Table tennis known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball back and forth across a table using small rackets. The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net. Except for the initial serve, the rules are as follows: players must allow a ball played toward them to bounce one time on their side of the table, must return it so that it bounces on the opposite side at least once. A point is scored. Play demands quick reactions. Spinning the ball alters its trajectory and limits an opponent's options, giving the hitter a great advantage. Table tennis is governed by the worldwide organization International Table Tennis Federation, founded in 1926. ITTF includes 226 member associations; the table tennis official rules are specified in the ITTF handbook. Table tennis has been an Olympic sport since 1988, with several event categories. From 1988 until 2004, these were women's singles, men's doubles and women's doubles. Since 2008, a team event has been played instead of the doubles.
The sport originated in Victorian England, where it was played among the upper-class as an after-dinner parlour game. It has been suggested that makeshift versions of the game were developed by British military officers in India in around 1860s or 1870s, who brought it back with them. A row of books stood up along the center of the table as a net, two more books served as rackets and were used to continuously hit a golf-ball; the name "ping-pong" was in wide use before British manufacturer J. Jaques & Son Ltd trademarked it in 1901; the name "ping-pong" came to describe the game played using the rather expensive Jaques's equipment, with other manufacturers calling it table tennis. A similar situation arose in the United States, where Jaques sold the rights to the "ping-pong" name to Parker Brothers. Parker Brothers enforced its trademark for the term in the 1920s making the various associations change their names to "table tennis" instead of the more common, but trademarked, term; the next major innovation was by James W. Gibb, a British enthusiast of table tennis, who discovered novelty celluloid balls on a trip to the US in 1901 and found them to be ideal for the game.
This was followed by E. C. Goode who, in 1901, invented the modern version of the racket by fixing a sheet of pimpled, or stippled, rubber to the wooden blade. Table tennis was growing in popularity by 1901 to the extent that tournaments were being organized, books being written on the subject, an unofficial world championship was held in 1902. In 1921, the Table Tennis Association was founded, in 1926 renamed the English Table Tennis Association; the International Table Tennis Federation followed in 1926. London hosted the first official World Championships in 1926. In 1933, the United States Table Tennis Association, now called USA Table Tennis, was formed. In the 1930s, Edgar Snow commented in Red Star Over China that the Communist forces in the Chinese Civil War had a "passion for the English game of table tennis" which he found "bizarre". On the other hand, the popularity of the sport waned in 1930s Soviet Union because of the promotion of team and military sports, because of a theory that the game had adverse health effects.
In the 1950s, paddles that used a rubber sheet combined with an underlying sponge layer changed the game introducing greater spin and speed. These were introduced to Britain by sports goods manufacturer S. W. Hancock Ltd; the use of speed glue increased the spin and speed further, resulting in changes to the equipment to "slow the game down". Table tennis was introduced as an Olympic sport at the Olympics in 1988. After the 2000 Olympics in Sydney, the ITTF instituted several rule changes that were aimed at making table tennis more viable as a televised spectator sport. First, the older 38 mm balls were replaced by 40 mm balls in October 2000; this increased the ball's air resistance and slowed down the game. By that time, players had begun increasing the thickness of the fast sponge layer on their paddles, which made the game excessively fast and difficult to watch on television. A few months the ITTF changed from a 21-point to an 11-point scoring system, effective in September 2001; this was intended to make games more exciting.
The ITTF changed the rules on service to prevent a player from hiding the ball during service, in order to increase the average length of rallies and to reduce the server's advantage, effective in 2002. For the opponent to have time to realize a serve is taking place, the ball must be tossed a minimum of 16 cm in the air; the ITTF states. The international rules specify that the game is played with a sphere having a mass of 2.7 grams and a diameter of 40 millimetres. The rules say that the ball shall bounce up 24–26 cm when dropped from a height of 30.5 cm onto a standard steel block thereby having a coefficient of restitution of 0.89 to 0.92. Balls are now made of a polymer instead of celluloid as of 2015, colored white or orange, with a matte finish; the choice of ball color is made according to its surroundings. For example, a white ball is easier to see on a blue table than it is on a grey table. Manufacturers indicate the quality of the ball with a star rating system from one to three, three being the highest grade.
As this system is not standard across manufacturers, the only way a ball may be used in official competition is upon ITTF approval (the ITTF approval can be seen printed on the
The Safari Sevens is an annual rugby sevens tournament held in Nairobi, Kenya. The Safari Sevens is open to international representative sides and amateur clubs, invitational teams and school teams. Held at the RFUEA Ground, home of the Kenya Rugby Union, the tournament has since moved to the Nyayo National Stadium and since 2013 to the 60,000 seat Moi International Sports Centre to allow for increased number of spectators. Since the earliest days, rugby in Kenya had relied on a regular influx of foreign touring sides in order to test the mettle of the local teams and to provide opposition for the representative sides such as the Scorpions RFC and East Africa; the coming of professionalism to rugby in the 1990s all but dried up these tours and it was decided that a means had to be found of re-initiating the influx if the quality of rugby in the country was not to stagnate. The Rugby Patrons Society decided to put in place a seven-a-side tournament and invite a number of foreign national and club teams to participate.
Robin Cahill led a team of Patrons to run all the early competitions and oversee its integration into the Kenya Rugby Union's calendar. The trophy, a bronze of two elephants, is named in his memory; the inaugural tournament took place in 1996, Public School Wanderers, who had supported Kenyan rugby for many years, brought a strong squad as did the Welsh Exiles captained by future Welsh International captain, Colin Charvis. The tournament included several international teams as well as Selkirk RFC and a Cumbria Schoolboys team; the chairman of the referees was the famous English referee Ed Morrison and he took charge of the final between the Public School Wanderers and Zimbabwe. Chester Williams was there as guest of honor and to present the trophies to the winners which included Kenya and Cumbria Schoolboys who defeated Shujaa 29-10 in the Bowl Final. In 1999 the Kenya Rugby Football Union, now the Kenya Rugby Union and won the right to host the Africa Zone Qualifying Tournament for the 2001 Rugby World Cup Sevens Finals.
This qualification competition was combined with the 2000 tournament to make it into a longer 3 day festival of rugby rather than cancel the Safari Sevens. The Kenya sevens side did not therefore take part in the Safari Sevens. In the World Cup Qualifying tournament Kenya, captained by Sammy Khakame, defeated Swaziland and Madagascar at the beginning of day two and Namibia in the semi-finals on day three, thus qualifying to go to Argentina the next year as there were two slots open to the African Zone. Zimbabwe defeated Kenya in the final; the tournament would grow in stature with a large increase in crowds numbers. In 2004 the first women's team played in the tournament. In 2005 Fijian rugby great, Waisale Serevi played for Kenya A as a guest player. Since the tournament attracted the likes of London Irish, Emerging Springboks, Japan, Western Province, Golden Lions, Belgium Barbarians; the tournament has attracted a variety of international rugby players and coaches including Naas Botha in 1999, Waisale Serevi and Gordon Tietjens.
The 13th edition of the Safari Sevens saw a rise in the gate fee of KSh200 per person to KSh800, in addition the weather was colder than usual but this did not produce any reduction in the crowds. The spectators included Kenyan Deputy Prime Minister Musalia Mudavadi and former Kenyan Prime Minister Raila Odinga, as well as various other celebrities from the world of Kenyan show business ensuring a constant flow of Hummers and Range Rovers into and out of the car park; the Fiji Barbarians made their debut at the Safari Sevens in 2008. National teams taking part were Botswana, Emerging Springboks, France A, Namibia, Tunisia, Zambia and Kenya. In addition Samurai Sevens and the Kenya A sevens team and University of Paris took part. Bristol University Select returned to take part in the Safari Sevens yet again. Kenya won the competition beating the Emerging Boks in the final, 31–12; the continued increase in the number of people attending the event and this year's rise in admission caused many critics called for an upgrade in the quantity and quality of seating available for spectators.
Nine nations took part in the 2009 event. Other foreign teams included the perennial Bristol University Select from the UK, Hamilton Raiders RFC from South Africa, Les Bleus Sevens from France, Western Province schoolboys. There was a Kenyan invitation side the Chairman’s Select. Other local entrants included various Kenya club veterans sides and schools teams. Kenya Harlequins won the veterans competition beating a Rift Valley Academy Veterans 17–5, Western Province took the schools title with a 19–0 win over Nyanza, while Mwamba RFC I won the ladies title with a 54–0 win over Vivi; the refereeing cadre included the IRB elite referees Wayne David Rose of England. The tournament, under title sponsorship from Kenyan mobile telephony giant Safaricom, now known as the Safaricom Sevens, was hosted for
Kenya national football team
The Kenya national football team represents Kenya in international football. It is controlled by the Football Kenya Federation, the governing body of football in Kenya, competes as a member of the Confederation of African Football and the Council for East and Central Africa Football Associations, a sub-confederation of CAF that has jurisdiction in East and Central Africa; the team is colloquially known as the Harambee Stars and plays its home games at the Nyayo National Stadium in the country's capital, Nairobi. The team has never qualified for a FIFA World Cup finals. Kenya has appeared in five Africa Cup of Nations tournaments; the team entered its first FIFA World Cup qualifiers in 1974. As of 2018, they have never qualified for the final tournament. FIFA suspended Kenya from all football activities for three months in 2004, due to the interference of the government in football activities; the ban was reversed. On October 25, 2006, Kenya was suspended again from international football for failing to fulfill a January 2006 agreement made to resolve recurrent problems in their football federation.
FIFA announced that the suspension would be in force until the federation complies with the agreements reached. Kenya are coached by Sébastien Migné. Kenya has qualified for a major international tournament in 2019 cup finals since the 2004 AFCON; the current head coach Sébastien Migné was appointed in May 2018, since his appointment Kenya has climbed back into the top 100 FIFA ranked nations. In May 2017, the Football Kenya Federation signed a 3-year partnership with kits manufacturer Mafro Sports to provide the kits for all national teams, as well as junior categories; the national team will use red jerseys for home matches, white jerseys for away matches, green jerseys for matches played on neutral venues. On 8 September, Kenya earned a surprise win over four-time African champions Ghana, winning 1–0. Football at the African Games has been an under-23 tournament since 1991. CECAFA Cup: Winners: 1975, 1981, 1982, 1983, 2002, 2013, 2017 Runners-up: 1979, 1985, 1991, 1999, 2001, 2008, 2012 The following players have been selected for the 2019 AFCON Qualifier against Ghana on 23 March 2019.
The following 30 players have been called up to the Kenya squad within the past 12 months. Source: RSSSF Kenya at FIFA.com FoStats.com – Database of all Kenyan players and coaches Futaa.com – Kenyan Football Portal
Sport in Kenya
Sport in Kenya is an important element of Kenyan culture. Various indigenous traditional sports have prevailed in Kenyan culture from its earliest history; some of the traditional games and sports prevalent in Kenya since antiquity have included wrestling, racing exercises, stick fights, board games, bull fights and dances. Most modern sports in Kenya owe credit to the British colonisation. Professional teams in form of clubs were organised by colonial British settlers and Asian contractors as early as 1922, before the establishment of formal schools. Sports were introduced in schools in 1925; the syllabus for teaching sport through physical training in schools was produced in 1935. Football and athletics were the first sports to be professionally organized. Today, many sports are popular in Kenya, played both professionally and as recreational physical activities. Sports played in Kenya today include athletics, motor sports, Association football, rugby union, basketball and diving, team handball, rounders, shooting, bicycling, martial arts, Lawn Tennis, Table Tennis, Badminton, Canoeing, Goal Ball, Horse Riding/Equestrianism, Weightlifting, Archery, Roller Sports, Ice Hockey and Mountain Sports – Kenya.
Globally, Kenya is known for its dominance in middle-distance and long-distance races. Athletics was one of the two modern sports to be formally organized in Kenya. Kenya has produced Olympic and Commonwealth Games champions in various distance events in 800 m, 1,500 m, 3,000 m steeplechase, 5,000 m, 10,000 m and the marathons. Kenyan athletes continue to dominate the world of distance running, although competition from Morocco and Ethiopia has reduced this supremacy. Kenya's best-known athletes included the four-time women's Boston Marathon winner and two-time world champion Catherine Ndereba, former Marathon world record-holder Paul Tergat, John Ngugi; the question of why Kenyans are so dominant in distance running has given rise to various explanations involving topography, or bone structure, or diet. Retired Olympic and Commonwealth Games champion Kipchoge Keino helped usher in Kenya's ongoing distance dynasty 1970s and was followed by Commonwealth Champion Henry Rono's string of world record performances.
Kenya won several medals during the Beijing Olympics, 6 gold, 4 silver and 4 bronze, making it Africa's most successful Nation in the 2008 Olympics. New athletes gained attention, such as Pamela Jelimo, the women's 800m gold medalist who went ahead to win the Golden League jackpot, Samuel Wanjiru who won the men's marathon. Julius Yego became the first Kenyan field athlete to win a gold medal at the Commonwealth Games when he won the javelin title at the 2014 event in Glasgow; the following year he took Kenya's first World Championship gold in the field at the 2015 World Championships in Athletics in Beijing, where he set a new Commonwealth record of 95.72m on his way to victory. Kenyan runners have dominated the IAAF World Cross Country Championships in the past quarter century, maintaining with Ethiopia a stranglehold on the event; the junior men's team won 23 titles since 1988, the women's team has won four straight since 2009. Kenya's junior women have won 15 world championships. Five times – in 1991, 1993, 1995, 1996 and 2010 – Kenya had the champions in the men's and women's senior and junior races.
Only three Kenyan men have won individual world cross country titles in the men's division, two of them won multiple crowns. John Ngugi became the first man to win the world championship five times. Countryman Paul Tergat became the first man to win five times in a row. Edith Masai won the 4-kilometer women's short race three consecutive times. Runners from Kenya have run seven of the 10 fastest times for 26.2 miles. They have been among the most consistent winners in the World Marathon Majors: Boston, New York, Berlin and Tokyo. Ibrahim Hussein won the first of his three Boston Marathon victories in 1988, less than a year after winning the New York City Marathon. Hussein would have back-to-back victories at Boston in 1991–92. Kenyan men broke the tape at the Boston Marathon 20 times since 1988, including 10 times in a row from 1991 to 2000. Kenyan women have 10 victories at four of them by one woman; the notable winners: Cosmas Ndeti, who won three in a row from 1993–95, running a course record 2:07:15 in 1994.
Rita Jeptoo, who won in 2013 before the attack Hussein's win in the New York City Marathon in the fall of 1987 was the first by a runner of African descent in the event. Three years Douglas Wakiihuri won the race that begins in Staten Island and goes through Queens and the Bronx, ending in Manhattan's Central Park. Kenyan men won the race eight more ti
A swimming pool, swimming bath, wading pool, or paddling pool is a structure designed to hold water to enable swimming or other leisure activities. Pools can be built into the ground or built above ground, are a common feature aboard ocean-liners and cruise ships. In-ground pools are most constructed from materials such as concrete, natural stone, plastic or fiberglass, can be of a custom size and shape or built to a standardized size, the largest of, the Olympic-size swimming pool. Many health clubs, fitness centers and private clubs have pools used for exercise or recreation. Many towns and cities provide public pools. Many hotels have pools available for their guests to use at their leisure. Educational facilities such as universities have pools for physical education classes, recreational activities, leisure or competitive athletics such as swimming teams. Hot tubs and spas are pools filled with hot water, used for relaxation or hydrotherapy, are common in homes and health clubs. Special swimming pools are used for diving, specialized water sports, physical therapy as well as for the training of lifeguards and astronauts.
Swimming pools may be unheated. The "Great Bath" at the site of Mohenjo-Daro in modern-day Pakistan was most the first swimming pool, dug during the 3rd millennium BC; this pool is 12 by 7 metres, is lined with bricks, was covered with a tar-based sealant. Ancient Greeks and Romans built artificial pools for athletic training in the palaestras, for nautical games and for military exercises. Roman emperors had private swimming pools in which fish were kept, hence one of the Latin words for a pool was piscina; the first heated swimming pool was built by Gaius Maecenas of Rome in the 1st century BC. Gaius Maecenas was a rich Roman considered one of the first patrons of arts. Ancient Sinhalese built pairs of pools called "Kuttam Pokuna" in the kingdom of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka in the 4th century BC, they were decorated with flights of steps, punkalas or pots of abundance, scroll design. Swimming pools became popular in Britain in the mid-19th century; as early as 1837, six indoor pools with diving boards existed in England.
The Maidstone Swimming Club in Maidstone, Kent is believed to be the oldest surviving swimming club in Britain. It was formed in 1844, in response to concerns over drownings in the River Medway since would-be rescuers would drown because they themselves could not swim to safety; the club used to swim in the River Medway, would hold races, diving competitions and water polo matches. The South East Gazette July 1844 reported an aquatic breakfast party: coffee and biscuits were served on a floating raft in the river; the coffee was kept hot over a fire. The last swimmers managed to overturn the raft, to the amusement of 150 spectators; the Amateur Swimming Association was founded in 1869 in England, the Oxford Swimming Club in 1909. The presence of indoor baths in the cobbled area of Merton Street might have persuaded the less hardy of the aquatic brigade to join. So, bathers became swimmers, bathing pools became swimming pools.. In 1939, Oxford created its first major public indoor pool at Temple Cowley.
The modern Olympic Games started in 1896 and included swimming races, after which the popularity of swimming pools began to spread. In the US, the Racquet Club of Philadelphia clubhouse boasts one of the world's first modern above-ground swimming pools; the first swimming pool to go to sea on an ocean liner was installed on the White Star Line's Adriatic in 1906. The oldest known public swimming pool in America, Underwood Pool, is located in Belmont, Massachusetts. Interest in competitive swimming grew following World War I. Standards improved and training became essential. Home swimming pools became popular in the United States after World War II and the publicity given to swimming sports by Hollywood films such as Esther Williams' Million Dollar Mermaid made a home pool a desirable status symbol. More than 50 years the home or residential swimming pool is a common sight; some small nations enjoy a thriving swimming pool industry. A two-storey, white concrete swimming pool building composed of horizontal cubic volumes built in 1959 at the Royal Roads Military College is on the Registry of Historic Places of Canada.
According to the Guinness World Records, the largest swimming pool in the world is San Alfonso del Mar Seawater pool in Algarrobo, Chile. It has an area of 8 ha. At its deepest, it is 3.5 m deep. It was completed in December 2006; the largest indoor wave pool in North America is at the West Edmonton Mall and the largest indoor pool is at the Neutral Buoyancy Lab in the Sonny Carter Training Facility at NASA JSC in Houston. In 2014, the Y-40 swimming pool at the Hotel Terme Millepini in Padua, Italy became the deepest indoor pool, certified by the Guinness Book of World Records The recreational diving center Nemo 33 near Brussels, Belgium held the record until the Y-40 was completed; the Fleishhacker Pool in San Francisco was the largest heated outdoor swimming pool in the United States. Opened on 23 April 1925, it measured 1,000 by 150 ft and was so large that the lifeguards required kayaks for patrol, it was closed in 1971 due to low patronage. In Europe, the largest swimming pool opened in 1934 in Elbląg, providing a water area of 33,500 square metres (3
Ligi Ndogo Grounds
The Ligi Ndogo Grounds are a series of football pitches in Nairobi, Kenya. The dimensions of the main pitch stand at 100 m × 68 m. Called the Unga Grounds, the grounds have been the home Ligi Ndogo since 2002 and its professional team since 2005. Situated on a 4-acre plot, the grounds hosted the first Ligi Ndogo Academy season in January 2002, as such is home to its youth squads; the team's club house stands at the grounds. The Planets' first match was played on 13 June 2005 against Kariobangi Sharks, before proceeding to Manchester, England for the Umbro International Cup; the Sharks beat the Planets 5–0. Their first Nationwide League match was played against Kuwinda in 2006, in which the Planets won 7–1; the ground has been home to the annual Ligi Ndogo East Africa Tournament that includes teams from all East African countries. In 2008 it hosted the Ligi Ndogo Inter-centre tournament. Ligi Ndogo is located along Ngong Road, it is 6.4 kilometres from Nairobi's central business district
Volleyball is a popular team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules, it has been a part of the official program of the Summer Olympic Games since Tokyo 1964. The complete rules are extensive, but play proceeds as follows: a player on one of the teams begins a'rally' by serving the ball, from behind the back boundary line of the court, over the net, into the receiving team's court; the receiving team must not let the ball be grounded within their court. The team may touch the ball up to 3 times, but individual players may not touch the ball twice consecutively; the first two touches are used to set up for an attack, an attempt to direct the ball back over the net in such a way that the serving team is unable to prevent it from being grounded in their court. The rally continues, with each team allowed as many as three consecutive touches, until either: a team makes a kill, grounding the ball on the opponent's court and winning the rally.
The team that wins the rally serves the ball to start the next rally. A few of the most common faults include: causing the ball to touch the ground or floor outside the opponents' court or without first passing over the net; the ball is played with the hands or arms, but players can strike or push the ball with any part of the body. A number of consistent techniques have evolved in volleyball, including spiking and blocking as well as passing and specialized player positions and offensive and defensive structures. In the winter of 1895, in Holyoke, William G. Morgan, a YMCA physical education director, created a new game called Mintonette, a name derived from the game of badminton, as a pastime to be played indoors and by any number of players; the game took some of its characteristics from other sports such as handball. Another indoor sport, was catching on in the area, having been invented just ten miles away in the city of Springfield, only four years before. Mintonette was designed to be an indoor sport, less rough than basketball, for older members of the YMCA, while still requiring a bit of athletic effort.
The first rules, written down by William G Morgan, called for a net 6 ft 6 in high, a 25 ft × 50 ft court, any number of players. A match was composed of nine innings with three serves for each team in each inning, no limit to the number of ball contacts for each team before sending the ball to the opponents' court. In case of a serving error, a second try was allowed. Hitting the ball into the net was considered a foul —except in the case of the first-try serve. After an observer, Alfred Halstead, noticed the volleying nature of the game at its first exhibition match in 1896, played at the International YMCA Training School, the game became known as volleyball. Volleyball rules were modified by the International YMCA Training School and the game spread around the country to various YMCAs; the first official ball used in volleyball is disputed. The rules evolved over time: in 1916, in the Philippines, the skill and power of the set and spike had been introduced, four years a "three hits" rule and a rule against hitting from the back row were established.
In 1917, the game was changed from requiring 21 points to win to a smaller 15 points to win. In 1919, about 16,000 volleyballs were distributed by the American Expeditionary Forces to their troops and allies, which sparked the growth of volleyball in new countries; the first country outside the United States to adopt volleyball was Canada in 1900. An international federation, the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball, was founded in 1947, the first World Championships were held in 1949 for men and 1952 for women; the sport is now popular in Brazil, in Europe, in Russia, in other countries including China and the rest of Asia, as well as in the United States. Beach volleyball, a variation of the game played on sand and with only two players per team, became a FIVB-endorsed variation in 1987 and was added to the Olympic program at the 1996 Summer Olympics. Volleyball is a sport at the Paralympics managed by the World Organization Volleyball for Disabled. Nudists were early adopters of the game with regular organized play in clubs as early as the late 1920s.
By the 1960s, a volleyball court had become standard in all nudist/naturist clubs. Volleyball has been part of the Summer Olympics program for both men and women since 1964. A volleyball court is 9 m × 18 m, divided into equal square halves by a net with a width of one meter; the top of the net is 2.43 m above the center of the court for men's competition, 2.24 m for women's competition, varied for veterans a