click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Molecular biology

Molecular biology is the branch of biology that concerns the molecular basis of biological activity in and between cells, including molecular synthesis, modification and interactions. William Astbury described molecular biology in 1961 in Nature, as:...not so much a technique as an approach, an approach from the viewpoint of the so-called basic sciences with the leading idea of searching below the large-scale manifestations of classical biology for the corresponding molecular plan. It is concerned with the forms of biological molecules and is predominantly three-dimensional and structural – which does not mean, that it is a refinement of morphology, it must at the same time inquire into function. While molecular biology was established as an official branch of science in the 1930s, the term wasn't coined until 1938 by Warren Weaver. At the time, Weaver was the director of Natural Sciences for the Rockefeller Foundation and believed that biology was about to undergo significant change due to recent advancements in technology such as X-ray crystallography.

Some clinical research and medical therapies arising from molecular biology are covered under gene therapy whereas the use of molecular biology or molecular cell biology in medicine is now referred to as molecular medicine. Molecular biology plays important role in understanding formations and regulations of various parts of cells which can be used to efficiently target new drugs, diagnose disease, understand the physiology of the cell. While researches practice techniques specific to molecular biology, it is common to combine these with methods from genetics and biochemistry; the following list describes a viewpoint on the interdisciplinary relationships between molecular biology and other related fields. Molecular biology is the study of molecular underpinnings of the processes of replication, transcription and cell function; the central dogma of molecular biology where genetic material is transcribed into RNA and translated into protein, despite being oversimplified, still provides a good starting point for understanding the field.

The picture has been revised in light of emerging novel roles for RNA. Biochemistry is the study of the chemical substances and vital processes occurring in live organisms. Biochemists focus on the role and structure of biomolecules; the study of the chemistry behind biological processes and the synthesis of biologically active molecules are examples of biochemistry. Genetics is the study of the effect of genetic differences in organisms; this can be inferred by the absence of a normal component. The study of "mutants" – organisms which lack one or more functional components with respect to the so-called "wild type" or normal phenotype. Genetic interactions can confound simple interpretations of such "knockout" studies. Much of molecular biology is quantitative, a significant amount of work has been done using computer science techniques such as bioinformatics and computational biology. Molecular genetics, the study of gene structure and function, has been among the most prominent sub-fields of molecular biology since the early 2000s.

Other branches of biology are informed by molecular biology, by either directly studying the interactions of molecules in their own right such as in cell biology and developmental biology, or indirectly, where molecular techniques are used to infer historical attributes of populations or species, as in fields in evolutionary biology such as population genetics and phylogenetics. There is a long tradition of studying biomolecules "from the ground up" in biophysics. One of the most basic techniques of molecular biology to study protein function is molecular cloning. In this technique, DNA coding for a protein of interest is cloned using polymerase chain reaction, and/or restriction enzymes into a plasmid. A vector has 3 distinctive features: an origin of replication, a multiple cloning site, a selective marker antibiotic resistance. Located upstream of the multiple cloning site are the promoter regions and the transcription start site which regulate the expression of cloned gene; this plasmid can be inserted into either bacterial or animal cells.

Introducing DNA into bacterial cells can be done by transformation via uptake of naked DNA, conjugation via cell-cell contact or by transduction via viral vector. Introducing DNA into eukaryotic cells, such as animal cells, by physical or chemical means is called transfection. Several different transfection techniques are available, such as calcium phosphate transfection, electroporation and liposome transfection; the plasmid may be integrated into the genome, resulting in a stable transfection, or may remain independent of the genome, called transient transfection. DNA coding for a protein of interest is now inside a cell, the protein can now be expressed. A variety of systems, such as inducible promoters and specific cell-signaling factors, are available to help express the protein of interest at high levels. Large quantities of a protein can be extracted from the bacterial or eukaryotic cell; the protein can be tested for enzymatic activity under a variety of situations, the protein may be crystallized so its tertiary structure can be studied, or, in the pharmaceutical industry, the activity of new drugs against the protein can be studied.

Polymerase chain reaction is an versatile technique for copying DNA. In brief, PCR allows a specific DNA sequence to be modified in predetermined ways; the reaction is powerful and under perfect conditions could amplify one DNA molecule to become 1.07 billion molecules in less than two hours. The PCR technique can be used to

Petrovac, Budva

Petrovac known as Petrovac na Moru, is a coastal town in Montenegro, within Budva Municipality. Petrovac is located on the coast between Budva and Bar, where the old mountain road from Podgorica reaches the coast, it has a 600 m long sandy beach and it is a popular tourist destination. Petrovac is seen as a somewhat "calmer" resort, in contrast to the lively and developed nearby towns of Budva and Sutomore; the 2011 census found the town's population to be 1,398. Ethnicity was then: Montenegrins - 615 Serbs - 545 Croats - 12 Others - 226 The history of Petrovac began in Roman times, when a couple of villas were built at Krš Medinski: a 4th-century mosaic floor, remains of a villa and baths have been found behind St Ilija's church. There was a Slav village; the village was first mentioned in the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja. At the northern end of the bay is a 16th-century Venetian fortress, Kastel Lastva, built to discourage pirates; the name, was given at the beginning of the 20th century after King Peter I Karađorđević.

Before, the name was Kaštel Lastva. In the bay are two islets, one of, topped by a small chapel, built in thanksgiving for a shipwrecked sailor's life. At the beginning of the 20th century, Petrovac had around 300 inhabitants. In World War II, British agents were landed at nearby Perazića Do, they intended to establish contact with Yugoslav partisans. Between the two world wars, Petrovac was famous as a popular destination for wealthy tourists from Yugoslavia. Petrovac is today a popular summer beach resort, its visitors coming predominantly from Montenegro and Russia. Tourist accommodation has expanded in recent years, although less obtrusively than at Budva and the quality has improved in response to market demand; the resort's main attraction is its beach. There is a night club in the old castle. There is ready access to neighbouring beaches at Buljarica. Despite the town's small size, it has a football club, OFK Petrovac, in the Montenegrin First League, they play at the town's stadium, called Pod Malim Brdom, which means Under the Little Hill in Serbian language.

In the 21st James Bond film, Casino Royale, Petrovac was the location of the eponymous casino but the movie was shot in the Czech Republic instead. In the film, little is seen of an outdoor cafe. A part of the movie Brothers Bloom was filmed in Petrovac; the locality has been used in music videos of regional singers. Petrovac, Montenegro - the village, its beaches and waves

Entiat people

The Entiat are a Native American tribe who used and occupied an area extending from the Columbia River to the Cascade Mountains along the drainage system of the Entiat River. The Entiat are members of the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, a federally recognized tribe, it is located on the Colville Indian Reservation in eastern Washington State. The Confederated Tribes have over 9,000 descendants from 12 aboriginal tribes. In addition to the Entiat, the tribes are known in English as the Colville, the Nespelem, the Sanpoil, the Lake, the Palus, the Wenatchi, the Chelan, the Methow, the southern Okanagan, the Sinkiuse-Columbia, the Nez Perce of Chief Joseph's Band; the Entiat speak English. The native language of the tribe is a Salishan language made up of several different dialects among the tribes; the Entiat enrollment as of September 24, 1954 lists 113 Entiat

Shock cooling

Shock cooling refers to the theory that damage to engines may occur because of an excessively rapid decrease in temperature. The situation where rapid cooling arises is on descent from altitude. In this condition, less power is demanded of the engine. In a descent, the plane's airspeed increases increasing the cooling rate of the engine; as metals expand and contract under temperature changes, dimensional changes in the engine may exceed tolerance limits. Damage from shock cooling is most believed to manifest itself as stuck valves, cracked pistons and cracked cylinders. While the subject is controversial and hotly debated, some believe shock cooling, as explained, is nothing but a myth; this position is supported by the fact twin engine planes experience ideal conditions for shock cooling during simulated, single engine failures, yet statistically show no difference in wear or damage distribution between engines. It has been pointed out the rate cylinder head temperatures drop off after a normal engine shutdown is much faster than the usual rates deemed to present a shock cooling risk.

Furthermore, others believe damage associated with shock cooling is caused by rapid throttle changes where fuel, supercooled during high-altitude flight, is introduced into a hot engine cylinder during descent, where rich of peak operation is considered the norm, thus causing higher operating temperatures. It is well established, high operating temperatures in of themselves, can contribute to excessive component wear and damage, associated with "shock cooling". Given the available data, it suggests "shock cooling" is nothing but a myth, at least in the context as explained. A single cylinder head temperature sensor, or in more sophisticated installations, an array of sensors, one for each cylinder, may be employed to monitor the temperature and cooling rate of the engine. A simple analog gauge or a more advanced graphical bar-graph display is used to present information to pilots. Spoilers on the wings or thrust reversal may be deployed to lose lift without having to reduce engine power slowing the rate of engine cooling.

Shock Cooling: Myth or Reality? at AvWeb.com GAMI Injectors at GAMI.com for LOP operation Image of a graphical bar-graph engine analyzer How to Avoid Sudden Cooling of Your Engine at Lycoming

Marley Watkins

Marley Joseph Watkins is a Wales international footballer who plays for Championship club Bristol City as a midfielder. He played for Cheltenham Town, Bath City, Hereford United, Inverness Caledonian Thistle and Norwich City, he was called up the Wales national team squad for the first time in 2017. Born in Lewisham in London, Watkins grew up in Swansea in Wales. Through his parents, he qualifies to play for France, he is the grandson of Welsh poet Vernon Watkins. Watkins started his career as a youth player at Swansea City but was released and he joined Cheltenham Town in 2008. On 9 August 2008, he made his first senior appearance for the club, playing in the last ten minutes of the 4–2 defeat at Northampton Town. In doing so, he became Cheltenham Town's youngest league player, he scored his first professional goal after coming on as a substitute against Northampton in the 2009–10 season. In September 2010, Watkins joined Conference National side Bath City on loan, he subsequently signed for Bath on a permanent basis in January 2011 after his successful loan spell.

At the start of the 2012–13 season, Watkins signed a one-year deal at Hereford United. Watkins enjoyed a successful start to his Hereford career by winning a'Player of the Month' award in his first month at the club, he played 34 league games and scored five goals in his season at Hereford. In June 2013 it was announced that Watkins would be joining Inverness Caledonian Thistle for the 2013–2014 season, he made his Scottish Premiership debut at Celtic Park on 24 August, coming on as a substitute in a 2–2 draw with Celtic. On 30 May 2015, he opened the scoring for Inverness in the Scottish Cup Final at Hampden Park, as the club secured a 2–1 victory against Falkirk. During Marley's time at Inverness Caledonian Thistle, the club finished in the top 3 to qualify for Europe for the first time in their history, got to the final of the Scottish League Cup and won football's oldest cup competition, the Scottish Cup. Marley assisted one other in the final to help Inverness lift the cup. On 5 June 2015, Watkins signed for League One club Barnsley.

In his first season with Barnsley, the club won the Johnstone's Paint Trophy against Oxford, won promotion via the play offs to gain promotion to the Championship. Marley got 9 assists in 42 games during his debut season with Barnsley. Additionally, Watkins scored in his Championship debut against Ipswich and assisted another with Barnsley losing the game, 4–2. On 1 June 2017, Watkins signed for Championship club Norwich City on a free transfer, he joined the club on 1 July. He scored his first goal for Norwich in an EFL Cup tie against Charlton Athletic on 22 August 2017. On 15 June 2018, after one season at Norwich City, Watkins signed for fellow Championship side Bristol City for a fee of £1 million; the move reunited him with his manager at Barnsley. Watkins was born in England, is of Welsh and French descent. Watkins was called up to the Wales national football team on 25 May 2017 for a match against Serbia on 11 June 2017, he made his debut for the side on 14 November 2017 as a substitute during a 1–1 draw with Panama.

As of match played 4 January 2020 Inverness Caledonian Thistle Scottish Cup: 2014–15Barnsley Football League Trophy: 2015–16 Football League One play-offs: 2016 Marley Watkins at Soccerbase

Denver

Denver the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U. S. state of Colorado. Denver is located in the South Platte River Valley on the western edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. With an estimated population of 716,492 in 2018, Denver is the 19th-most populous U. S. city, with a 19.38% increase since the 2010 United States Census, it has been one of the fastest-growing major cities in the United States. The metropolitan city is located in the middle of the extensive Southern Rocky Mountain Front with Cheyenne, Wyoming, to the north and Albuquerque, New Mexico, to the south, this growing region has a population of 5,467,633, according to the 2011 United States Census; the Denver downtown district is east of the confluence of Cherry Creek with the South Platte River 12 mi east of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Denver is named after a governor of the Kansas Territory, it is nicknamed the Mile High City because its official elevation is one mile above sea level.

The 105th meridian west of Greenwich, the longitudinal reference for the Mountain Time Zone, passes directly through Denver Union Station. Denver is ranked as a Beta world city by World Cities Research Network; the 10-county Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated 2018 population of 2,932,415 and is the 19th most populous U. S. metropolitan statistical area. The 12-city Denver-Aurora, CO Combined Statistical Area had an estimated 2018 population of 3,572,798 and is the 15th most populous U. S. metropolitan area. Denver is the most populous city of the 18-county Front Range Urban Corridor, an oblong urban region stretching across two states with an estimated 2018 population of 4,976,781. Denver is the most populous city within a 500-mile radius and the second-most populous city in the Mountain West after Phoenix, Arizona. In 2016, Denver was named the best place to live in the United States by U. S. News & World Report. In the summer of 1858, during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush, a group of gold prospectors from Lawrence, Kansas established Montana City as a mining town on the banks of the South Platte River in what was western Kansas Territory.

This was the first historical settlement in what was to become the city of Denver. The site faded however, by the summer of 1859 it was abandoned in favor of Auraria and St. Charles City. On November 22, 1858, General William Larimer and Captain Jonathan Cox, both land speculators from eastern Kansas Territory, placed cottonwood logs to stake a claim on the bluff overlooking the confluence of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek, across the creek from the existing mining settlement of Auraria, on the site of the existing townsite of St. Charles. Larimer named the townsite Denver City to curry favor with Kansas Territorial Governor James W. Denver. Larimer hoped the town's name would help it be selected as the county seat of Arapaho County but, unbeknownst to him, Governor Denver had resigned from office; the location was accessible to existing trails and was across the South Platte River from the site of seasonal encampments of the Cheyenne and Arapaho. The site of these first towns is now occupied by Confluence Park near downtown Denver.

Larimer, along with associates in the St. Charles City Land Company, sold parcels in the town to merchants and miners, with the intention of creating a major city that would cater to new immigrants. Denver City was a frontier town, with an economy based on servicing local miners with gambling, saloons and goods trading. In the early years, land parcels were traded for grubstakes or gambled away by miners in Auraria. In May 1859, Denver City residents donated 53 lots to the Leavenworth & Pike's Peak Express in order to secure the region's first overland wagon route. Offering daily service for "passengers, mail and gold", the Express reached Denver on a trail that trimmed westward travel time from twelve days to six. In 1863, Western Union furthered Denver's dominance of the region by choosing the city for its regional terminus; the Colorado Territory was created on February 28, 1861, Arapahoe County was formed on November 1, 1861, Denver City was incorporated on November 7, 1861. Denver City served as the Arapahoe County Seat from 1861 until consolidation in 1902.

In 1867, Denver City became the acting territorial capital, in 1881 was chosen as the permanent state capital in a statewide ballot. With its newfound importance, Denver City shortened its name to Denver. On August 1, 1876, Colorado was admitted to the Union. Although by the close of the 1860s, Denver residents could look with pride at their success establishing a vibrant supply and service center, the decision to route the nation's first transcontinental railroad through Cheyenne, rather than Denver, threatened the prosperity of the young town; the transcontinental railroad passed a daunting 100 miles away, but citizens mobilized to build a railroad to connect Denver to it. Spearheaded by visionary leaders including Territorial Governor John Evans, David Moffat, Walter Cheesman, fundraising began. Within three days, $300,000 had been raised, citizens were optimistic. Fundraising stalled before enough was raised, forcing these visionary leaders to take control of the debt-ridden railroad. Despite challenges, on June 24, 1870, citizens cheered as the Denver Pacific completed the link to the transcontinental railroad, ushering in a new age of prosperity for Denver.

Linked to the rest of the nation by rail, Denver prospered as a service and supply center. The young city grew during these years, attr