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Mogadishu

Mogadishu, locally known as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia. Located in the coastal Banadir region on the Somali Sea, the city has served as an important port for millennia; the original inhabitants are known as Reer Xamar. As of 2017, it had a population of 2,425,000 residents. Mogadishu is the nearest foreign mainland city to Seychelles, at a distance of 835 mi over the Somali Sea. Tradition and old records assert that southern Somalia, including the Mogadishu area, was inhabited by hunter-gatherers; these were joined by Cushitic-speaking agro-pastoralists, who would go on to establish local aristocracies. During its medieval Golden Age, Mogadishu was ruled by the Muzaffar dynasty, by the Ajuran Sultanate; this is found in the Banaadiri oral traditions who are the native population. It subsequently fell under the control of an assortment of local Sultanates and polities, most notably the Sultanate of the Geledi; the sultanate of the Geledi were in an alliance with the Zanbiar Dynasty.

The city became the capital of Italian Somaliland in the colonial period. When the Italians arrived in Mogadishu the city had two towns only; these towns were Shingaani. The people who lived in these towns were known as "reer xamar" who were the original population and the people that lived outside these towns, what is modern day Hodan and all the disrticts were known as Xamar Daye; these tribes included Reer Mataan sub tribes. The Xamar Daye, being nomadic people used their lands as grazing lands and used them for things such as camel herding, they sold their cattle in bulk to the reer xamar merchants, who were urban seafarers. After the Somali Republic became independent in 1960, Mogadishu became known and promoted as the White Pearl of the Indian Ocean. After the ousting of the Siad Barre regime in 1991 and the ensuing Somali Civil War, various militias fought for control of the city to be replaced by the Islamic Courts Union in the mid-2000s; the ICU thereafter splintered into more radical groups, notably al-Shabaab, which fought the Transitional Federal Government and its African Union Mission to Somalia allies.

With a change in administration in late 2010, government troops and their military partners had succeeded in forcing out Al-Shabaab by August 2011. Mogadishu has subsequently experienced a period of intense reconstruction; as Somalia's capital city, many important national institutions are based in Mogadishu. It is the seat of the Federal Government of Somalia established in August 2012, with the Somalia Federal Parliament serving as the government's legislative branch. Abdirahman Omar Osman has been the Mayor of Mogadishu since January 2018. Villa Somalia is the official residential palace and principal workplace of the President of Somalia, Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed. In May 2012, the First Somali Bank was established in the capital, which organized Mogadishu's first Technology, Design conference; the establishment of a local construction yard has galvanized the city's real-estate sector. Arba'a Rukun Mosque is one of the oldest Islamic places of worship in the capital, built circa AH 667; the Mosque of Islamic Solidarity in Mogadishu is the largest masjid in the Horn region.

Mogadishu Cathedral was built in 1928 by the colonial authorities in Italian Somalia in a Norman Gothic style, served as the traditional seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Mogadiscio. The National Museum of Somalia holds many culturally important artefacts; the National Library of Somalia is undergoing a US$1.5 million Somali federal government funded renovation, including a new library complex. Mogadishu is home to a number of media institutions; as part of the municipality's urban renewal program, 100 schools across the capital are scheduled to be refurbished and reopened. The Somali National University was established in the 1950s, professors from the university founded the non-governmental Mogadishu University. Benadir University was established in 2002 with the intention of training doctors. Various national sporting bodies have their headquarters in Mogadishu, including the Somali Football Federation and the Somali Olympic Committee. Mogadishu Stadium was constructed in 1978 during the Siad Barre administration, with the assistance of Chinese engineers.

It hosts football matches with teams from the Somalia Cup. Additionally, the Port of Mogadishu serves as a major national seaport and is the largest harbour in Somalia. Mogadishu International Airport is the capital's main airport; the origins of the name Mogadishu has many theories including from the Somali word Muuq Disho meaning sight-killer, or the Persian word Maq'ad-i-Shāh, which means "the seat of the Shah". It is known locally as Xamar. Another theory is that it is derived from the Arabic root'mqds', which means "hallowed".. The 16th century explorer Leo Africanus knew the city as Magadazo. Tradition and old records assert that southern Somalia, including the Mogadishu area, was inhabited early by hunter-gatherers of Khoisan descent. Although most of these early inhabitants are believed to have been either overwhelmed, driven away or, in some cases, assimilated by migrants to the area, physical traces of their occupation survive in certain ethnic minority groups inhabiting modern-day Jubaland and other parts of the south.

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2015 Istanbul Open

The 2015 Istanbul Open was a men's tennis tournament played on outdoor clay courts. It was part of the 2015 ATP World Tour, it was the first edition of the Istanbul Open, an ATP World Tour 250 event. It took place at the Koza World of Sports Arena in Istanbul, from 27 April through 3 May 2015. Rankings are as of April 20, 2015; the following players received wildcards into the main draw: Nikoloz Basilashvili Cem İlkel Andrey RublevThe following players received entry via the qualifying draw: Teymuraz Gabashvili Blaž Kavčič Thanasi Kokkinakis Aleksandr Nedovyesov Before the tournament Paolo Lorenzi →replaced by Ivan Dodig Juan Mónaco →replaced by Daniel Gimeno-Traver Steve Darcis Rankings are as of April 20, 2015. The following pair received wildcards into the doubles main draw: Tuna Altuna / Nikoloz Basilashvili Marsel İlhan / Cem İlkelThe following pair received entry as alternates: Fedor Chervyakov / Mark Fynn Before the tournament Steve Darcis Roger Federer def. Pablo Cuevas, 6–3, 7–6 Radu Albot / Dušan Lajović def.

Robert Lindstedt / Jürgen Melzer, 6–4, 7–6 Official website

Tom Cohen

Tom Dana Cohen, is an American media and cultural theorist a professor at the University at Albany, State University of New York. He has published books on film studies, comparative literature, cultural studies, Alfred Hitchcock, Paul de Man. Cohen has published broadly on American authors and ideology, including Edgar Allan Poe, Walt Whitman, Mikhail Bakhtin, William Faulkner and pragmatism, as well as on Alfred Hitchcock, Greek philosophy and continental philosophy, he is the editor of the Critical Climate Change Book Series at Open Humanities Press and has lectured and taught internationally, including in China and Fulbright sponsored work in Thailand. He has been awarded a Distinguished Visiting Professorship by Shanghai Municipality in Shanghai. Cohen's education consists of a M. A. from the University of Chicago in Comparative Literature and a Ph. D. from Yale University in Comparative Literature. Thus Cohen’s work began in literary theory and cultural politics but he has explored as a philosopher areas of critical theory, cinema studies, digital media and climate change.

Cohen, Tom. Anti-mimesis from Plato to Hitchcock. Cambridge New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521465847. Reviewed in: Szalay, Michael. "Book review: Anti-mimesis from Plato to Hitchcock". MLN. 110: 983–985. Doi:10.1111/edth.12034. Cohen, Tom. Ideology and inscription: "cultural studies" after Benjamin, de Man, Bakhtin. Cambridge, UK New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521599672. Cohen, Tom. Jacques Derrida and the humanities a critical reader. Cambridge, U. K. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521625654. Cohen, Tom. Material events: Paul de Man and the afterlife of theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 9780816636143. Cohen, Tom. Hitchcock's cryptonymies: volume 1 secret agents. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 9780816642069. Cohen, Tom. Hitchcock's cryptonymies: volume 1 war machines. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 9780816641710. Cohen, Tom. Theory and the disappearing future: on De Man, on Benjamin. Milton Park, Oxon New York: Routledge.

ISBN 9780415604536. Cohen, Tom. Telemorphosis: theory in the era of climate change. 1. Ann Arbor: Open Humanities Press. ISBN 9781607852377. Personal page: Tom Cohen College of Arts and Sciences, University of Albany, State University of New York