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Mojave Desert

The Mojave Desert is an arid rain-shadow desert and the driest desert in North America. It is in the North American Southwest within southeastern California and southern Nevada, it occupies 47,877 sq mi. Small areas extend into Utah and Arizona, its boundaries are noted by the presence of Joshua trees, which are native only to the Mojave Desert and are considered an indicator species, it is believed to support an additional 1,750 to 2,000 species of plants. The central part of the desert is sparsely populated, while its peripheries support large communities such as Las Vegas, Lancaster, Victorville, St. George; the Mojave Desert is bordered by the Great Basin Desert to its north and the Sonoran Desert to its south and east. Topographical boundaries include the Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Ridge to the west, the Sierra Nevada and the Inyo Mountains to the northwest, the San Gabriel Mountains and San Bernardino Mountains to the south; the mountain boundaries are distinct because they are outlined by the two largest faults in California – the San Andreas and Garlock faults.

The Mojave Desert displays typical range topography. Higher elevations above 2,000 ft in the Mojave are referred to as the High Desert. Large parts of the Mojave Desert are referred to as the "high desert", in contrast to the "low desert", the Sonoran Desert to the south. Most of the Mojave Desert is above 2,000 ft, with only Death Valley and the Colorado River basin in the east being lower; the Mojave Desert, however, is lower than the higher Great Basin Desert to the north. The Mojave Desert occupies less than 50,000 sq mi, making it the smallest of the North American deserts; the spelling Mojave originates from the Spanish language while the spelling Mohave comes from modern English. Both are used today, although the Mojave Tribal Nation uses the spelling Mojave; the Mojave Desert receives less than 2 inches of rain a year and is between 2,000 and 5,000 feet in elevation. The Mojave Desert contains the Mojave National Preserve, as well as the lowest and hottest place in North America: Death Valley at 282 ft below sea level, where the temperature surpasses 120 °F from late June to early August.

Zion National Park in Utah lies at the junction of the Mojave, the Great Basin Desert, the Colorado Plateau. Despite its aridity, the Mojave has long been a center of alfalfa production, fed by irrigation coming from groundwater and from the California Aqueduct; the Mojave is a desert of two distinct seasons. Winter months bring comfortable daytime temperatures, which drop to around 25 °F on valley floors, below 0 °F at the highest elevations. Storms moving from the Pacific Northwest can bring rain and in some places snow. More the rain shadow created by the Sierra Nevada as well as mountain ranges within the desert such as the Spring Mountains, bring only clouds and wind. In longer periods between storm systems, winter temperatures in valleys can approach 80 °F. Spring weather continues to be influenced by Pacific storms, but rainfall is more widespread and occurs less after April. By early June, it is rare for another Pacific storm to have a significant impact on the region's weather. Summer weather is dominated by heat.

Temperatures on valley floors can soar above 130 °F at the lowest elevations. Low humidity, high temperatures, low pressure, draw in moisture from the Gulf of Mexico creating thunderstorms across the desert southwest known as the North American monsoon. While the Mojave does not get nearly the amount of rainfall the Sonoran desert to the south receives, monsoonal moisture will create thunderstorms as far west as California's Central Valley from mid-June through early September. Autumn is pleasant, with one to two Pacific storm systems creating regional rain events. October is one of the sunniest months in the Mojave. After temperature, wind is the most significant weather phenomenon in the Mojave. Across the region windy days are common. During the June Gloom, cooler air can be pushed into the desert from Southern California. In Santa Ana wind events, hot air from the desert blows into the Los Angeles basin and other coastal areas. Wind farms in these areas generate power from these winds; the other major weather factor in the region is elevation.

The highest peak within the Mojave is Charleston Peak at 11,918 feet, while the Badwater Basin in Death Valley is 279 feet below sea level. Accordingly and precipitation ranges wildly in all seasons across the region; the Mojave Desert has not supported a fire regime because of low fuel loads and connectivity. However, in the last few decades, invasive annual plants such as some within the genera Bromus and Brassica have facilitated fire. This

Muhammad IV of Morocco

Moulay Muhammad ibn Abd al-Rahman known as Muhammad IV was the Sultan of Morocco from 1859 to 1873. He was a member of the Alaouite dynasty. Born in Fez, Moulay Muhammad was a son of the Alawite sultan Abd al-Rahman of Morocco. During his father's reign, Muhammad commanded the Moroccan army, defeated by the French at the Battle of Isly in August 1844. After the defeat, with his father's permission, Moulay Muhammad used his capacity as army chief to launch on a series of significant military reforms in 1845, he invited a group of Tunisian officers who had served in the Ottoman army to raise and train the first European-style regiment, the askari, as a supplement to the usual palace guards and tribal troops. Muhammad IV set up the madrasa al-Muhandisin, a military engineering school in Fez, supervised by the renegade French Count Joseph de Saulty. Muhammad IV hired writers to translate various European textbooks on science, he was involved in the translation of the works of scientists such as Legendre and Lalande.

He struck deals with British Gibraltar and Egypt to receive regular contingents of Moroccan soldiers for artillery training. Upon ascension to throne in August 1859, Muhammad IV was faced with his first test, the Spanish-Moroccan War governed by Isabella II of Spain. Raids by irregular tribesmen on the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla in northwest Morocco prompted Spain to demand an expansion of the borders of its enclave around Ceuta; when this was refused by Muhammad IV, Spain declared war. The Spanish navy bombarded Tangier and Tetouan. A large Spanish expeditionary force landed in Ceuta, which subsequently went on to defeat the Moroccan army at the Battle of Tétouan in February 1860; the humiliating Treaty of Wad Ras signed in April 1860 expanded the enclaves, but more worrisomely imposed a large indemnity payment on Morocco of 100 million francs, twenty times the government's budget. Provisions allowed the Spanish to hold Tetouan; the treaty ceded the enclave of Sidi Ifni, in southwestern Morocco, to Spain.

After the disappointment of defeat and the crushing financial burden of the Spanish treaty, Muhammad IV retired into passivity, dedicating himself to scholarly and intellectual interests in mathematics, astronomy and music, leaving political affairs to be handled by his palace slave and effective vizier, Si Moussa. As by treaty, half of the customs duties of all Moroccan ports were designated to pay the Spanish debt, the Alawite sultan's government was faced with a critical financial situation, launched the process of "qaidization". Traditionally, the Makhzen had an understanding with the semi-autonomous rural tribes, whereby the tribal leaders agreed to hand over a portion of the taxes they collected and to supply tribesmen to the sultan's army in times of war, but otherwise were left to manage their own affairs; the new financial difficulties from the colonial encroachment prompted the Makhzen to demand ever-greater exactions of troops and taxes from the tribes. As the tribes balked and began to refuse the higher taxes, the sultan decided to circumvent the elected tribal leaders, refusing to ratify their credentials, instead appointed qaids of his own choosing, imposing them upon the tribes.

The qaids were of the same tribal stock as the tribes they governed, but were instead ambitious men, chosen for their ruthless ability to crush rebellion and force the tribes to cough up. Designed as a centralizing move, this backfired, as the qaids, once esconsed in their tribal fiefs, proved more ungovernable than the amghars had been. During Muhammad IV's reign, Morocco began careening into feudalism, a process that accelerated during the reign of his successor, Hassan I. List of Kings of Morocco History of Morocco Abun-Nasr, J. M. A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press Laroui, A. "Morocco from the Beginning of the Nineteenth century to 1880" in J. F. Ade Ajayi, Africa in the Nineteenth Century until the 1880s. Paris: UNESCO. Pp.478-96 Martinière, H. M. P. de la Morocco, journeys in the kingdom of Fez and to the court of Mulai Hassan. London: Whittaker online Park, T. K. and A. Boum Historical Dictionary of Morocco. Lanham, Md: Scarecrow Pennell, C.

Morocco since 1830: a history. New York: New York University Press. Morocco Alaoui dynasty History of Morocco

Reilly Opelka

Reilly Opelka is an American tennis player. At 6 feet 11 inches tall, he is the joint-tallest ATP-ranked player along with Ivo Karlović, can serve in the low-140 mph range, he is a Junior Wimbledon Redbull ambassador. He has won two ATP singles titles and reached his career-high ranking of No. 31 in October 2019. Opelka moved from Michigan to Palm Coast, Florida at age 4, he didn't start playing tennis until he began training through USTA in Boca Raton at 17 years old. He credits Mark Losec, whom his father knew from playing golf, for much of his early development as a tennis player. Opelka was the best man at Fritz's wedding, his uncle is conservative radio personality Mike "@StuntBrain" Opelka. Opelka won the 2015 Junior Wimbledon tournament, defeating World No. 1 Taylor Fritz en route to beating Mikael Ymer in the final and reached the finals of the Boys' Doubles event at the 2015 Wimbledon Championships. Opelka made his ATP debut at the 2016 U. S. Men's Clay Court Championship. In August, Opelka won his first three career ATP matches at the BB&T Atlanta Open to reach the semi-finals at just his 3rd career ATP event.

This included a victory over 203 cm player No. 27 Kevin Anderson in which he saved two match points on Anderson's serve. He lost in the semi-finals to top seed John Isner, he continued his momentum with first round wins at the Los Cabos Open and the Cincinnati Masters where he defeated Sergiy Stakhovsky and Jérémy Chardy to move into the Top 300 of the ATP rankings. After struggling with a foot injury towards the end of the summer, Opelka returned to the USTA Pro Circuit for the indoor season and won his first ATP Challenger title in Charlottesville to finish the year just outside the Top 200. In 2017, Opelka got off to a good start to the season by qualifying for the Australian Open, he played No. 11 seed David Goffin in the first round and pushed him to five sets before taking the loss. At the 2017 Memphis Open, he recorded his only ATP Tour level win of the year over fellow Next Gen American Jared Donaldson. 2018 proved to be a breakthrough year for Opelka. He won three ATP Challenger titles in the year, becoming first American to achieve the feat since Bradley Klahn in 2014.

He won his first title of the season at the Bordeaux Challenger in May. In November he won back to back titles at the JSM Challenger, he finished as a runner-up at Cary Challenger and Oracle Challenger. On the ATP world Tour, he reached the quarterfinals at the Delray Beach Open, picking up his first Top 10 win of his burgeoning career, defeating world No. 8 Jack Sock in the second round over three sets. His solid performance at the ATP Challenger Tour earned him first career Top 100 year end finish in singles, ending the season at 99. At the 2019 Australian Open, Opelka created a huge upset when he defeated compatriot John Isner in the first round; this was the second Top 10 win of his career. On February 17, 2019, Opelka won his first ATP title, the New York ATP tournament. Opelka defeated Brayden Schnur in the final 6–1, 6–7, 7–6. On the way to winning the title, Opelka defeated the following opponents: Adrian Mannarino 2–6, 7–6, 6–4, Denis Istomin 6–7, 7–6, 1–0, Guillermo Garcia-Lopez 6–3, 6–4, John Isner 6–7, 7–6, 7–6.

This was the second time. Current through the 2019 Swiss Indoors. Opelka's match record against players who have been ranked in the top 10. Only ATP Tour main draw and Davis Cup matches are considered. * As of 28 October 2019. Opelka has a 4–4 record against players who were, at the time the match was played, ranked in the top 10. Reilly Opelka at the Association of Tennis Professionals Reilly Opelka at the International Tennis Federation