Mohenjo-daro is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Built around 2500 BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation, one of the world's earliest major cities, contemporaneous with the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Minoan Crete, Norte Chico. Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE as the Indus Valley Civilization declined, the site was not rediscovered until the 1920s. Significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980; the site is threatened by erosion and improper restoration. The city's original name is unknown. Based on his analysis of a Mohenjo-daro seal, Iravatham Mahadevan speculates that the city's ancient name could have been Kukkutarma. Cock-fighting may have had ritual and religious significance for the city, with domesticated chickens bred there for sacred purposes, rather than as a food source. Mohenjo-daro may have been a point of diffusion for the eventual worldwide domestication of chickens.

Mohenjo-daro, the modern name for the site, has been variously interpreted as "Mound of the Dead Men" in Sindhi, as "Mound of Mohan". Mohenjo-daro is located west of the Indus River in Larkana District, Pakistan, in a central position between the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River, it is situated on a Pleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley, around 28 kilometres from the town of Larkana. The ridge was prominent during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization, allowing the city to stand above the surrounding flood, but subsequent flooding has since buried most of the ridge in silt deposits; the Indus still flows east of the site, but the Ghaggar-Hakra riverbed on the western side is now dry. Mohenjo-daro has a hot desert climate with hot summers and mild winters; the highest recorded temperature is 53.5 °C, the lowest recorded temperature is −5.4 °C. Rainfall is low, occurs in the monsoon season. Mohenjo-daro was built in the 26th century BCE, it was one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization known as the Harappan Civilization, which developed around 3,000 BCE from the prehistoric Indus culture.

At its height, the Indus Civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India, extending westwards to the Iranian border, south to Gujarat in India and northwards to an outpost in Bactria, with major urban centers at Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Kalibangan and Rakhigarhi. Mohenjo-daro was the most advanced city of its time, with remarkably sophisticated civil engineering and urban planning; when the Indus civilization went into sudden decline around 1900 BCE, Mohenjo-daro was abandoned. The ruins of the city remained undocumented for around 3,700 years until R. D. Banerji, an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India, visited the site in 1919–20 identifying what he thought to be a Buddhist stupa known to be there and finding a flint scraper which convinced him of the site's antiquity; this led to large-scale excavations of Mohenjo-daro led by Kashinath Narayan Dikshit in 1924–25, John Marshall in 1925–26. In the 1930s major excavations were conducted at the site under the leadership of Marshall, D. K. Dikshitar and Ernest Mackay.

Further excavations were carried out in 1945 by his trainee, Ahmad Hasan Dani. The last major series of excavations were conducted in 1965 by George F. Dales. After 1965 excavations were banned due to weathering damage to the exposed structures, the only projects allowed at the site since have been salvage excavations, surface surveys, conservation projects. In the 1980s, German and Italian survey groups led by Michael Jansen and Maurizio Tosi used less invasive archeological techniques, such as architectural documentation, surface surveys, localized probing, to gather further information about Mohenjo-daro. A dry core drilling conducted in 2015 by Pakistan's National Fund for Mohenjo-daro revealed that the site is larger than the unearthed area. Mohenjo-daro has a planned layout with rectilinear buildings arranged on a grid plan. Most were built of mortared brick; the covered area of Mohenjo-daro is estimated at 300 hectares. The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History offers a "weak" estimate of a peak population of around 40,000.

The sheer size of the city, its provision of public buildings and facilities, suggests a high level of social organization. The city is divided into the so-called Citadel and the Lower City; the Citadel – a mud-brick mound around 12 metres high – is known to have supported public baths, a large residential structure designed to house about 5,000 citizens, two large assembly halls. The city had a central marketplace, with a large central well. Individual households or groups of households obtained their water from smaller wells. Waste water was channeled to covered drains; some houses those of more prestigious inhabitants, include rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, one building had an underground furnace for heated bathing. Most houses had inner courtyards, with doors; some buildings had two stories. In 1950, Sir Mortimer Wheeler identified one large building in Mohenjo-daro as a "Great Granary". Certain wall-divisions in its massive wooden superstructure appeared to be grain storage-

Cycling at the 1904 Summer Olympics – 1/3 mile

The ​1⁄3 mile was a track cycling event held as part of the Cycling at the 1904 Summer Olympics programme. It was the only time. 10 American cyclists competed. The names of 4 of the competitors are not known; the top two finishers in each heat advanced to the semifinals. The identities of the 6 cyclists competing in the third and fourth heats are unknown, though Marcus Hurley and Burton Downing were among the 4 who advanced to the semifinals; the 2 eliminated cyclists are unknown, as are the 2 who moved on along with Downing. The top two finishers in each semifinal advanced to the final. Hurley and Downing were the two winners in the second semifinal. Wudarski, Pawel. "Wyniki Igrzysk Olimpijskich". Archived from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2006.^ "St Louis 1904 Cycling Track - Results & Videos". International Olympic Committee. March 7, 2019

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