The Mahican are an Eastern Algonquian Native American tribe, Algonquian-speaking. As part of the Eastern Algonquian family of tribes, they are related to the abutting Lenape, who occupied territory to the south as far as the Atlantic coast; the Mahican occupied the upper tidal Hudson River Valley, including the confluence of the Mohawk River and into western New England centered on the upper Housatonic watershed. After 1680, due to conflicts with the Mohawk during the Beaver Wars, many were driven southeastward across the present-day Massachusetts western border and the Taconic Mountains to Berkshire County around Stockbridge, Massachusetts. Since the forcible relocation of Native American populations to reservations in the American West during the 1830s, most descendants of the Mahican are located in Shawano County, Wisconsin. Decades they formed the federally recognized Stockbridge-Munsee Community with registered members of the Munsee people and have a 22,000-acre reservation. Following the disruption of the American Revolutionary War, most of the Mahican descendants first migrated westward to join the Iroquois Oneida on their reservation in central New York.
The Oneida gave them about 22,000 acres for their use. After more than two decades, in the 1820s and 1830s, the Oneida and the Stockbridge moved again, pressured to relocate to northeastern Wisconsin under the federal Indian Removal program; the tribe identified by the place where they lived: "Muh-he-ka-neew" The word Muh-he-kan refers to a great sea or body of water, the Hudson River reminded them of their place of origin, so they named the Hudson River "Mahicanituck," or the river where there are people from the continually flowing waters. Therefore, along with other tribes living along the Hudson River, were called "the River Indians" by the Dutch and English; the Dutch heard and wrote the term for the people of the area variously as: Mahigan, Mahinganak and Mawhickon, among other variants, which the English simplified to Mahican or Mohican, in a transliteration to their spelling system. The French, adopting names used by their Indian allies in Canada, knew the Mahican as the Loups. Like the Munsee and Wappinger peoples, the Mahican were related to the Lenape people, who occupied coastal areas from western Long Island to the Delaware River valley to the south.
In the late twentieth century, the Mahican joined other former New York tribes and the Oneida in filing land claims against New York state for what were considered unconstitutional purchases after the Revolutionary War. In 2010, outgoing governor David Paterson announced a land exchange with the Stockbridge-Munsee that would enable them to build a large casino on 330 acres in Sullivan County in the Catskills, in exchange for dropping their larger claim in Madison County; the deal had many opponents. The Mahican were living in and around the Hudson River at the time of their first contact with Europeans traders along the river in the 1590s. After 1609 at the time of the Dutch settlement of New Netherland, they ranged along the eastern Mohawk River and the Hoosic River. Most of their communities lay along the upper tidal reaches of the Hudson River and along the watersheds of Kinderhook-Claverack-Taghkanic Creek, the Roeliff Jansen Kill, Catskil Creek, adjacent areas of the Housatonic Watershed.
Mahican territory reached along Hudson River watersheds northeastward to Wood Creek just south of Lake Champlain. In their own language, the Mahican identified collectively as the Muhhekunneuw', "people of the great tidal river". Mahican villages were large. Consisting of 20 to 30 mid-sized longhouses, they were located on hills and fortified, their large cornfields were located nearby. Agriculture and gathering of nuts and roots provided most of their diet, but was supplemented by the men hunting game, fishing. Mahican villages were governed by hereditary sachems advised by a council of clan elders. A general council of sachems met at Shodac to decide important matters affecting the entire confederacy. In his history of the Indians of the Hudson River, Edward Manning Ruttenber described the clans of the Mahicans as the Bear, the Turkey, the Turtle, the Wolf, with the Wolf serving as a defensive shield in the north against the Mohawk. Like their Munsee-speaking relatives to the south, Mahican villages followed a dispersed settlement pattern, with each community dominated by a single lineage or clan.
Consisting of a small cluster of small and mid-sized longhouses, they were located along floodplains. During times of war, they built fortifications in defensive locations as places of retreat, their cornfields were located near to their communities. Horticulture and gathering of nuts and roots provided much of their diet; this was supplemented by fishing. Mahican communities were governed by hereditary sachems advised by a council of clan elders. A general council of sachems met at Schodac to decide important matters affecting the en
Hoxton is an area of East London, part of the London Borough of Hackney, England. Together with the rest of Shoreditch, it is described as part of the East End, the historic core of wider East London. Hoxton lies north of the City of London financial district, forming the western part of Shoreditch; the area has never been formally defined, but approximates to an area bordered by the Regent's Canal on the north side, Wharf Road and City Road to the west, Old Street to the south, Kingsland Road to the east. There is a Hoxton electoral ward; the area forms part of the Hackney Shoreditch parliamentary constituency. "Hogesdon" is first recorded in the Domesday Book, meaning an Anglo-Saxon farm belonging to Hoch, or Hocq. Little is recorded of the origins of the settlement, though there was Roman activity around Ermine Street, which ran to the east of the area from the 1st century. In medieval times, Hoxton formed a rural part of Shoreditch parish, it achieved independent ecclesiastical status in 1826 with the founding of its own parish church dedicated to St John the Baptist, though civil jurisdiction was still invested in the Shoreditch vestry.
The Worshipful Company of Haberdashers remains Patron of the advowson of the parish of St John's. In 1415, the Lord Mayor of London "caused the wall of the City to be broken towards Moorfields, built the postern called Moorgate, for the ease of the citizens to walk that way upon causeways towards Islington and Hoxton" – at that time, still marshy areas; the residents responded by harassing walkers to protect their fields. A century the hedges and ditches were destroyed, by order of the City, to enable City dwellers to partake in leisure at Hoxton. By Tudor times many moated manor houses existed to provide ambassadors and courtiers country air nearby the City; this included many Catholics, attracted by the house of the Portuguese Ambassador, who, in his private chapel, celebrated the masses forbidden in a Protestant country. One such resident was Sir Thomas Tresham, imprisoned here by Elizabeth I of England for harbouring Catholic priests; the open fields to the north and west were used for archery practice, on 22 September 1598 the playwright Ben Jonson fought a fatal duel in Hoxton Fields, killing actor Gabriel Spencer.
Jonson was able to prove his literacy. Hoxton's public gardens were a popular resort from the overcrowded City streets, it is reputed that the name of Pimlico came from the publican, Ben Pimlico, his particular brew. Have at thee my merrie boyes, beg for old Ben Pimlico’s nut-brown ale; the gardens appear to have been situated near Hoxton Street, known at that time, as Pimlico Path. The modern area of Pimlico derives its name from its former use in Hoxton. On 26 October 1605 Hoxton achieved notoriety, when a letter arrived at the home of local resident William Parker, Lord Monteagle warning him not to attend the Parliament summoned by James I to convene on 5 November, because "yet I say they shall receive a terrible blow, the Parliament, yet they shall not see who hurts them"; the letter may have been sent by his brother-in-law Francis Tresham, or he may have written it himself, to curry favour. The letter was read aloud at supper, before prominent Catholics, he delivered it to Robert Cecil at Whitehall.
While the conspirators were alerted, by the public reading, to the existence of the letter they persevered with their plot as their gunpowder remained undiscovered. William Parker accompanied Thomas Howard, the Lord Chamberlain, at his visit to the undercroft of Parliament, where Guy Fawkes was found in the early hours of 5 November. Most of the conspirators fled on the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot, but Francis Tresham was arrested a few days at his house in Hoxton. A commemorative plaque is attached to modern flats at the site of Parker's house in Hoxton Street. By the end of the 17th century the nobility's estates began to be broken up. Many of these large houses became to be used as schools, hospitals or mad houses, with almshouses being built on the land between by benefactors, most of whom were City liverymen. Aske's Almshouses were built on Pitfield Street in 1689 from Robert Aske's endowment for 20 poor haberdashers and a school for 20 children of freemen. Hoxton House, was established as a private asylum in 1695.
It was owned by the Miles family, expanded into the surrounding streets being described by Coleridge as the Hoxton madhouse. Here fee-paying'gentle and middle class' people took their exercise in the extensive grounds between Pitfield Street and Kingsland Road. Over 500 pauper lunatics resided in closed wards, it remained the Naval Lunatic Asylum until 1818; the asylum closed in 1911. At this time Hoxton Square and Charles Square were laid out. Non-conformist sects were attracted to the area, away from the restrictions of the City's regulations. In the Victorian era the railways made travelling to distant suburbs easier, this combined with infill building and industrialisation to drive away the wealthier classes, leaving Hoxton a concentration of the poor with many slums; the area became a centre for the furniture trade. In the 1860s Hoxton Square became home to the Augustinian Priory and school of St Monica built 1864-66 and the first Augustinian House in Englan
Fran Healy (musician)
Francis "Fran" Healy is a British musician. He is the lead singer and main songwriter of the band Travis, having written nearly all of the songs on their first six studio albums, with the 8th being more of a co-written work, he is based in Berlin. Healy released his debut solo album titled Wreckorder in October 2010, which featured Paul McCartney on bass. Although born in Stafford, Healy grew up in Glasgow, Scotland – his parents' hometown, his mother had moved back to Scotland after divorcing her husband. Healy has said that both his grandmother were major influences on him as a child. Healy attended Holyrood Secondary School in Glasgow; as a young child at primary school, he was awarded a book of Rabbie Burns poems and a certificate "For Outstanding Singing Abilities" after singing the old Scottish song "Westering Home" while dressed in a kilt. However, Healy showed no further interest in singing until his teens, his obsession with song writing began to take shape when he got his first guitar in 1986 at the age of 13, having seen Roy Orbison perform his hit Pretty Woman on The Last Resort with Jonathan Ross.
First songs played on the guitar were old rock'n'roll numbers like "Johnny B. Goode" and "Three Steps to Heaven" by Eddie Cochran, his first complete song was written about the Headmaster of his school, Peter Mullen entitled "Mr. Mullen Blues", with a sample lyric: "...and there was Pete Mullen, with his pie and beans. It was I smelled it, it filled the room; some wee bugger lit a match and the whole place went Ka-BOOM... Where's your tie boy, Pick up that can. Get in line girl, do you understand... Cause his name is big Pete Mullen... And he's a man", he failed to move judges. He played in several school bands. In 1991, Neil Primrose, the drummer of Glasgow band Glass Onion, asked Healy if he would like to audition for the band. Healy joined the band on the same day; this band soon changed their name to Travis, named after the main character in the Wim Wenders movie Paris, Texas. Travis' first single, "All I Want to Do Is Rock", was written by Healy while on a visit to Millport on Great Cumbrae, a small island in the Firth of Clyde.
Going there with the sole intention of composing the best song he had written, Healy surprised himself when the track was born. In spite of Healy's success as a songwriter since, he is without formal musical training; as the band has risen to prominence, Healy has continued to be Travis' main songwriter, as well as the band's main spokesman and most recognisable member. Travis has twice been awarded British album of the year at the annual BRIT Awards, is credited as having paved the way for British bands such as Coldplay and Keane. Travis have released eight studio albums, beginning with Good Feeling in 1997. Although Healy predominantly plays guitar, he has been known to write and perform with piano. In 2010 Healy released the solo album Wreckorder, which featured Paul McCartney on bass and Neko Case, he appeared on the BBC's last night of the proms celebrations in Scotland on 10 September 2011 in the Caird Hall in Dundee. He co-wrote the song "Here With Me" from The Killers' 2012 album Battle Born.
In interviews, Healy has talked of being influenced by songwriters such as Joni Mitchell, Paul McCartney and Graham Nash. Healy has since played with both Nash. Healy's songwriting has been praised by Elton John and Noel Gallagher. In 2005, Coldplay frontman Chris Martin called himself "a poor man's Fran Healy". Healy is a part of the movement Make Poverty History and has, alongside his band, played at the Live 8 concerts in both London and Edinburgh, he has participated in Band Aid 20's re-recording of Do They Know It's Christmas? – Healy and friend Nigel Godrich playing roles in its organization. He has so far made two trips to Sudan with the Save the Children Organization, for which he has just launched the biggest global campaign to help the ten million children who die unnecessarily each year to survive. Healy has taken part in and been a speaker at several anti-war demonstrations against the Iraq War. Since 1996, Healy has been in a relationship with German photographer and former make-up artist Nora Kryst.
Their first child, a son named Clay Kryst, was born in March 2006. After living in London for twelve years, the family moved to Berlin in February 2008, but still own a flat in London. Healy has an apartment in SoHo, New York City. During the late 1990s and early 2000s, Healy made the haircut "hoxton fin" famous. In January 2008, it was announced that Healy would curate a new talent compilation for Paul McCartney's Liverpool Institute for Performing Arts. In 2010, as a way to thank Paul McCartney for playing on his album and Nora Kryst both became vegetarian, agreed to raise their son that way as well. Healy is a keen runner, having been a member of the Glasgow athletics club Bellahouston Harriers in his youth, took part in the Berlin Relay Marathon in 2012. At the 2005 general election, Healy was reported to be a supporter of the Liberal Democrats. In a 2013 interview, speaking of an earlier interview in which he appeared to criticise Alex Salmond, he said "I came across as pro-Labour but the truth is I'm not pro-anyone."
1956 Fender Telecaster Sunburst 1958 Fender Telecaster Butterscotsch 1964 Fender Telecaster Black 1970 Fender Telecaster Natural White Fender Mustang Candy Apple Red Fender Mustang Olympic White Fender Thinline Telecaster Mahogany & Sunburst Martin 12 String Acoustic Martin D-18 Acoustic Vox AC30 Marshall Amplifiers Studio al
Mohawk Valley region
The Mohawk Valley region of the U. S. state of New York is the area surrounding the Mohawk River, sandwiched between the Adirondack Mountains and Catskill Mountains. As of the 2010 United States Census, the region's counties have a combined population of 622,133 people. In addition to the Mohawk River valley, the region contains portions of other major watersheds such as the Susquehanna River; the region is a suburban and rural area surrounding the industrialized cities of Schenectady and Rome, along with other smaller commercial centers. The 5,882 square miles area is an important agricultural center and encompasses the forested wilderness areas just to the north that are part of New York's Adirondack Park; the Mohawk Valley is a natural passageway connecting the Atlantic Ocean, by way of the Hudson Valley with the interior of North America. Native American Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy lived in the region, in the 17th century immigrants of Dutch, the 18th century German, Scottish settled the area, joined by Italians following the rapid industrialization of the mid-19th century.
During the 18th Century, the Mohawk Valley was a frontier of great political and economic importance. Colonists, such as Phillip Schuyler, Nicholas Herkimer, William Johnson, trading with the Iroquois set the stage for commercial and military competition between European nations, leading to the French and Indian Wars and the American Revolution. 100 battles of the American Revolution were fought in New York State, including the Battle of Oriskany and defense of Fort Stanwix. A series of raids against valley residents took place during the war; the Erie Canal was completed in 1825 as the first commercial connection between the American East and West. During the French and Indian War, the Mohawk Valley was of prime strategic importance. In addition, many settlements of the Mohawk, Britain's crucial Indian ally at the time of the war, were located in or near the valley. At the beginning of the war, the major British stronghold in the Mohawk corridor was Fort Oswego, located on Lake Ontario; the French captured and destroyed the fort after a short siege in 1756, the Mohawk Valley lay open to French advance as a result.
Although the French did not directly exploit this avenue of attack, its impact swayed some of the Iroquois tribes to the French side. The original inhabitants of common day Mohawk Valley are traced back as far as 10,000 plus years and included Algonquian people that relocated from the newly established Fort Orange Dutch trading post region as early as 1624, otherwise as the name implies, the inhabitants were and remained Mohawks; the name Mohawk Valley had its origins in the time period of 1614 and 1624-25 following the settlement of Dutch traders who established a post among the region of the Mohawk of Mohawk Valley as the Mohawk had become alliances and targets of the Indian Wars. The Mohawks of Mohawk Valley call themselves Kanien'keha'ka, "People of the Flint" in part due to their creation story of a powerful flinted arrow. Among other things, the traditional use of Mohawk Valley flint as Toolmaking Flint is only one attribution to the Mohawk Valley People of the Flint name. Schenectady Montgomery Fulton Herkimer Oneida OtsegoAlso, Schoharie County is sometimes considered to be part of the Mohawk Valley because the Schoharie Creek located in Schoharie County, is a major tributary that empties into the Mohawk River at Fort Hunter in Montgomery County.
Furthermore, the northern border of Schoharie County with Montgomery County is close to the Mohawk River. Montgomery CountyAmsterdam Canajoharie Fonda Fort Plain Fultonville Nelliston Palatine Bridge St. JohnsvilleFulton CountyGloversville JohnstownHerkimer CountyFrankfort Herkimer Ilion Little Falls MohawkOneida CountySherrill Rome UticaOtsego CountyCooperstown OneontaSchenectady CountyRotterdam SchenectadySchoharie CountyMiddleburgh Schoharie Cobleskill Mohawk Valley formula Burning of the Valleys Military Association Fort Johnson in the Mohawk Valley Mohawk Valley Heritage Corridor Commission For a fictional account of Mohawk prowess, see Moss, Robert; the Interpreter. New York City, NY: Tom Doherty. Pp. 53–65, 69, 94–96. ISBN 0-312-85739-X. Mohawk Valley is an important site in the video game Assassin's Creed III published by Ubisoft; the game takes place during the Revolutionary War era and features an assassin tasked with playing a role in the history of early America. The Mohawk Valley has an official preliminary to Miss New York and Miss America, Miss Mohawk Valley Scholarship Organization Mohawk Valley Views Video on YouTube
Kansas is a U. S. state in the Midwestern United States. Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita, with its most populated county being Johnson County. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north. Kansas is named after the Kansa Native American tribe; the tribe's name is said to mean "people of the wind" although this was not the term's original meaning. For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to diverse Native American tribes. Tribes in the eastern part of the state lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the western part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison. Kansas was first settled by European Americans in 1827 with the establishment of Fort Leavenworth; the pace of settlement accelerated in the 1850s, in the midst of political wars over the slavery debate. When it was opened to settlement by the U. S. government in 1854 with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, abolitionist Free-Staters from New England and pro-slavery settlers from neighboring Missouri rushed to the territory to determine whether Kansas would become a free state or a slave state.
Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in its early days as these forces collided, was known as Bleeding Kansas. The abolitionists prevailed, on January 29, 1861, Kansas entered the Union as a free state. By 2015, Kansas was one of the most productive agricultural states, producing high yields of wheat, corn and soybeans. Kansas, which has an area of 82,278 square miles is the 15th-largest state by area and is the 34th most-populous of the 50 states with a population of 2,911,505. Residents of Kansas are called Kansans. Mount Sunflower is Kansas's highest point at 4,041 feet. For a millennium, the land, Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans; the first European to set foot in present-day Kansas was the Spanish conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, who explored the area in 1541. In 1803, most of modern Kansas was acquired by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. Southwest Kansas, was still a part of Spain and the Republic of Texas until the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, when these lands were ceded to the United States.
From 1812 to 1821, Kansas was part of the Missouri Territory. The Santa Fe Trail traversed Kansas from 1821 to 1880, transporting manufactured goods from Missouri and silver and furs from Santa Fe, New Mexico. Wagon ruts from the trail are still visible in the prairie today. In 1827, Fort Leavenworth became the first permanent settlement of white Americans in the future state; the Kansas–Nebraska Act became law on May 30, 1854, establishing Nebraska Territory and Kansas Territory, opening the area to broader settlement by whites. Kansas Territory stretched all the way to the Continental Divide and included the sites of present-day Denver, Colorado Springs, Pueblo. Missouri and Arkansas sent settlers into Kansas all along its eastern border; these settlers attempted to sway votes in favor of slavery. The secondary settlement of Americans in Kansas Territory were abolitionists from Massachusetts and other Free-Staters, who attempted to stop the spread of slavery from neighboring Missouri. Directly presaging the American Civil War, these forces collided, entering into skirmishes that earned the territory the name of Bleeding Kansas.
Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state on January 29, 1861, making it the 34th state to join the United States. By that time the violence in Kansas had subsided, but during the Civil War, on August 21, 1863, William Quantrill led several hundred men on a raid into Lawrence, destroying much of the city and killing nearly 200 people, he was roundly condemned by both the conventional Confederate military and the partisan rangers commissioned by the Missouri legislature. His application to that body for a commission was flatly rejected due to his pre-war criminal record. After the Civil War, many veterans constructed homesteads in Kansas. Many African Americans looked to Kansas as the land of "John Brown" and, led by freedmen like Benjamin "Pap" Singleton, began establishing black colonies in the state. Leaving southern states in the late 1870s because of increasing discrimination, they became known as Exodusters. At the same time, the Chisholm Trail was opened and the Wild West-era commenced in Kansas.
Wild Bill Hickok was a marshal at Hays and Abilene. Dodge City was another wild cowboy town, both Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp worked as lawmen in the town. In one year alone, eight million head of cattle from Texas boarded trains in Dodge City bound for the East, earning Dodge the nickname "Queen of the Cowtowns." In response to demands of Methodists and other evangelical Protestants, in 1881 Kansas became the first U. S. state to adopt a constitutional amendment prohibiting all alcoholic beverages, repealed in 1948. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north; the state is divided into 105 counties with 628 cities, is located equidistant from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The geographic center of the 48 contiguous states is in Smith County near Lebanon; until 1989, the Meades Ranch Triangulation Station in Osborne County was the geodetic center of North America: the central reference point for all maps of North America. The geographic center of Kansas is in Barton County. Kansas is underlain by a sequence of horizontal to westward dipping sedimentary rocks.
A sequence of Mississippian and Permian rocks outcrop in the eastern and southern part of the state
The Pazyryk burials are a number of Saka Iron Age tombs found in the Pazyryk Valley of the Ukok plateau in the Altai Mountains, south of the modern city of Novosibirsk, Russia. Numerous comparable burials have been found in neighboring western Mongolia; the tombs are Scythian-type kurgans, barrow-like tomb mounds containing wooden chambers covered over by large cairns of boulders and stones, dated to the 4th–3rd centuries BCE. The spectacular burials at Pazyryk are responsible for the introduction of the term kurgan, a Russian word of Turkic origin, into general usage to describe these tombs; the region of the Pazyryk kurgans is considered the type site of the wider Pazyryk culture. The site is included in the Golden Mountains of Altai UNESCO World Heritage Site; the bearers of the Pazyryk culture were horse-riding pastoral nomads of the steppe, some may have accumulated great wealth through horse trading with merchants in Persia and China. This wealth is evident in the wide array of finds from the Pazyryk tombs, which include many rare examples of organic objects such as felt hangings, Chinese silk, the earliest known pile carpet, horses decked out in elaborate trappings, wooden furniture and other household goods.
These finds were preserved when water seeped into the tombs in antiquity and froze, encasing the burial goods in ice, which remained frozen in the permafrost until the time of their excavation. Because of a freak climatic freeze, some of the Altai-Sayan burials, notably those of the 5th century BCE at Pazyryk and neighbouring sites, such as Katanda and Tuekt, were isolated from external climatic variations by a protective layer of ice that conserved the organic substances buried in them. Certain geometric designs and sun symbols, such as the circle and rosette, recur at Pazyryk but are outnumbered by animal motifs; such Scythian features as zoomorphic junctures, i.e. the addition of a part of one animal to the body of another, are rarer in the Altaic region than in southern Russia. The stag and its relatives, figure as prominently in Altai-Sayan as in Scythian art."At Pazyryk too are found bearded mascarons of well-defined Greco-Roman origin, which were doubtless inspired by the Hellenistic kingdoms of the Cimmerian Bosporus."
The first tomb at Pazyryk, barrow 1, was excavated by the archaeologist M. P. Gryaznov in 1929. While many of the tombs had been looted in earlier times, the excavators unearthed buried horses, with them immaculately preserved cloth saddles and woven rugs including the world's oldest pile carpet, a 3-metre-high four-wheel funeral chariot from the 5th century BC and other splendid objects that had escaped the ravages of time; these finds are now exhibited at the Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg. Craniological studies of samples from the Pazyryk burials determined that skulls were of Europoid type, with some showing Mongoloid features. Rudenko's most striking discovery was the body of a tattooed Pazyryk chief: a thick-set, powerfully built man who had died when he was about 50. Parts of the body had deteriorated, but much of the tattooing was still visible. Subsequent investigation using reflected infrared photography revealed that all five bodies discovered in the Pazyryk kurgans were tattooed.
No instruments designed for tattooing were found, but the Pazyryks had fine needles with which they did miniature embroidery, these were used for tattooing. The chief was elaborately decorated with an interlocking series of striking designs representing a variety of fantastic beasts; the best preserved tattoos were images of a donkey, a mountain ram, two stylized deer with long antlers and an imaginary carnivore on the right arm. Two monsters resembling griffins decorate the chest, on the left arm are three obliterated images which seem to represent two deer and a mountain goat. On the front of the right leg a fish extends from the foot to the knee. A monster crawls over the right foot, on the inside of the shin is a series of four running rams which touch each other to form a single design; the left leg bears tattoos, but these designs could not be distinguished. In addition, the chief's back is tattooed with a series of small circles in line with the vertebral column; this tattooing was done for therapeutic reasons.
Contemporary Siberian tribesmen still practice tattooing of this kind to relieve back pain. The most famous undisturbed Pazyryk burial so far recovered is the Ice Maiden or "Altai Lady" found by archaeologist Natalia Polosmak in 1993 at Ukok, near the Chinese border; the find was a rare example of a single woman given a full ceremonial burial in a wooden chamber tomb in the fifth century BC, accompanied by six horses. She had been buried over 2,400 years ago in a casket fashioned from the hollowed-out trunk of a Siberian larch tree. On the outside of the casket were stylized images of deer and snow leopards carved in leather. Shortly after burial the grave had been flooded by freezing rain, the entire contents of the burial chamber had remained frozen in permafrost. Six horses wearing elaborate harnesses lay to the north of the chamber; the maiden's well-preserved body embalmed with peat and bark, was arranged to lie on her side as if asleep. She was young, her hair was shaven off but she was wearing a wig and tall hat.
The animal style tattoos were preserved on her pale skin: creatures with horns that develop into flowered forms. Her coffin was made large enough to accommodate the high felt headdress she