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Mogul skiing

Mogul skiing is a freestyle skiing competition consisting of one timed run of free skiing on a steep moguled course, stressing technical turns, aerial maneuvers and speed. Internationally, the sport is contested at the FIS Freestyle World Ski Championships, at the Winter Olympic Games. Moguls are a series of bumps on a piste formed when skiers push snow into mounds as they do sharp turns; this tends to happen as skiers use the slope but they can be constructed artificially. Once formed, a occurring mogul tends to grow as skiers follow similar paths around it, further deepening the surrounding grooves known as troughs. Since skiing tends to be a series of linked turns, moguls form together to create a bump field; the term "mogul" is from the Bavarian/Austrian German word Mugel, meaning "mound, hillock". The first competition involving mogul skiing occurred in 1971; the FIS created the Freestyle World Cup Circuit in 1980. The first World Championships were held in 1986, are held in odd-numbered years.

It was a demonstration sport in freestyle skiing at the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary. It has been a medal event in the Winter Olympics since 1992. Mogul courses are between 270 metres with an average slope grade of 26 degrees; the moguls themselves are set 3.5 metres apart. The course includes two small jumps. Athletes can perform inverted tricks off these jumps in the course of a competition run. Dual Mogul competition consists of elimination rounds where pairs of competitors compete against each other; each loser is eliminated and each winner advances to the next round until a final result is achieved. Scoring: Turns count for 60% of the score; this is a technical evaluation by judges, includes the rhythmic changes in direction of travel to either side of the fall line, using an aggressive, controlled technique. The skier should employ carve turns, should not skid or plough; the head should remain still. The chest should stay straight and natural. Hands stay in front of the body in a natural position.

Pole plants should be well-timed. Air counts for 20% of the score. Air is scored in two parts: difficulty. Jumps include flips, loops and upright jumps such as a spread eagle. Speed counts for 20% of the score; the Pace Speed for the moguls is 9.7 m/s for men. List of Olympic medalists in freestyle skiing Alpine skiing

K shortest path routing

The k shortest path routing problem is a generalization of the shortest path routing problem in a given network. It asks not only about a shortest path but about next k−1 shortest paths. A variation of the problem is the loopless k shortest paths. Finding k shortest paths is possible by extending Dijkstra algorithm or Bellman-Ford algorithm and extend them to find more than one path. Since 1957 many papers were published on the k shortest path routing problem. Most of the fundamental works were done between 1960s and 2001. Since most of the research has been on the problem's applications and its variants. In 2010, Michael Günther et al. published a book on Symbolic calculation of k-shortest paths and related measures with the stochastic process algebra tool CASPA. The Dijkstra algorithm can be generalized to find the k shortest paths. There are two main variations of the k shortest path routing problem. In on variation, paths are allowed thus creating loops. In another variation, paths are required to be loopless.

The loopy version is solvable using Eppstein's algorithm and the loopless variation is solvable by Yen's algorithm. In this variant, the problem is simplified by not requiring paths to be loopless. A solution was given by B. L. Fox in 1975 in which the k-shortest paths are determined in O asymptotic time complexity (using big O notation. In 1998, David Eppstein reported an approach that maintains an asymptotic complexity of O by computing an implicit representation of the paths, each of which can be output in O extra time. In 2007, John Hershberger and Subhash Suri proposed a replacement paths algorithm, a more efficient implementation of Eppstein's algorithm with O improvement in time. In 2015, Akuba et al. devised an indexing method as a faster alternative for Eppstein's algorithm, in which a data structure called an index is constructed from a graph and top-k distances between arbitrary pairs of vertices can be obtained. In the loopless variant, the paths are forbidden to contain loops which adds an additional level of complexity.

It can be solved using Yen's algorithm to find the lengths of all shortest paths from a fixed node to all other nodes in an n-node non negative-distance network, a technique requiring only 2n2 additions and n2 comparison, fewer than other available shortest path algorithms need. The running time complexity is pseudo-polynomial, being O; the following example makes use of Yen’s model to find k shortest paths between communicating end nodes. That is, it finds a shortest path, second shortest path, etc. up to the Kth shortest path. More details can be found here; the code provided in this example attempts to solve the k shortest path routing problem for a 15-nodes network containing a combination of unidirectional and bidirectional links: Another example is the use of k shortest paths algorithm to track multiple objects. The technique implements a multiple object tracker based on the k shortest paths routing algorithm. A set of probabilistic occupancy maps is used as input. An object detector provides the input.

The complete details can be found at "Computer Vision Laboratory – CVLAB". Another use of k shortest paths algorithms is to design a transit network that enhances passengers' experience in public transportation systems; such an example of a transit network can be constructed by putting traveling time under consideration. In addition to traveling time, other conditions may be taken depending upon economical and geographical limitations. Despite variations in parameters, the k shortest path algorithms finds the most optimal solutions that satisfies all user needs; such applications of k shortest path algorithms are becoming common Xu, He, Chaudry studied the k shortest path problems in transit network systems. The k shortest path routing is a good alternative for: Geographic path planning Network routing in optical mesh network where there are additional constraints that cannot be solved by using ordinary shortest path algorithms. Hypothesis generation in computational linguistics Sequence alignment and metabolic pathway finding in bioinformatics Multiple object tracking as described above Road Networks: road junctions are the nodes and each edge of the graph is associated with a road segment between two junctions.

The breadth-first search algorithm is used. The Floyd–Warshall algorithm solves all pairs shortest paths. Johnson's algorithm solves all pairs' shortest paths, may be faster than Floyd–Warshall on sparse graphs. Perturbation theory finds the locally shortest path. Cherkassky et al. provide associated evaluations. Constrained shortest path routing Implementation of Yen's algorithm Multiple objects tracking technique using K-shortest path algorithm: Computer Vision Laboratory:


Mhluzi is a township just west of the large farming and industrial town Middelburg, Mpumalanga in the South African province of Mpumalanga. The Town Councils of Middelburg and Mhluzi, as well as the Management Committees for Eastdene and Nasaret amalgamated during 1994 to form the Transitional Local Council for Middelburg. Middelburg was the first town in Mpumalanga to amalgamate in terms of the Local Government Transition Act, the proclamation to establish the new TLC appeared in the Mpumalanga Provincial Gazette, No 2/1994 on 16 November 1994. Manyano Primary School Thušanang Primary School Mvuzo Primary School Mhluzi Primary School Elusindisweni Primary School Makhathini Primary School Tshwenyane Combined School Reatlegile Primary School Zikhuphule Primary School Sozama Secondary School Sofunda Secondary School Mphanama comprehensive high school L. D Moetanalo high school Ekwazini secondary school

Felipe Massa

Felipe Massa is a Brazilian Formula E and former Formula One racing driver. He competed in 15 seasons of Formula One between 2002 and 2017, where he scored 11 Grand Prix victories, 41 podiums and finished as championship runner-up in 2008. Massa started his career in go-karting from the age of eight continuing in national and regional championships for seven years, he claimed the championship. He won the title along with the European championship. Massa went into Euro Formula 3000 taking the championship in 2001. Massa started his Formula One career with Sauber before joining Scuderia Ferrari as a test driver for 2003, he returned to Sauber for 2004 and 2005 before rejoining Ferrari where he won two races in 2006 including his home Grand Prix becoming the first Brazilian since Ayrton Senna to win the Brazilian Grand Prix. Massa won three races in 2007, he finished second in the 2008 Drivers' World Championship after a long title battle with Lewis Hamilton, winning six races to Hamilton's five. At the 2009 Hungarian Grand Prix, Massa was injured by a suspension spring off the Brawn GP car of Rubens Barrichello.

Massa was forced to miss the rest of the season but returned in 2010. Massa suffered a dip in form in 2011 scoring no podiums but scoring points. Massa contributed to Ferrari's Constructors' Championships in 2007 and 2008 and was under contract to race for the team until the end of the 2013 season. On 10 September 2013, he confirmed. Massa replaced Pastor Maldonado alongside Valtteri Bottas at Williams from 2014. Massa announced. However, the abrupt retirement of 2016 Formula One Champion Nico Rosberg from Mercedes precipitated the late move of Valtteri Bottas from Williams to Mercedes, leaving a late vacancy at Williams. Massa subsequently postponed his retirement, returning to Williams to partner rookie Lance Stroll for the 2017 season. On 4 November 2017, Massa confirmed that he would be retiring from Formula One at the end of the 2017 season. Since retirement from Formula One, Massa has pursued a career in the FIA's all electric series Formula E. Massa was born in São Paulo and grew up in Botucatu, in the interior of the state of São Paulo.

He is of Italian descent. His grandparents come in the province of Foggia, Italy, he began karting. He continued in national and international championships for 7 years, in 1998 moved into Formula Chevrolet, finishing the Brazilian championship in fifth place. During the following season, he claimed the championship. In 2000, Massa moved to Europe to compete in the Italian Formula Renault series, winning both the Italian and the European Formula Renault championships that year, he could have moved to Formula Three, but instead chose the Euro Formula 3000, where he won 6 of the 8 races and the 2001 championship. He was offered a Formula 1 test with the Sauber team, who signed him for 2002, he drove for Alfa Romeo in the European Touring Car Championship as a guest driver. In his rookie year in Formula 1, Massa was paired with 1999 International Formula 3000 champion Nick Heidfeld, he proved he was a competitive driver, but made several mistakes, including spinning off the track several times. Massa scored 4 championship points in his first season, his best result a 5th place at the Spanish Grand Prix at the Circuit de Catalunya.

He suffered a one race suspension late in the season, forcing him to miss the United States Grand Prix. Heinz-Harald Frentzen, Sauber's former driver, drove for Massa in his place. Massa returned to the driver's seat for the Japanese Grand Prix, but Sauber confirmed that Frentzen would partner Heidfeld in 2003, leaving Massa without a race seat. Instead, he spent a year with Sauber's engine suppliers, gaining experience by testing for the championship-winning team. Sauber re-signed Massa for the 2004 season. In 2004, he scored 12 of Sauber's 34 points, his best result being a fourth place at the Belgian Grand Prix. Giancarlo Fisichella scored the team's other 22 points. Massa remained at Sauber in 2005. Though he scored only 11 points, he outpaced his teammate Jacques Villeneuve through most of the season, beat him in the Drivers' Championship. After Sauber was taken over by BMW, Massa was replaced by his former teammate Heidfeld. In 2006, Massa re-joined Ferrari, paired with Michael Schumacher.

Massa started well at Ferrari, qualifying second at the opening race in Bahrain, coming from 21st position to 5th in Malaysia, beating teammate Michael Schumacher, who had started from 14th. In Bahrain, however, in both Saturday practice and the race, Massa resumed his tendency to spin, narrowly missing Fernando Alonso, the eventual winner of the race. At the Australian GP he crashed his Ferrari in qualifying collided with Christian Klien and Nico Rosberg at the first corner of the race. Massa scored his first career podium at the Nürburgring, finishing third behind Michael Schumacher and Fernando Alonso, he set the fastest lap at Barcelona in 2006. Massa had four more podium finishes in 2006, took his first F1 pole position and his first F1 win at the Turkish Grand Prix at the Istanbul Park circuit, his future position at Ferrari was secured when Michael Schumacher announced on 10 September 2006, he would retire from F1 at the end of the 2006 season. On 22 October, Massa won his home race at the Brazilian Grand Prix, making it the first time a Brazilian driver had won at Interlagos since Ayrton Senna in

Mylanthanai massacre

The Mylanthanai massacre happened on August 9, 1992 when 35 minority Sri Lankan Tamils, including 14 children, at Mylanthanai in Batticaloa District in Sri Lanka, were killed. Sri Lankan Army soldiers from an army camp in Punanai were accused of the crime, but they were acquitted by the unanimous verdict of a jury in Colombo. On August 9, 1992 according to the government prosecutor Sri Lankan Army soldiers attacked the village of Mylanthanai, after the army's commanding officer in Jaffna was killed along with seven soldiers in a landmine explosion earlier the same day. According to the pro-rebel Tamilnet reporting on the court proceedings, an eye witness Ms Sinnathurai Indrakala, 28 was quoted as saying,that the soldiers had used guns and axes to carry out the murders. Children as young as 1 to 15 were amongst the dead; the government reaction was swift, according to the Sri Lanka Monitor, a reporting organization in the ongoing Sri Lankan Civil War, a line-up was held at Batticaloa Magistrate’s Court on April 2, 1993.

Survivors of the killings identified 24 soldiers. The Attorney General at the time transferred the case to Polonnaruwa District, he transferred the case again to Colombo on the grounds of safety for the accused. This arrangement made it difficult for witnesses; the indictment was filed in Colombo High Court in September 1999. More than 30 eyewitnesses came from Batticalao along with coroner who conducted most of the autopsies and the presiding regional judge. Eye witness accounts from dead persons were allowed to be read in the case. After an extensive hearing the case went before the jury; the jury found the soldiers not guilty. The Judge requested the Jury to reconsider the verdict but the jury found the accused soldiers not guilty again; the attorney general turned down the request of the victims representatives to appeal. Human rights agencies and relatives of victims expressed shock after 18 soldiers accused in the Mylanthanai case were released on 27 November. A local Human Rights agency UTHR considered the jury's verdict unfair and reported that about the lack of expression of concern over the verdict among the international community.

According to Northeastern Herald, although the constitution provides room for appalling such cases, the Attorney General refused to appeal the verdict citing convention

Sex swing

A sex swing is a type of harness designed to allow sexual intercourse between one partner suspended by the swing and another who moves freely. Though there is considerable variety in the design, the most common sex swings have a support for the back, another for the buttocks, stirrups for each leg, which can be adjusted whilst the user is suspended. A sex swing or sling is designed to assist in sexual activity. Materials for constructing these devices include nylon webbing, heavy canvas, neoprene, heavy rubber and steel; the designs provide access to the passive partner's genitalia, perineum and anal areas while supporting the individual in a comfortable position, with the hips flexed, to allowing the passive partner to relax. There are many variations of swings that can be broken down to four basic types: sex slings, sex swings, door sex swings and body sex swings. Sex slings are a category of sex swings; these can be constructed from leather, fabric or wood. Sex slings can range from 1 to 5 mounting points depending on design with 4 points being the most common.

A sex sling has more limited number of position options than some other swing styles. Subcategories include traditional sex slings and platform sex slings. Traditional sex swings are composed of stirrups. Additional options such as handles and headrests are available. There are many installation options including ceiling hooks and between the walls in a hallway; the traditional sex swing has the largest number of position options available. Subcategories include pinning swings, bondage swings, single hook swings, dual hook swings. Door sex swings are a type of sling that installs over a door, it is secured in place by the door frame. Door swings have a limited range or positions options but are favored because of the quick installation. Standard door swings include leg straps and optionally handles. Deluxe door swings add an additional seat strap. Subcategories include standard door swings and deluxe door swings. Body sex swings are a harness that worn on the body with handles and leg straps to support another person to facilitate standing sex positions.

The main purpose of sex swings is to make sexual intercourse more effortless. A sex swing may enable greater freedom of movement during intercourse or assist with challenging sex positions. Swings may be used by couples who are into BDSM, since it acts like bondage where the partner in the swing has little to no control. Swings may be used for vaginal and anal sex and cunnilingus. Sex swings can enable individuals with a physical impairment or disability to enjoy a wide range of sexual activities. Individuals with muscular weakness or arthritis may use a sex swing to reduce the strain on affected muscles or joints. Individuals who use a wheelchair can engage in sexual activity using a sex swing suspended from a hoist, it is important to follow the provided instructions. Secure mounting is vital to avoid injury to the suspended partner from falling; the use of toggle bolts, such as would be used to hang a dreamcatcher, is not appropriate. Installing springs, if supplied, is important to reduce physical shock to the suspended partner caused by rapid deceleration when bouncing in a sex swing