Vadodara is the third-largest city in the Indian state of Gujarat, after Ahmedabad and Surat. It is the administrative headquarters of Vadodara District and is located on the banks of the Vishwamitri river, 141 kilometres from the state capital Gandhinagar; the railway line and NH 8 that connect Mumbai pass through Vadodara. It is known as a Sanskari nagari of India; as of 2011, Vadodara had a population of 2.065 million people. The city is known for the Lakshmi Vilas Palace, the residence of Baroda State's Maratha royal family, the Gaekwads, it is the home of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, the largest university in Gujarat. An important industrial and educational hub of western India, the city houses several institutions of national and regional importance while its major industries include petrochemicals, chemicals, plastics, IT and foreign exchange services; the first recorded history of the city is that of the early trader settlers who settled in the region in 812 AD. The province was Hindu-dominated with Hindu kings ruling until 1297.
The Gupta Empire was the first power in the region in the early years of the CE. The region was taken over by the Chaulukya dynasty. By this time Muslim rule had spread across India, the reins of power were snatched by the Delhi Sultans; the city was ruled for a long time by these Sultans. The city used to be called Chandanavati after its ruler Raja Chandan of the Dor tribe of Rajputs; the capital was known as Virakshetra or Viravati. On, it was known as Vadpatraka or Vadodará, which according to tradition is a corrupt form of the Sanskrit word vatodar meaning in the belly of the Banyan tree, it is now impossible to ascertain when the various changes in the name were made. In 1974, the official name of the city was changed to Vadodara. In 1907, a small village and township in Michigan, United States, were named after Baroda, it is believed that early man lived on the banks of the Mahi River, which formed the floodplain during that age. The movements of these hunter-gatherers, living on the banks of the river, grubbing the roots and killing animals with crude stone tools made out of the cobbles and pebbles available on the river bank, were controlled by the availability of convenient raw materials for their tools.
There is evidence of the existence of early man in the Mahi River valley at a number of sites within 10 to 20 kilometres to the north-east of Vadodara. However, no evidence of the existence of these people is found around present-day Vadodara; this may be because of the absence of cobbles on the banks of the Vishwamitri rivulet. Baroda State was a former Indian State. Vadodara's more recent history began when the Maratha general Pilaji Gaekwad conquered Songadh from the Mughals in 1726. Before the Gaekwads captured Baroda, it was ruled by the Babi Nawabs, who were the officers of the Mughal rulers. Most notably, from 1705–1716, Sardar Senapati Khanderao Dabhade led the Maratha Empire forces in Baroda. Except for a short period, Baroda continued to be in the reign of the Gaekwads from 1734 to 1948. Detailed to collect revenue on behalf of the Peshwa in Gujarat, Pilaji Gaekwad remained there to carve out a kingdom for himself. Damajirao, son and successor of Pilaji Gaekwad, defeated the Mughal armies and conquered Baroda in 1734.
His successors consolidated their power over large tracts of Gujarat, becoming the most powerful rulers in the region. After the Maratha defeat in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761, control of the empire by the Peshwas weakened as it became a loose confederacy, the Gaekwad Maharajas ruled the kingdom until it acceded to Independent Republic of India in 1949. In 1802, the British intervened to defend a Maharaja that had inherited the throne from rival claimants, Vadodara concluded a subsidiary alliance with the British that recognised the Kingdom as a Princely state and allowed the Maharajas of Baroda internal political sovereignty in return for recognising British'Paramountcy', a form of suzerainty in which the control of the state's foreign affairs was surrendered; the golden period in the Maratha rule of Vadodara started with the accession of Maharaja Sayajirao III in 1875. Near Maharaja Sayaji Gaekwad University there is a well known garden, built by Maharaja Sayaji Rao Gaekwad himself in 1879 A.
D. This garden is known as Sayaji Baug known for visitors centre; this place is situated on river Vishwamitri. Vadodara is located at 22.30°N 73.19°E / 22.30. It is the 18th-largest city in India with an area of 235 square kilometres and a population of 2.1 million, according to the 2010–11 census. The city sits in central Gujarat; the Vishwamitri dries up in the summer, leaving only a small stream of water. The city is located on the fertile plain between the Narmada Rivers. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the cosmopolis falls under seismic zone-III, in a scale of I to V. Despite the 800 mm of precipitation that the city receives annually, Vadodara features a semi-arid climate under Köppen's Climate classification due to the area's high potential evapotranspiration. There are three main seasons: Summer and Winter. Aside from the monsoon season, the climate is dry; the weather is hot during March to July, when the average ma
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a lawyer and the founder of Pakistan. Jinnah served as the leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until Pakistan's independence on 14 August 1947, as Pakistan's first Governor-General until his death, he is revered in Pakistan as Quaid-i-Azam and Baba-i-Qaum, "Father of the Nation"). His birthday is considered a national holiday in Pakistan. Born at Wazir Mansion in Karachi, Jinnah was trained as a barrister at Lincoln's Inn in London. Upon his return to British India, he enrolled at the Bombay High Court, took an interest in national politics, which replaced his legal practice. Jinnah rose to prominence in the Indian National Congress in the first two decades of the 20th century. In these early years of his political career, Jinnah advocated Hindu–Muslim unity, helping to shape the 1916 Lucknow Pact between the Congress and the All-India Muslim League, in which Jinnah had become prominent. Jinnah became a key leader in the All India Home Rule League, proposed a fourteen-point constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims.
In 1920, Jinnah resigned from the Congress when it agreed to follow a campaign of satyagraha, which he regarded as political anarchy. By 1940, Jinnah had come to believe that Muslims of the Indian subcontinent should have their own state. In that year, the Muslim League, led by Jinnah, passed the Lahore Resolution, demanding a separate nation. During the Second World War, the League gained strength while leaders of the Congress were imprisoned, in the elections held shortly after the war, it won most of the seats reserved for Muslims; the Congress and the Muslim League could not reach a power-sharing formula for the subcontinent to be united as a single state, leading all parties to agree to the independence of a predominantly Hindu India, for a Muslim-majority state of Pakistan. As the first Governor-General of Pakistan, Jinnah worked to establish the new nation's government and policies, to aid the millions of Muslim migrants who had emigrated from the new nation of India to Pakistan after independence supervising the establishment of refugee camps.
Jinnah died at age 71 in September 1948, just over a year after Pakistan gained independence from the United Kingdom. He left a respected legacy in Pakistan. Innumerable streets and localities in the world are named after Jinnah. Several universities and public buildings in Pakistan bear Jinnah's name. According to his biographer, Stanley Wolpert, he remains Pakistan's greatest leader. Jinnah's given name at birth was Mahomedali, he was born most in 1876, to Jinnahbhai Poonja and his wife Mithibai, in a rented apartment on the second floor of Wazir Mansion near Karachi, now in Sindh, Pakistan but within the Bombay Presidency of British India. Jinnah's family was from a Gujarati Ismaili background, though Jinnah followed the Twelver Shi'a teachings. After his death, his relatives and other witnesses claimed that he had converted in life to the Sunni sect, his religion at the time of his death was disputed in multiple court cases. Jinnah was from a wealthy merchant background, his father was a merchant and was born to a family of textile weavers in the village of Paneli in the princely state of Gondal.
They had moved to Karachi in 1875. Karachi was enjoying an economic boom: the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 meant it was 200 nautical miles closer to Europe for shipping than Bombay. Jinnah was the second child; the parents were native Gujarati speakers, the children came to speak Kutchi and English. Jinnah was not fluent in Gujarati, his mother-tongue or in Urdu, he was more fluent in English. Except for Fatima, little is known of his siblings, where they settled or if they met with their brother as he advanced in his legal and political careers; as a boy, Jinnah lived for a time in Bombay with an aunt and may have attended the Gokal Das Tej Primary School there on studying at the Cathedral and John Connon School. In Karachi, he attended the Sindh-Madrasa-tul-Islam and the Christian Missionary Society High School, he gained his matriculation from Bombay University at the high school. In his years and after his death, a large number of stories about the boyhood of Pakistan's founder were circulated: that he spent all his spare time at the police court, listening to the proceedings, that he studied his books by the glow of street lights for lack of other illumination.
His official biographer, Hector Bolitho, writing in 1954, interviewed surviving boyhood associates, obtained a tale that the young Jinnah discouraged other children from playing marbles in the dust, urging them to rise up, keep their hands and clothes clean, play cricket instead. In 1892, Sir Frederick Leigh Croft, a business associate of Jinnahbhai Poonja, offered young Jinnah a London apprenticeship with his firm, Graham's Shipping and Trading Company, he accepted the position despite the opposition of his mother, who before he left, had him enter an arranged marriage with his cousin, two years his junior from the ancestral village of Paneli, Emibai Jinnah. Jinnah's mother and first wife both died during his absence in England. Although the apprenticeship in London was considered a great opportunity for Jinnah, one reason for sending him overseas was a legal proceeding against his father, which placed the family's property at risk of being sequestered by the court. In 1893, the Jinnahbhai family moved to Bombay.
Soon after his arrival in Londo
Activism consists of efforts to promote, direct, or intervene in social, economic, or environmental reform with the desire to make changes in society. Forms of activism range from mandate building in the community, petitioning elected officials, running or contributing to a political campaign, preferential patronage of businesses, demonstrative forms of activism like rallies, street marches, sit-ins, or hunger strikes. Activism may be performed on a day-to-day basis in a wide variety of ways, including through the creation of art, computer hacking, or in how one chooses to spend their money. For example, the refusal to buy clothes or other merchandise from a company as a protest against the exploitation of workers by that company could be considered an expression of activism. However, the most visible and impactful activism comes in the form of collective action, in which numerous individuals coordinate an act of protest together in order to make a bigger impact. Collective action, purposeful and sustained over a period of time becomes known as a social movement.
Activists have used literature, including pamphlets and books to disseminate their messages and attempt to persuade their readers of the justice of their cause. Research has now begun to explore how contemporary activist groups use social media to facilitate civic engagement and collective action combining politics with technology; the Online Etymology Dictionary records the English words "activism" and "activist" as in use in the political sense from the year 1920 or 1915 respectively. The history of the word activism traces back to earlier understandings of collective behavior and social action; as late as 1969 activism was defined as "the policy or practice of doing things with decision and energy", without regard to a political signification, whereas social action was defined as "organized action taken by a group to improve social conditions", without regard to normative status. Following the surge of so-called "new social movements" in the United States in the 1960's, a new understanding of activism emerged as a rational and acceptable democratic option of protest or appeal.
However, the history of the existence of revolt through organized or unified protest in recorded history dates back to the slave revolts of the 1st century BC in the Roman Empire, where under the leadership of former gladiator Spartacus 6,000 slaves rebelled and were crucified from Capua to Rome in what became known as the Third Servile War. In English history, the Peasant's Revolt erupted in response to the imposition of a poll tax, has been paralleled by other rebellions and revolutions in Hungary and more for example, Hong Kong. In 1930 under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi thousands of protesting Indians participated in the Salt March as a protest against the oppressive taxes of their government, resulting in the imprisonment of 60,000 people and eventual independence for their nation. In nations throughout Asia and South America, the prominence of activism organized by social movements and under the leadership of civil activists or social revolutionaries has pushed for increasing national self-reliance or, in some parts of the developing world, collectivist communist or socialist organization and affiliation.
Activism has had major impacts on Western societies as well over the past century through social movements such as the Labour movement, the Women's Rights movement, the civil rights movement. Activists can function in a number of roles, including judicial, environmental and design. Most activism has focused on creating substantive changes in the policy or practice of a government or industry; some activists try to persuade people to change their behavior directly, rather than to persuade governments to change laws. For example, the cooperative movement seeks to build new institutions which conform to cooperative principles, does not lobby or protest politically. Other activists try to persuade people or government policy to remain the same, in an effort to counter change. Activism is not always an activity performed by those; the term activist may apply broadly to anyone who engages in activism, or be more narrowly limited to those who choose political or social activism as a vocation or characteristic practice.
Judicial activism involves the efforts of public officials. Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. - American historian, public intellectual, social critic - introduced the term "judicial activism" in a January 1946 Fortune magazine article titled "The Supreme Court: 1947". Activists can be public watchdogs and whistle blowers, attempting to understand all the actions of every form of government that acts in the name of the people and hold it accountable to oversight and transparency. Activism involves an engaged citizenry. Environmental activism takes quite a few forms: the protection of nature or the natural environment driven by a utilitarian conservation ethic or a nature oriented preservationist ethic the protection of the human environment (by pollution prevention or the protection of cultural heritage or quality of life the conservation of depletable natural resources the protection of the function of critical earth system elements or processes such as the climate; the power of Internet activism came into a global lens with the Arab Spring protests starting in late 2010.
People living in the Middle East and North African countries that were experiencing revolutions used social networking to communicate information about protests, including videos recorded on smart phones
Delhi the National Capital Territory of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India. It is bordered by Haryana by Uttar Pradesh to the east; the NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres. According to the 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million, the second-highest in India after Mumbai, while the whole NCT's population was about 16.8 million. Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundaries and include the neighboring satellite cities of Faridabad, Gurgaon and Noida in an area now called Central National Capital Region and had an estimated 2016 population of over 26 million people, making it the world's second-largest urban area according to United Nations; as of 2016, recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the most or second-most productive metro area of India. Delhi is the second-wealthiest city in India after Mumbai, with a total private wealth of $450 billion and is home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires.
Delhi has been continuously inhabited since the 6th century BCE. Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various empires, it has been captured and rebuilt several times during the medieval period, modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region. A union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi, serves as the capital of the nation as well as the NCT of Delhi. Delhi hosted the first and ninth Asian Games in 1951 and 1982 1983 NAM Summit, 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup, 2010 Commonwealth Games, 2012 BRICS Summit and was one of the major host cities of the 2011 Cricket World Cup. Delhi is the centre of the National Capital Region, a unique'interstate regional planning' area created by the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985.
There are a number of legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi. One of them is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BCE and named it after himself. Another legend holds that the name of the city is based on the Hindi/Prakrit word dhili and that it was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the iron pillar of Delhi had a weak foundation and had to be moved; the coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal. According to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom, he ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and named the fort dehali. Some historians believe that Dhilli or Dhillika is the original name for the city while others believe the name could be a corruption of the Hindustani words dehleez or dehali—both terms meaning'threshold' or'gateway'—and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain.
The people of Delhi are referred to as Dilliwalas. The city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages. Examples include: Abhi Dilli door hai or its Persian version, Hanuz Dehli dur ast meaning Delhi is still far away, generically said about a task or journey still far from completion. Dilli dilwalon ka shehr or Dilli Dilwalon ki meaning Delhi belongs to the large-hearted/daring. Aas-paas barse, Dilli pani tarse meaning it pours all around, while Delhi lies parched. An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it idiomatically refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty; the area around Delhi was inhabited before the second millennium BCE and there is evidence of continuous inhabitation since at least the 6th century BCE. The city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata. According to the Mahabharata, this land was a huge mass of forests called'Khandavaprastha', burnt down to build the city of Indraprastha.
The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period. Remains of eight major cities have been discovered in Delhi; the first five cities were in the southern part of present-day Delhi. King Anang Pal of the Tomara dynasty founded the city of Lal Kot in 736 CE. Prithviraj Chauhan renamed it Qila Rai Pithora; the king Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori, a Muslim invader from Afghanistan, who made a concerted effort to conquer northern India. By 1200, native Hindu resistance had begun to crumble, the Muslims were victorious; the newfound dominance of foreign Turkic Muslim dynasties in north India would last for the next five centuries. The slave general of Ghori, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, was given the responsibility of governing the conquered territories of India until Ghori returned to his capital, Ghor; when Ghori died without a heir in 1206 CE, his territories fractured, with various generals claiming sovereignty over different areas. Qutb-ud-din assumed control of Ghori's Indian possessions, laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mamluk dynasty.
He began construction of the Qutb Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam mosque, the earlie
Jamia Millia Islamia
Jamia Millia Islamia an institution established at Aligarh in United Provinces, India during British rule in 1920. Became a Central University by an act of the Indian Parliament in 1988. In Urdu language, Jamia means University, Millia means National. In 1925 Jamia shifted from Aligarh to New Delhi. On 1 March 1935, the foundation stone for a school building was laid at Okhla a non-descript village in the southern outskirts of Delhi. In 1936, all institutions of Jamia, except Jamia Press, the Maktaba and the library, were shifted to the new campus. Jamia Millia Islamia has become an ensemble of a multilayered educational system which covers all aspects of schooling, under-graduate, post-graduate, M. Phil/ Ph. D and post-doctoral education. With 9 faculties of learning, 38 teaching and research departments and over 27 centres of learning and research. In recent years Jamia has made significant strides, it got NAAC Accreditation with Grade ‘A’ in 2015. The MHRD’s National Institutional Ranking Framework placed it at the 19th position in the "Overall Ranking" for 2018.
In the Times Higher Education ranking for the year 2017 it was placed in-between 801–1000 and in the QS World University Rankings 2019 it was placed in-between 751–800. The University has been benchmarking its teaching and research processes by increasing its interface with foreign educational institutions through faculty exchange, student exchange, joint research, joint conference and joint publication. Internationalising the university is being given top priority; the University is optimally using the GIAN and VAJRA initiatives of the Government of India to boost quality education and draw the best academic and research personnel to the university. The University is encouraging innovation on the campus, it facilitates campus recruitments. Jamia Millia Islamia will be completing hundred years of its existence in 2020. Jamia Millia Islamia made a modest beginning in 1920 at Aligarh, with the resolute determination of its founding members—Shaikhul Hind Maulana Mahmud Hasan, Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, Janab Hakim Ajmal Khan, Dr. Mukhtar Ahmad Ansari, Janab Abdul Majeed Khwaja, Dr. Zakir Hussain to create an institution that would manifest indigenous ethos and spirit of plurality.
It was conceived as a national institution that would offer progressive education and nationalist ideals to students from all communities the Muslims. The emergence of Jamia was supported by Gandhiji and Tagore who felt that Jamia could shape lives of hundreds and thousands of students on the basis of a shared culture and worldview. Jamia’s development is marked by sacrifices made by the staff and students and a host of individuals who contributed through myriad efforts. In December 1988 Jamia was accorded the status of a Central University by the parliament under the Jamia Millia Islamia Act 1988. In 2006 the Sultan of Saudi Arabia, Abdullah of Saudi Arabia paid a visit to the university and donated $3 million for construction of a library. Now, that library is known as Dr. Zakir Husain Library. Dr. Zakir Hussain, once said, I quote, "the movement of Jamia Millia Islamia is a struggle for education and cultural renaissance, it will prepare a blueprint for Indian Muslims which may focus on Islam but evolve a national culture for common Indian.
It will lay the foundation of the thinking that true religious education will promote patriotism and national integration among Indian Muslims, who will be proud to take part in the future progress of India, which will play its part in the comity of nations for peace and development. The objective of establishment of Jamia Millia Islamia will be to lay down the common curriculum for Indian Muslims taking into account the future challenges and will prepare the children to be masters of future". Shaykh-ul-Hind Maulana Mahmood-ul-Hasan: He laid the foundation stone of Jamia and was the most elderly among all the elders of Jamia.. He was president of the opening ceremony of Jamia at Aligarh, which took place on 29 October, 1930, his presidential speech was read by Shabbir Ahmad Usmani. Abul Kalam Azad, the nationalist leader of the Indian National Congress, was one of its main initial patrons. Mohammad Ali Jouhar became Jamia’s first Vice Chancellor. Zakir Husain took over the university in its turbulent times in 1927 and guided it through all the difficulties.
After his death, he was buried on the campus of the University where his mausoleum is open to the public. Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari on became the vice chancellor; the main auditorium and Health Centre of the university is named after him. Abdul Majeed Khwaja Abid Hussain Hakim Ajmal Khan: On 22 November 1920, Hakim Ajmal Khan was elected the first chancellor of Jamia. Mohammad Mujeeb, under whose leadership Jamia became a Deemed University on 9th of June 1962; the campus is distributed over a large area. Many of its buildings are being modernized. Greenery is advocated; the university's scenic cricket ground Nawab Mansoor Ali Khan Pataudi Sports Complex has hosted many important Tournaments and indian women cricket match. This ground hosted University Cricket Championship in 2013 Besides its seven faculties, the Jamia has centres of learning and research, like the Anwar Jamal Kidwai Mass Communication Research Centre, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Faculty of Fine Arts, Centre for Theoretical Physics and the Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar Academy of Third World Studies.
The Jamia offers postgraduate information and technology courses. Jamia Millia Islamia joined the green campaign installed 2,250 kilowatt solar panels on the campus. Jamia Millia Islamia has nine faculties under which it offers academic and extension programs: Th
All-India Muslim League
The All-India Muslim League was a political party established in 1906 in the British Indian Empire. Its strong advocacy for the establishment of a separate Muslim-majority nation-state, Pakistan led to the partition of British India in 1947 by the British Empire; the party arose out of a literary movement begun at The Aligarh Muslim University in which Syed Ahmad Khan was a central figure. It remained an elitist organisation until 1937 when the leadership began mobilising the Muslim masses and the league became a popular organisation. In the 1930s, the idea of a separate nation-state and influential philosopher Sir Muhammad Iqbal's vision of uniting the four provinces in North-West British India further supported the rationale of the two-nation theory. With global events leading up to World War II and the Congress party's effective protest against the United Kingdom unilaterally involving India in the war without consulting the Indian people, the Muslim League went on to support the British war efforts.
The Muslim League played a decisive role in the 1940s, becoming a driving force behind the division of India along religious lines and the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state in 1947. After the partition and subsequent establishment of Pakistan, the Muslim League continued as a minor party in India where it was part of the government. In Bangladesh, the Muslim League was revived in 1976 but it was reduced in size, rendering it insignificant in the political arena. In India, the Indian Union Muslim League and in Pakistan the Pakistan Muslim League became the original successors of the All-India Muslim League. Despite efforts by the pioneers of the Congress to attract Muslims to their sessions the majority of the Muslim leadership, such as Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Syed Ameer Ali, rejected the notion that India's "two distinct communities" could be represented by the Congress. In 1886, Sir Syed founded the Muhammadan Educational Conference, but a self-imposed ban prevented it from discussing politics.
Its original goal was to advocate for British education science and literature, among India's Muslims. The conference, in addition to generating funds for Sir Syed's Aligarh Muslim University, motivated the Muslim upper class to propose an expansion of educational uplift elsewhere, known as the Aligarh Movement. In turn, this new awareness of Muslim needs helped stimulate a political consciousness among Muslim elites, who went on to form the All-India Muslim League; the formation of a Muslim political party on the national level was seen as essential by 1901. The first stage of its formation was the meeting held at Lucknow in September 1906, with the participation of representatives from all over India; the decision for re-consideration to form the all-Indian Muslim political party was taken and further proceedings were adjourned until the next meeting of the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference. The Simla Deputation reconsidered the issue in October 1906 and decided to frame the objectives of the party on the occasion of the annual meeting of the Educational Conference, scheduled to be held in Dhaka.
Meanwhile, Nawab Salimullah Khan published a detailed scheme through which he suggested the party to be named All-India Muslim Confederacy. Pursuant upon the decisions taken earlier at the Lucknow meeting and in Simla, the annual meeting of the All-India Muhammadan Educational Conference was held in Dhaka from 27 December until 30 December 1906. Three thousand delegates attended, headed by both Nawab Waqar-ul-Mulk and Nawab Muhasan-ul-Mulk, in which they explained its objectives and stressed the unity of Muslims under the banner of an association, it was formally proposed by Nawab Salimullah Khan and supported by Hakim Ajmal Khan, Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, Zafar Ali Khan, Syed Nabiullah, a barrister from Lucknow, Syed Zahur Ahmad, an eminent lawyer, as well as several others. The Muslim League's insistence on separate electorates and reserved seats in the Imperial Council were granted in the Indian Councils Act after the League held protests in India and lobbied London; the draft proposals for the reforms communicated on 1 October 1908 provided Muslims with reserved seats in all councils, with nomination only being maintained in Punjab.
The communication displayed how much the Government had accommodated Muslim demands and showed an increase in Muslim representation in the Imperial and provincial legislatures. But the Muslim League's demands were only met in UP and Madras. However, the Government did accept the idea of separate electorates; the idea had not been accepted by the Secretary of State, who proposed mixed electoral colleges, causing the Muslim League to agitate and the Muslim press to protest what they perceived to be a betrayal of the Viceroy's assurance to the Simla deputation. On 23 February Morley told the House of Lords that Muslims demanded separate representation and accepted them; this was the League's first victory. But the Indian Councils Bill did not satisfy the demands of the Muslim League, it was based on the October 1908 communique. The Muslim League's London branch opposed the bill and in a debate obtained the support of several parliamentarians. In 1909 the members of the Muslim League organised a Muslim protest.
The Reforms Committee of Minto's council believed that Muslims had a point and advised Minto to discuss with some Muslim leaders. The Government offered a few more seats to Muslims in compromise but would not agree to satisfy the League's demand. Minto believed that the Muslims had been given enough while Morley was still not certain because of the pressure Muslims could apply on the government; the Muslim League's central committee once ag
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was an Indian activist, the leader of the Indian independence movement against British colonial rule. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world; the honorific Mahātmā was applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa – is now used worldwide. In India, he was called Bapu, a term that he preferred and Gandhi ji, is known as the Father of the Nation. Born and raised in a Hindu merchant caste family in coastal Gujarat and trained in law at the Inner Temple, Gandhi first employed nonviolent civil disobedience as an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, in the resident Indian community's struggle for civil rights. After his return to India in 1915, he set about organising peasants and urban labourers to protest against excessive land-tax and discrimination. Assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for various social causes and for achieving Swaraj or self-rule.
Gandhi led Indians in challenging the British-imposed salt tax with the 400 km Dandi Salt March in 1930, in calling for the British to Quit India in 1942. He was imprisoned upon many occasions, in both South Africa and India, he lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn hand-spun on a charkha. He ate simple vegetarian food, undertook long fasts as a means of both self-purification and political protest. Gandhi's vision of an independent India based on religious pluralism was challenged in the early 1940s by a new Muslim nationalism, demanding a separate Muslim homeland carved out of India. In August 1947, Britain granted independence, but the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two dominions, a Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan; as many displaced Hindus and Sikhs made their way to their new lands, religious violence broke out in the Punjab and Bengal. Eschewing the official celebration of independence in Delhi, Gandhi visited the affected areas, attempting to provide solace.
In the months following, he undertook several fasts unto death to stop religious violence. The last of these, undertaken on 12 January 1948 when he was 78 had the indirect goal of pressuring India to pay out some cash assets owed to Pakistan; some Indians thought. Among them was Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist, who assassinated Gandhi on 30 January 1948 by firing three bullets into his chest. Captured along with many of his co-conspirators and collaborators and his co-conspirator Narayan Apte were tried and executed while many of their other accomplices were given prison sentences. Gandhi's birthday, 2 October, is commemorated in India as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, worldwide as the International Day of Nonviolence. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2 October 1869 into a Gujarati Hindu Modh Baniya family in Porbandar, a coastal town on the Kathiawar Peninsula and part of the small princely state of Porbandar in the Kathiawar Agency of the Indian Empire, his father, Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi, served as the diwan of Porbandar state.
Although he only had an elementary education and had been a clerk in the state administration, Karamchand proved a capable chief minister. During his tenure, Karamchand married four times, his first two wives died young, after each had given birth to a daughter, his third marriage was childless. In 1857, Karamchand sought his third wife's permission to remarry. Karamchand and Putlibai had three children over the ensuing decade: Laxmidas. On 2 October 1869, Putlibai gave birth to her last child, Mohandas, in a dark, windowless ground-floor room of the Gandhi family residence in Porbandar city; as a child, Gandhi was described by his sister Raliat as "restless as mercury, either playing or roaming about. One of his favourite pastimes was twisting dogs' ears." The Indian classics the stories of Shravana and king Harishchandra, had a great impact on Gandhi in his childhood. In his autobiography, he admits, he writes: "It haunted me and I must have acted Harishchandra to myself times without number."
Gandhi's early self-identification with truth and love as supreme values is traceable to these epic characters. The family's religious background was eclectic. Gandhi's father Karamchand was Hindu and his mother Putlibai was from a Pranami Vaishnava Hindu family. Gandhi's father was of Modh Baniya caste in the varna of Vaishya, his mother came from the medieval Krishna bhakti-based Pranami tradition, whose religious texts include the Bhagavad Gita, the Bhagavata Purana, a collection of 14 texts with teachings that the tradition believes to include the essence of the Vedas, the Quran and the Bible. Gandhi was influenced by his mother, an pious lady who "would not think of taking her meals without her daily prayers...she would take the hardest vows and keep them without flinching. To keep two or three consecutive fasts was nothing to her."In 1874, Gandhi's father Karamchand left Porbandar for the smaller state of Rajkot, where he became a counsellor to its ruler, the Thakur Sahib.