun realm included both Yuezhi and Saka. It is clear. In 125 BCE, under the Han Emperor Wu of Han, the Chinese traveller and diplomat Zhang Qian was sent to establish an alliance with the Wusun Against the Xiongnu. Qian estimated the Wusun to number 630,000, with 120,000 families and 188,000 men capable of bearing arms.
Hanshu described them as occ
Attila called Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453. He was the leader of a tribal empire consisting of Huns and Alans among others, in Central and Eastern Europe. During his reign, he was one of the most feared enemies of the Eastern Roman Empires, he plundered the Balkans, but was unable to take Constantinople. His unsuccessful campaign in Persia was followed in 441 by an invasion of the Eastern Roman Empire, the success of which emboldened Attila to invade the West, he attempted to conquer Roman Gaul, crossing the Rhine in 451 and marching as far as Aurelianum before being defeated at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains. He subsequently was unable to take Rome, he planned for further campaigns against the Romans, but died in 453. After Attila's death, his close adviser, Ardaric of the Gepids, led a Germanic revolt against Hunnic rule, after which the Hunnic Empire collapsed. There is no surviving first-hand account of Attila's appearance, but there is a possible second-hand source provided by Jordanes, who cites a description given by Priscus.
He was a man born into the world to shake the nations, the scourge of all lands, who in some way terrified all mankind by the dreadful rumors noised abroad concerning him. He was haughty in his walk, rolling his eyes hither and thither, so that the power of his proud spirit appeared in the movement of his body, he was indeed a lover of war, yet restrained in action, mighty in counsel, gracious to suppliants and lenient to those who were once received into his protection. Short of stature, with a broad chest and a large head. Many scholars have argued. Omeljan Pritsak considered Ἀττίλα a composite title-name which derived from Turkic *es, *t il, the suffix /a/.:444 The stressed back syllabic til assimilated the front member es, so it became *as.:444 It is a nominative, in form of attíl- with the meaning "the oceanic, universal ruler".:444 J. J. Mikkola connected it with Turkic āt.:216 As another Turkic possibility, H. Althof considered it was related to Turkish atli, or Turkish at and dil.:216 Maenchen-Helfen argues that Pritsak's derivation is "ingenious but for many reasons unacceptable",:387 while dismissing Mikkola's as "too farfetched to be taken seriously".:390 M. Snædal notes that none of these proposals has achieved wide acceptance.:215-216 Criticizing the proposals of finding Turkic or other etymologies for Attila, Doerfer notes that King George VI of England had a name of Greek origin, Süleyman the Magnificent had a name of Arabic origin, yet that does not make them Greeks or Arabs: it is therefore plausible that Attila would have a name not of Hunnic origin.:31-32 Historian Hyun Jin Kim, has argued that the Turkic etymology is "more probable".:30M.
Snædal, in a paper that rejects the Germanic derivation but notes the problems with the existing proposed Turkic etymologies, argues that Attila's name could have originated from Turkic-Mongolian at, adyy/agta and Turkish atli, meaning "possessor of geldings, provider of warhorses".:216-217 The historiography of Attila is faced with a major challenge, in that the only complete sources are written in Greek and Latin by the enemies of the Huns. Attila's contemporaries left many testimonials of his life, but only fragments of these remain.:25 Priscus was a Byzantine diplomat and historian who wrote in Greek, he was both a witness to and an actor in the story of Attila, as a member of the embassy of Theodosius II at the Hunnic court in 449. He was biased by his political position, but his writing is a major source for information on the life of Attila, he is the only person known to have recorded a physical description of him, he wrote a history of the late Roman Empire in eight books covering the period from 430 to 476.
Today we have only fragments of Priscus' work, but it was cited extensively by 6th-century historians Procopius and Jordanes,:413 in Jordanes' The Origin and Deeds of the Goths. It contains numerous references to Priscus's history, it is an important source of information about the Hunnic empire and its neighbors, he describes the Hunnic people for a century after Attila's death. Marcellinus Comes, a chancellor of Justinian during the same era describes the relations between the Huns and the Eastern Roman Empire.:30Numerous ecclesiastical writings contain useful but scattered information, sometimes difficult to authenticate or disto
The Mongolian-Manchurian grassland ecoregion known as the Mongolian-Manchurian steppe, in the temperate grassland Biome, is found in Mongolia, the Chinese Autonomous region of Inner Mongolia and northeastern China. The Mongolian-Manchurian grassland covers an area of 887,300 square kilometers; this Palearctic temperate grasslands and shrublands ecoregion of the Temperate grasslands and shrublands Biome, forms a large crescent around the Gobi Desert, extending across central and eastern Mongolia into the eastern portion of Inner Mongolia and eastern and central Manchuria, southwest across the North China Plain. To the northeast and north, the Selenge-Orkhon and Daurian forest steppes form a transition zone between the grassland and the forests of Siberia to the north. On the east and southeast, the grasslands transition to temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, including the Manchurian mixed forests, Northeast China Plain deciduous forests, Central China loess plateau mixed forests. On the southwest, the grasslands extend to the Yellow River, across, the Ordos Plateau steppe.
It is between the Greater Khingan Region in the east. The law of the steppes allowed people to take what they wished - but that ensured fighting between tribes; the history of Genghis Khan records. On the other hand, a determined person can accomplish great things; the climate is temperate. They have cold winters, it is pretty dry because there is little rain so, only select animals can live here. Their seasons are fall, winter and summer. In the winter the grass becomes dry and flammable; this is why wildfires are common to grasslands and can harm its species. It burns the grass and trees and as the grass will grow back the trees do not; that is. There are many droughts in the grasslands because of the heat in summer. Scientists think that if it wasn't for these two environmental issues, grasslands may be tropical rainforests; the majority of people in the steppe are nomads called Mongolians. Families in mongolian steppe live in "gers", a large portable tent. Mongolians are master horse riders so many families own many horses that roam the steppe.
The people in the steppe use the animals there for drink. They have a prominent musical culture with a wide variety of traditional Mongolian songs; the dominant flora consists of medium to tall grasslands, dominated by feather grass, sheep's fescue, Aneurolepidium chinense, Filifolium sibiricuman, Cleistogenes sqarrosa. The drier regions surrounding the Gobi host drought-tolerant grasses, together with forbs and low, spiny shrubs; the southwestern slopes of the Greater Khingan range support pockets of broadleaf deciduous forest, of either Mongolian oak, or a mixture of poplar, Siberian silver birch, willow. There are plants such as. Lyme Grass - It can provide food for the animals who need it; the brown eared-pheasant is the sole endemic bird in the ecoregion. The bobak marmot known as the steppe marmot, inhabits the area The gray wolf lives here; the Mongolian gazelle is numerous here. The Przewalski's horse has been reintroduced here; the corsac fox Eagles Asian badger - They are infected and they are bitten by parasites lice and ticks.
They have long claws well-adapted for digging their homes and for food. Mongolian Gazelle - It provides a nice food supply for animals and will affect the plants they graze in, they can jump high and far to escape predators they might encounter. Their small size allows them to adapt more to changes in their habitat. Steppe Lemming - They are a important prey base, their presence in an area can limit the presence of other voles. They can very reduce vegetation if necessary, they are good at burrowing in the terrain. Have a big migration when it may get too cold; the Mongolian-Manchurian grassland faces threat from human expansion, though in most of its eastern area, it has not been altered by agriculture as much as its reaches in western Asia, or similar grasslands in North America. "Mongolian-Manchurian grassland". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund
Middle Chinese or the Qieyun system is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions. The Swedish linguist Bernard Karlgren believed that the dictionary recorded a speech standard of the capital Chang'an of the Sui and Tang dynasties. However, based on the more recovered preface of the Qieyun, most scholars now believe that it records a compromise between northern and southern reading and poetic traditions from the late Northern and Southern dynasties period; this composite system contains important information for the reconstruction of the preceding system of Old Chinese phonology. The fanqie method used to indicate pronunciation in these dictionaries, though an improvement on earlier methods, proved awkward in practice; the mid-12th-century Yunjing and other rime tables incorporate a more sophisticated and convenient analysis of the Qieyun phonology. The rime tables attest to a number of sound changes that had occurred over the centuries following the publication of the Qieyun.
Linguists sometimes refer to the system of the Qieyun as Early Middle Chinese and the variant revealed by the rime tables as Late Middle Chinese. The dictionaries and tables describe pronunciations in relative terms, but do not give their actual sounds. Karlgren was the first to attempt a reconstruction of the sounds of Middle Chinese, comparing its categories with modern varieties of Chinese and the Sino-Xenic pronunciations used in the reading traditions of neighbouring countries. Several other scholars have produced their own reconstructions using similar methods; the Qieyun system is used as a framework for the study and description of various modern varieties of Chinese. Branches of the Chinese family such as Mandarin, Yue and Wu can be treated as divergent developments from it; the study of Middle Chinese provides for a better understanding and analysis of Classical Chinese poetry, such as the study of Tang poetry. The reconstruction of Middle Chinese phonology is dependent upon detailed descriptions in a few original sources.
The most important of these is its revisions. The Qieyun is used together with interpretations in Song dynasty rime tables such as the Yunjing and the Qieyun zhizhangtu and Sisheng dengzi; the documentary sources are supplemented by comparison with modern Chinese varieties, pronunciation of Chinese words borrowed by other languages, transcription into Chinese characters of foreign names, transcription of Chinese names in alphabetic scripts, evidence regarding rhyme and tone patterns from classical Chinese poetry. Chinese scholars of the Northern and Southern dynasties period were concerned with the correct recitation of the classics. Various schools produced dictionaries to codify reading pronunciations and the associated rhyme conventions of regulated verse; the Qieyun was an attempt to merge the distinctions in six earlier dictionaries, which were eclipsed by its success and are no longer extant. It was accepted as the standard reading pronunciation during the Tang dynasty, went through several revisions and expansions over the following centuries.
The Qieyun is thus the oldest surviving rime dictionary and the main source for the pronunciation of characters in Early Middle Chinese. At the time of Bernhard Karlgren's seminal work on Middle Chinese in the early 20th century, only fragments of the Qieyun were known, scholars relied on the Guangyun, a much expanded edition from the Song dynasty. However, significant sections of a version of the Qieyun itself were subsequently discovered in the caves of Dunhuang, a complete copy of Wang Renxu's 706 edition from the Palace Library was found in 1947; the rime dictionaries organize Chinese characters by their pronunciation, according to a hierarchy of tone and homophony. Characters with identical pronunciations are grouped into homophone classes, whose pronunciation is described using two fanqie characters, the first of which has the initial sound of the characters in the homophone class and second of which has the same sound as the rest of the syllable; the use of fanqie was an important innovation of the Qieyun and allowed the pronunciation of all characters to be described exactly.
The fanqie system uses multiple equivalent characters to represent each particular initial, for finals. The categories of initials and finals represented were first identified by the Cantonese scholar Chen Li in a careful analysis published in his Qièyùn kǎo. Chen's method was to equate two fanqie initials whenever one was used in the fanqie spelling of the pronunciation of the other, to follow chains of such equivalences to identify groups of spellers for each initial or final. For example, the pronunciation of the character 東 was given using the fanqie spelling 德紅, the pronunciation of 德 was given as 多特, the pronunciation of 多 was given as 德河, from which we can conclude that the words 東, 德 and 多 all had the same initial sound; the Qieyun classified homonyms under 193 rhyme classes, each of, placed within one of the four tones. A single rhyme class may contain multiple finals differing only in the medial or in so-called chongniu doublets; the Yunjing is the oldest of the so-called rime tables, which p
The Dulo clan was the ruling dynasty of the Bulgars. The origins of the Bulgars and Dulo clan are not known there are many theories about their origin, it is considered that they - or at least the elite caste - is intimately related to the origin and activity of the Huns and Western Turkic. It is said that the Dulo descended from the rulers of Great Bulgaria, founded by Khan Asparukh's father on the steppes of Ukraine; this state was a centralized monarchy from its inception unlike previous Hunno-Turkic political entities, which were tribal confederations. The royal family and rulers of the Old Great Bulgaria and first half of the First Bulgarian Empire, in their prince list claimed through Irnik, related or the Attila's son Ernak itself, Attilid descent. During the pagan period, the succession of power for the clan was based on the traditions brought over to the Balkans from the Eurasian Steppe, which include the element of the rulers' divine ancestry. At the head of the clan was the Khan, which reigned as the head of state, military leader, high priest of the Bulgar god, Tangra.
The most what is known about the clan is written in the Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans. The Nominalia lists as the first ruler mythical Avitohol, who lived 300 years and descended from the Dulo clan. Josef Marquart and many other historians identified Avitohol with Attila the Hun. Steven Runciman considered the connection possible, but suspicious and unimportant if the link between Irnik-Ernak is confirmed. Runciman considered its biblical origin more convincing, he considered that the missionaries were spreading Old Testament stories around the Eurasian Steppes, as well the story of Japheth, the ancestor of Eurasian people, which modifies into the Latin name Avitus and Turkish Awit it derives from. Runciman considered Avitohol to be a distant mythological ancestor. Ivan Biliarsky considers that both Avitohol and Irnik were only mythic figures of the historical personalities. According to him the Nominalia shows that the clan memory and genealogy important to Central Asian peoples was significant to the Bulgars, as well the cosmological understanding of the history, as the Avitohol and Irnik were mentioned in the category of the creator and founder, the mythological divine ancestor-creator represented in the reincarnation of the cultural hero within time cycles.
Jean W Sedlar considered the Attila connection justly doubtful, argued the possibility of a steppe dynasty which produced Hunnic rulers like Attila may have produced rulers for the Bulgars. The second listed ruler is Irnik, who lived 150 years and descended from the Dulo clan, it is considered that in the Nominalia under Irnik was considered the third son of Attila, Ernak. Vasil Zlatarski thought the identification between Irnik and Ernak pointless, they were two different persons and families. Zlatarski pointed out. Due to be assigned a reign of 150 years, Runciman considered the inaccuracy of the date of accession as venial mistake. Kurt, a member of the clan, revolted against the Pannonian Avars and founded the Old Great Bulgaria on the territory of modern Ukraine. During the second half of the 7th century his sons split up the Bulgar royal family and spread over Europe, from the Volga river to the shadow of Matese mountains: Bezmer, Kuber and Alcek. In the Nominalia the Bezmer was the last Dulo ruler on the Northern side of Danube river, while the Asparukh was the first from the Southern side of the river.
He was followed by Tervel, the last ruler of Bulgaria from the Dulo clan, Sevar. According to Theophanes, in 761 or 762 the Bulgars "rose up, killed their hereditary lords and set up as their king an evil-minded man called Teletzes, 30 years old". Historians interpreted the testimony as evidence of a massacre of the previous dynasty, the rise of a new leader with no connection to the previous regime; the exact origin is obscure. Some researchers consider that the origin of the clan was Turkic; this proposition was suggested by Mikhail Artamonov, was prompted by Lev Gumilev, implying there may be made an association of the Dulo clan with the five Duolu tribes of the Western Turks. The First Turkic Khaganate was during the Göktürk civil war divided into Western and Eastern Khaganate; the Western was led by the five Duolu and five Nushibi tribes. Many modern historians consider that the first historical Bulgar ruler Kubrat belonged to the Dulo clan of the Western Turks - the so-called alliance Onogurs Bulgars.
Some historians have identified the Western qaghan Mohotu with Organa, the maternal uncle of Kubrat. Or not, it still points to the rivalry between the Bulgars, led by Kubrat from the Dulo clan, the Khazars, led by the Ashina clan. Omeljan Pritsak further considered the connection of the name of Dulo clan with the name of the old Xiongnu ruling house T'u-ko; this association could further prove the link between Huns. Peter B. Golden c
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo