World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Wittenbergplatz (Berlin U-Bahn)
Wittenbergplatz is a Berlin U-Bahn station on the U 1, the U 2, U 3 lines. The station is located on Wittenbergplatz square in Berlin's City West area, in the northwestern corner of Schöneberg neighbourhood, it is the only U-Bahn station in the city with five adjacent tracks on three platforms. The station building, erected in 1911–1913 according to plans designed by Alfred Grenander, is listed as an architectural monument. Wittenbergplatz is one of the oldest U-Bahn stations in Berlin, opened on 11 March 1902 with the first Stammstrecke line running under the eponymous square and adjacent Tauentzienstraße, today one of the major shopping streets in Berlin. A common underground station with two tracks on two side platforms, it was refurbished as an interchange from 1910 onwards; the new station serving three U-Bahn lines opened on 1 December 1912 with two island platforms and one side platform, serving five tracks at one below ground level and under a single roof. The remarkable entrance hall in the centre of Wittenbergplatz square, designed in an Art Nouveau style by Alfred Grenander, was finished in 1913.
The station building was badly damaged during the bombing of Berlin in World War II and reconstructed afterwards. Wittenbergplatz became one of the most frequented stations of the West Berlin urban traffic network, though after the building of the Berlin Wall the present-day U2 line to Nollendorfplatz was closed in 1972 and not re-opened until 1993. From 1980 to 1983 the station was renovated in line with the precepts of monument perception by architect Borchardt, he won the prize of the Ministry of Architecture in 1986. Platform No. 1 features a sign donated by the London Transport Executive in 1952 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Berlin U-Bahn. It features the station's name in the distinctive red-and-blue roundel used on the London Underground
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, contiguous with its capital, Potsdam; the two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics.
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale, that once constituted, together with the River Elbe, the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city, it is therefore a canting arm. Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a Slavic-derived name: Pankow, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau. Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Buch, Gatow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Marzahn, Prenzlauer Berg, Schmöckwitz, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz and Zehlendorf; the neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from 1192, remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, subsequent members of the Hohenzol
U1 (Berlin U-Bahn)
U1 is a line on the Berlin U-Bahn, 8.8 kilometres long and has 13 stations. Its traditional line designation was BII, it runs east-west and its eastern end is south of the route of the historical Schlesischen Bahn at the Warschauer Straße S-Bahn station and runs through Kreuzberg, Wittenbergplatz on to the Kurfürstendamm. The eastern section of the line is the oldest part of the Berlin U-Bahn, although it is above ground; the U1 route was part of BII until 1957, where it was renamed to BIV until 1 March 1966. While the main section between Wittenbergplatz and Schlesisches Tor has been designated as line 1 since 1966, the western end of the line has changed twice, it was renumbered to Line "3" and "U3" in 1993, before being renamed U15 until 2004. The increasing traffic problems in Berlin at the end of the 19th century led to a search for new efficient means of transport. Inspired by Werner von Siemens, numerous suggestions were made for overhead conveyors, such as a suspension railway, as was built in Wuppertal, or a tube railway as was built in London.
Siemens and some prominent Berliners submitted a plan for an elevated railway on the model of New York. These people opposed Siemens' suggestion of building an overhead railway in the major street of Friedrichstrasse, but the city of Berlin opposed underground railways, since it feared damage to one of its new sewers. After many years and negotiations, Siemens proposal for an elevated railway line from Warschauer Brücke via Hallesches Tor to Bülowstraße was approved; this was only possible, because it passed through poor areas. The richer residents of Leipziger Straße pressed the city administration to prevent the line using their street. Siemens & Halske carried out all construction work and owned the line; the first sod was turned on 10 September 1896 in Gitschiner Straße. The construction work had to be carried out because the contract with the city of Berlin, signed with the granting of the concession, specified that the line had to be finished within two years, or a penalty of 50,000 marks would be payable.
The railway engineers developed a design for the supporting columns for the elevated railway, but it was unpopular and the architect Alfred Grenander was asked to submit an artistic solution for this problem. For the next 30 years Grenander was the house architect for the underground railway. After tough negotiations with the city of Charlottenburg it was decided to extend the line to Knie along the Tauentzienstrasse, but instead of being elevated it would be a subsurface railway; the management of the city of Berlin board of works regarded the idea of an underground railway sympathetically. Since the underground caused no apparent damage to the new sewer, an underground branch could be built from a junction at Gleisdreieck to Potsdamer Platz, Berlin’s city centre; the national government granted permission for the planning changes on 1 November 1900. The total length of the elevated and underground railway was now 10.1 kilometres. The largest part of the route 8 kilometres, would be established on viaducts and connect eleven elevated stations.
In addition there would be 2 kilometres of underground line with three underground stations. The planners believed that 8-carriage trains would not be needed and therefore designed it with 80 m-long platforms, sufficient only for 6-carriage trains; the first 6 kilometres of the line was finished in 1901 and on 15 February 1902 the first train ran on the line from Potsdamer Platz to Zoologischer Garten to Stralauer Tor and back to Potsdamer Platz. This allowed many prominent Berliners to participate in the opening trip, including the Prussian minister for public works, Karl von Thielen. On 18 February 1902 the first stage of the Berlin U-Bahn was opened. In March the line was extended to Zoologischer Garten and on 17 August it was extended by 380 m from Stralauer Tor to Warschauer Brücke. There were at that time only two lines: From Warschauer Brücke to Zoologischer Garten via Potsdamer Platz. From Warschauer Brücke directly to Zoologischer Garten. On 14 December the line was extended to Knie; the section between Gleisdreieck and Knie is now part of U2.
In the summer of 1907, the elevated railway company of the new city of Wilmersdorf suggested the building of an underground line to the Wilmersdorf area. It suggested a line to Nürnberger Platz and, if Wilmersdorf would pay to Breitenbachplatz. Since Wilmersdorf municipality had poor transport connections, the Wilmersdorf city fathers were pleased to take up this suggestion; the royal domain of Dahlem, south of Wilmersdorf and was still undeveloped supported a U-bahn connection and wanted it extended from Breitenbachplatz to Thielplatz. However, the future line would run through the city of Charlottenburg, which saw the city of Wilmersdorf as a major competitor for the settlement of wealthy ratepayers. Long negotiations ensued, until in the summer 1910 a solution was found: an additional line would be built under the Kurfürstendamm to Uhlandstraße. Work began on these lines in the same summer; the double-track Wittenbergplatz station, which only had two side platforms, had to be rebuilt. The new station required five platforms with a sixth prepared for an entrance hall.
The cities of Wilmersdorf and Charlottenburg submitted many suggestions for its design. The house architect of the elevated railway company, Alfred Grenander, was appointed to design the station on the recommendation of the royal police chief; the add
Mitte is the first and most central borough of Berlin. The borough consists of six sub-entities: Mitte proper, Hansaviertel, Moabit and Wedding, it is one of the two boroughs. Mitte encompasses Berlin's historic core and includes some of the most important tourist sites of Berlin like Museum Island, the TV tower, Checkpoint Charlie, Brandenburg Gate, Unter den Linden, Potsdamer Platz, the Reichstag and Berlin Hauptbahnhof, most of which were in former East Berlin; when Berliners refer to Mitte they mean the smaller locality rather than the larger borough. Mitte is located in the central part of Berlin along the Spree River, it borders on Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf in the west, Reinickendorf in the north, Pankow in the east, Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg in the southeast, Tempelhof-Schöneberg in the southwest. In the middle of the Spree lies Museum Island with its museums and Berlin Cathedral; the central square in Mitte is Alexanderplatz with the prominent Fernsehturm, Germany's highest building, the large railway station with connections to many subway, city trains and buses.
There are some important streets which connect Mitte with the other boroughs, e.g. the boulevard Unter den Linden which connects Alexanderplatz to the west with Brandenburg Gate and runs further as Straße des 17. Juni to the Victory Column and the centre of former West Berlin in Charlottenburg, or Karl-Marx-Allee from Alexanderplatz to Friedrichshain and the eastern suburbs; the former Mitte district had been established by the 1920 Greater Berlin Act and comprised large parts of the historic city around Alt-Berlin and Cölln. Brandenburg Gate was the western exit at the Berlin city boundary until 1861. Between 1961 and 1990, Mitte was the central part of East Berlin, however at the same time it was surrounded by the Berlin Wall at its north and west. There were some border control points, the most famous of, Checkpoint Charlie between Kreuzberg and Mitte, operated by the United States Army and its allies and was open to foreigners and diplomats. Two other checkpoints were at Heinrich-Heine-Straße/Prinzenstraße east of Checkpoint Charlie, open to citizens of West Germany and West Berlin and on Invalidenstraße in the north on the border with the West Berlin Tiergarten district.
The government district is located in the locality of Tiergarten around the Reichstag Building. Most institutions of the German government have their seat at the Regierungsviertel Bundestag, the German parliament in the old Reichstag Building Bellevue Palace, seat of the Federal President German Chancellery Offices of the Abgeordneten, members of the parliament, in the Paul-Löbe-Haus and the Marie-Elisabeth-Lüders-Haus Federal Ministry of the Interior Many embassies and the Federal Ministry of Defence in the historic embassy quarter in the south of the Tiergarten Park. Großer Tiergarten is the name of the biggest urban park in Mitte, located in the same-named locality; the Tiergarten Park was established as a hunting ground in the 16th century by the Prussian kings. Today its enclosed by densely built-up areas by Hansaviertel and Moabit in the north, the Government District in the east and the City West and the Embassy Quarter in the southwest. Many cultural monuments and memorials are located in the Tiergarten Park, like the Siegessäule, the Soviet War Memorial and a historic rose garden.
The Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, the biggest victim group of the Nazi-Diktatorship, is located on the east side of the park, near the Brandenburg Gate and the place where once Hitler's New Reich Chancellery was. The Kulturforum was built in the 1950s and 1960s at the edge of West Berlin, after most of the once unified city's cultural assets had been lost behind the Berlin Wall; the Kulturforum is characterized by its innovative modernist architecture. Among the cultural institutions housed in and around the Kulturforum are: Neue Nationalgalerie Gemäldegalerie Museum of Decorative Arts Musical Instrument Museum Kupferstichkabinett Art Library Berliner Philharmonie Chamber Music Hall Berlin State Library Ibero-American Institute Wissenschaftszentrum St. Matthäus-Kirche Berlin Alexanderplatz, a 1929 novel by Alfred Döblin Mitte 1, a 2013 novel by Albrecht Behmel Berlin Mitte, Norman Ohler Unter diesem Einfluss, Henning Kober The present-day borough of Mitte consists of six localities: As of 2010, the district had a population of 322,919, of whom 144.000 had a migration background.
In the former West Berlin areas of Wedding and Moabit, foreigners and Germans of foreign origin compose nearly 70% of the population, while in Mitte proper the share of migrants is low. The immigrant community is quite diverse, Turks, Eastern Europeans and East Asians form the largest groups. At the 2016 elections for the parliament of the borough the following parties were elected: SPD 14 Alliance'90/The Greens 14 The Left 10 CDU 7 Alternative for Germany 5 Free Democratic Party 3 Pirate Party 2 Higashiōsaka, Japan since 1959 Holon, Israel since 1970 Bottrop, Germany since 1983 Schwalm-Eder-Kreis since 1992 Shinjuku, Japan since 1994 Tsuwano, Japan since 1995 Tourcoing, France since 1995 VI. kerület, Hungary since 2005 Central Administrative Okrug, Russia since 2006 Berlin Mitte Official homepage Official homepage of Berlin
Wilhelmplatz was a square in the Mitte district of Berlin, Germany at the corner of Wilhelmstrasse and Voßstraße. The square gave its name to a Berlin U-Bahn station which has since been renamed Mohrenstraße. A number of notable buildings were constructed around the square, including the old Reich Chancellery, the building of the Ministry of Finance and the Kaiserhof grand hotel built in 1875; the square was laid out in 1721 over the course of the Friedrichstadt expansion and obtained the name Wilhelmplatz in 1749, after King Frederick William I of Prussia. Engineer and chairman of the state building commission Christian Reinhold von Derschau led the project, he was advised by the King's senior and court building directors, Johann Phillipp Gerlach and Johann Friedrich Grael who were in charge of the architectural design. Under their influence, the building commission decided on mandatory, narrowly defined guidelines so that the city would give off a harmonious, integrated feel; the plan was to lay out the streets in a traditional grid formation.
Yet, from 1732 onward, plans focused themselves around three primary North-South throughways that each radiated from the same circular public space, known as the Rondell. These major streets would come to be known as Wilhelmstraße, Friedrichstraße and Lindenstraße. According to a royal patent from July 29, 1734, the location of a large square on Wilhelmstraße was among the construction projects discussed. In 1737, for the first time, a Plan of the Royal Capital of Berlin demarcates a public square located in the northern third of the street opening up from its eastern side; the square came to be known as Wilhelms-Markt, a name it carried until 1749, when it was christened Wilhelmsplatz. The origin of its name is the Prussian "Soldier King" Frederick William I, who had an heavy influence on the architecture and expansion of the northern part of Wilhelmstraße. Early plans dictated a wide connection from the east side of the square to Mohrenstraße, "Am Wilhelmplatz" to be renamed Zietenplatz. Still, many historical maps show Zietenplatz as either a part of Wilhemplatz or Mohrenstraße.
It wasn't until the early 20th century that they lengthened Mohrenstraße to Wilhelmstraße past Wilhelmplatz and Zietenplatz. Going back to a wish of Frederick William I's, thirty large, aristocratic townhouses were built along northern Wilhelmstraße and on Wilhelmplatz itself starting around the 1730s; these functioned as lodging for the military, representatives of the court, other state authorities. The private contractors were each allocated valuable pieces of land free and the state subsidized a portion of the construction. In available literature, there is still disagreement as to whether these contractors saw this endeavor as a worthwhile honor or rather as a financial burden that they would have rather withdrawn from. In any case, they saw. One of the earlier construction plans recorded is a pen and ink drawing stemming from architect C. H. Horst in the year 1733. It's clear to see from the drawing that the magnificent townhouses were in the works from the beginning, and with the exception of the townhouse located in the northeast corner of the square, all of these rendered structures were at some point erected.
The newly featured area was dominated by Gerlach and Horst's Palais Marschall on the square's west side, which served as focal point of the old Mohrenstraße. The widening of the throughway to Wilhelmplatz – Zietenplatz – was intentionally conceived so as to allow a sweeping view of the grandiose structure as far as one ventured eastward; the next building over, Palais Schulenburg at Wilhelmstraße 77, was installed by architect Carl Friedrich Richter. While Friedrichstadt was otherwise characterized by a continuous house facade lining its streets and squares, central buildings were allowed forecourts flanked by peripheral wings of the house. However, in taking the Mohrenstraße into account during the construction of the neighboring Palais Marschall, this ensured that Palais Schulenburg was crowded into the northwest corner of Wilhelmplatz so that no room remained for any court. Beginning in 1878, the Palais Schulenburg became the official seat of the Imperial Chancellor; as with most property on the west of Wilhelmstraße between Unter den Linden and Leipziger Straße, both the Palais Marschall and the Palais Schulenburg possessed sprawling gardens that stretched west to the level of today's Ebertstraße.
They were fashioned in the style of a baroque decorative garden, but reaped plentiful fruit and vegetables for sale on the Berlin markets. After the surrounding buildings were repurposed for government use in the 19th century, this area became known as the "Ministergärten"; the first building erected was the Ordenspalais, serving as the seat of the Order of Saint John on the northern side of the square. The Order had taken over the completion of its construction after the premature death of its original developer. On the northern end of Wilhelmstraße it became apparent that there weren't enough private contractors for the property available. Frederick William I had to come to grips with the fact that, in order to populate the area, some corporations, state institutions and societies would need to resettle themselves from the southern part of the street, where they frequented. Accordingly, a gold and silver manufacturer set up shop in the southwest corner of Wilhelmplatz
Möckernbrücke (Berlin U-Bahn)
Möckernbrücke is a station of the Berlin U-Bahn network in the western Kreuzberg district, named after a nearby bridge crossing the Landwehrkanal. It is in the vicinity of Potsdamer Platz; the station located on a viaduct at the northern shore of the Landwehrkanal is part of the first Stammstrecke route of the Berlin U-Bahn opened on 15 February 1902. As the station served the nearby Anhalter Bahnhof the original building was soon getting too small to cope with the rising number of passengers, it therefore was demolished and replaced by the current station opened on 25 March 1937. Damaged by air raids it was closed on 30 January 1944 and not reopened until 16 June 1947. In the course of the extension of the U7 line from Mehringdamm to the west a twin underground station was built at the southern shore of the Landwehrkanal; the U7 platform opened on 28 February 1966 Möckernbrücke became the line's western terminus until the second continuation to Fehrbelliner Platz on 29 January 1971. The U1/U3 and U7 platforms are connected by a glazed bridge over the Landwehr Canal.
U 1U 3: The next station is Hallesches Tor or Gleisdreieck.