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Monarchism is the advocacy of a monarch or monarchical rule. A monarchist is an individual who supports this form of government, independent of any specific monarch; one who espouses a particular monarch is a royalist. Conversely, the opposition to monarchical rule is sometimes referred to as republicanism.
Depending on the country, a monarchist may advocate for the rule of the person who sits on the throne, a pretender, or someone who would otherwise occupy the throne but has been deposed.
- 1 History
- 2 Current monarchies
- 3 Justifications for monarchism
- 4 Support for the restoration of monarchy
- 5 Monarchists
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Monarchical rule is among the oldest political institutions. Monarchy has often claimed legitimacy from a higher power (in early modern Europe the divine right of kings, and in China the Mandate of Heaven).
In England, royalty ceded power elsewhere in a gradual process. In 1215, a group of nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta, which guaranteed its barons certain liberties and established that the king's powers were not absolute. In 1687-88, the Glorious Revolution and the overthrow of King James II established the principles of constitutional monarchy, which would later be worked out by Locke and other thinkers. However, absolute monarchy, justified by Hobbes in Leviathan (1651), remained a prominent principle elsewhere. In the 18th century, Voltaire and others encouraged "enlightened absolutism", which was embraced by the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II and by Catherine II of Russia.
In the late 18th century, the American Revolution and the French Revolution were both additional steps in the weakening of power of European monarchies. Each in its different way exemplified the concept of popular sovereignty upheld by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. 1848 then ushered in a wave of revolutions against the continental European monarchies.
World War I and its aftermath saw the end of three major European monarchies: the Russian Romanov dynasty, the German Hohenzollern dynasty, including all other German monarchies and the Austro-Hungarian Habsburg dynasty.
The rise of the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919 provoked an increase in support for monarchism; however, efforts by Hungarian monarchists failed to bring back a royal head of state, and the monarchists settled for a regent, Admiral Miklós Horthy, to represent the monarchy until it could be restored. Horthy was regent from 1920 to 1944. In similar wise the 1938 autocratic state of Franco in Spain claimed to have reconstituted the Spanish monarchy in absentia (and in this case ultimately yielded to a restoration, in the person of King Juan Carlos). In 1920s Germany a number of monarchists gathered around the German National People's Party which demanded the return of the Hohenzollern monarchy and an end to the Weimar Republic; the party retained a large base of support until the rise of Nazism in the 1930s.
With the arrival of socialism in Eastern Europe by the end of 1947, the remaining Eastern European monarchies, namely the Kingdom of Romania, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Kingdom of Albania, the Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, were all abolished and replaced by socialist republics.
The aftermath of World War II also saw the return of monarchist and republican rivalry in Italy, where a referendum was held on whether the state should remain a monarchy or become a republic. The republican side won the vote by a narrow margin, and the modern Republic of Italy was created.
Monarchism as a political force internationally has substantially diminished since the end of the Second World War, though it had an important role in the 1979 Iranian Revolution and also played a role in the modern political affairs of Nepal. Nepal was one of the last states to have had an absolute monarch, which continued until King Gyanendra was peacefully deposed in May 2008 and the country became a federal republic. One of the world's oldest monarchies was abolished in Ethiopia in 1974 with the fall of Emperor Haile Selassie.
The majority of current monarchies are constitutional monarchies. In most of these, the monarch wields only symbolic power, although in some, the monarch does play a role in political affairs. In Thailand, for instance, King Bhumibol Adulyadej, who reigned from 1946 to 2016, played a critical role in the nation's political agenda and in various military coups. Similarly, in Morocco, King Mohammed VI wields significant, but not absolute power.
There remain a handful of countries in which the monarch is the true ruler. The majority of these countries are oil-producing Arab Islamic monarchies like Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates. Other strong monarchies include Brunei and Swaziland.
Justifications for monarchism
Otto von Habsburg advocated a form of constitutional monarchy based on the primacy of the supreme judicial function, with hereditary succession, mediation by a tribunal is warranted if suitability is problematic.
Nonpartisan head of state
A monarchy has been justified on the grounds that it provides for a nonpartisan head of state, separate from the head of government, and thus ensures that the highest representative of the country, at home and internationally, does not represent a particular political party, but all people.
Safeguard for liberty
The International Monarchist League, founded in 1943, has always sought to promote monarchy on the grounds that it strengthens popular liberty, both in a democracy and in a dictatorship, because by definition the monarch is not beholden to politicians.
British-American libertarian writer Matthew Feeney, on the occasion of the birth of Prince George of Cambridge, the likely future king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Commonwealth Realms, in 2013, wrote:
|“||In the last hundred years many European nations have experienced fascism, communism, and military dictatorships. However, countries with constitutional monarchies have managed for the most part to avoid extreme politics in part because monarchies provide a check on the wills of populist politicians. European monarchies--such as the Danish, Belgian, Swedish, Dutch, Norwegian, and British--have ruled over countries that are among the most stable, prosperous, and free in the world. Constitutional monarchs make it difficult for dramatic political changes to occur, oftentimes by representing traditions and customs that politicians cannot replace and few citizens would like to see overthrown.||”|
Connection to the past
Since the middle of the 19th century, some monarchists have stopped defending monarchy on the basis of abstract, universal principles applicable to all nations or even on the grounds that a monarchy would be the best or most practical government for the nation in question but prefer invoking local symbolic grounds that they would be a particular nation's link to the past.
Hence, post-19th century debates on whether to preserve a monarchy or to adopt a republican form of government have often been debates over national identity, with the monarch generally serving as a symbol for other issues.
For example, in countries like Belgium and the Netherlands anti-monarchist talk is often centered on the perceived symbolism of a monarch contrasting with those nation's political culture of egalitarianism. In Belgium, another factor are the anti-Belgian sentiments of the separatist Flemish movement. The latter see the monarchy as a predominantly francophone institution of which the historical roots lie in the French-speaking elite that ruled Belgium until circa 1950s.
In Canada and Australia, by contrast, debates over monarchy represent or represented debates whose driving force concerned each nation's relationship with the United Kingdom and the cultural heritage that this relationship represents.
Human desire for hierarchy
In a 1943 essay in The Spectator, "Equality", British author C.S. Lewis criticized egalitarianism, and its corresponding call for the abolition of monarchy, as contrary to human nature, writing, "Where men are forbidden to honour a king they honour millionaires, athletes, or film-stars instead: even famous prostitutes or gangsters. For spiritual nature, like bodily nature, will be served; deny it food and it will gobble poison."
Support for the restoration of monarchy
This is a list of countries showing support for the restoration of a previously abolished monarchy.
|Rank||Country||Supporters||% of country
- Charles A. Coulombe (born 1960)
- Afonso Celso, Viscount of Ouro Preto (1836-1912)
- Alberto Santos-Dumont (1873-1932)
- André Rebouças (1838-1898)
- Carlos Gomes (1836-1896)
- Ariano Suassuna (1927-2014)
- Baron of Rio Branco (1845-1912)
- João Lustosa da Cunha Paranaguá, Marquis of Paranaguá (1821-1912)
- Joaquim Nabuco (1839-1910)
- José Bonifácio (1763-1838)
- José do Patrocínio (1854-1905)
- José Osvaldo de Meira Penna (1917-2017)
- Viscount of Rio Branco (1819-1880)
- Machado de Assis (1839-1908)
- Sir Winston Churchill (1874–1965)
- J.R.R. Tolkien (1892–1973)
- C.S. Lewis (1898–1963)
- Harold Wilson (1916–1995)
- Sir Peregrine Worsthorne (born 1923)
- Betty Boothroyd (born 1929)
- Dame Joan Collins (born 1933)
- Michael Heseltine (born 1933)
- Dame Judi Dench (born 1934)
- Dame Julie Andrews (born 1935)
- Sir Tom Jones (born 1940)
- Sir Paul McCartney (born 1942)
- Vernon Bogdanor (born 1943)
- Sir John Major (born 1943)
- Sir Roger Scruton (born 1944)
- William Shawcross (born 1946)
- Sir Elton John (born 1947)
- Jeremy Irons (born 1948)
- Tony Blair (born 1953)
- Sir Ian Botham (born 1955)
- Theresa May (born 1956)
- Stephen Fry (born 1957)
- Nick Ferrari (born 1959)
- Alison Moyet (born 1961)
- Camila Batmanghelidjh (born 1963)
- Tracey Emin (born 1963)
- Peter Morgan (born 1963)
- Nigel Farage (born 1964)
- Boris Johnson (born 1964)
- David Cameron (born 1966)
- Jacob Rees-Mogg (born 1969)
- Geri Halliwell (born 1972)
- Miranda Hart (born 1972)
- Victoria Coren Mitchell (born 1972)
- Victoria Beckham (born 1974)
- Alex Massie (born 1974)
- David Mitchell (comedian) (born 1974)
- Emma Bunton (born 1976)
- Adele (born 1988)
- George-Étienne Cartier (1814–1873)
- John A. Macdonald (1815–1891)
- Alexander Tilloch Galt(1817–1893)
- Thomas D'Arcy McGee (1825–1868)
- Henri-Gustave Joly de Lotbinière (1829–1908)
- Emily Carr (1871–1945)
- William Lyon Mackenzie King (1874–1950)
- David Milne (1882–1953)
- Louis St. Laurent (1882–1973)
- Vincent Massey (1887–1967)
- Georges Vanier (1888–1967)
- Conn Smythe (1895–1980)
- John Diefenbaker (1895–1979)
- Lester B. Pearson (1897–1972)
- Eugene Forsey (1904–1991)
- George Montegu Black II (1911–1976)
- Robertson Davies (1913–1995)
- George Grant (1918–1988)
- Pierre Trudeau (1919–2000)
- Nancy Bell (1924–1989)
- Robert Layton (1925–2002)
- Glenn Gould (1932–1982)
- Jean Chrétien (born 1934)
- Don Cherry (born 1934)
- Margaret Atwood (born 1939)
- Charles Pachter (born 1942)
- Michael Valpy (born 1942)
- John Fraser (born 1944)
- Jack Layton (1950–2011)
- John Aimers (born 1951)
- Kevin S. MacLeod (born 1951)
- Stephen Harper (born 1959)
- Andrew Coyne (born 1960)
- Colby Cosh (born 1971)
- Ray Novak (born 1977)
- József Mindszenty (1892–1975)
- István Bethlen (1874–1946)
- Albert Apponyi (1846–1933)
- Gyula Cseszneky (1914–?)
- Margit Slachta (1884–1974)
- Onn Jaafar (1895-1962)
- Navin Ramgoolam (born 1947)
- Almada Negreiros (1893-1970)
- Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso (1887-1918)
- Amália Rodrigues (1920-1999)
- António Ramalho Eanes (born 1935)
- Eça de Queiroz (1845-1900)
- Fernando Pessoa (1888-1935)
- Gonçalo Ribeiro Telles (born 1922)
- Guilherme de Santa-Rita (1889-1918)
- José Cid (born 1942)
- Miguel Esteves Cardoso (born 1955)
- Ramalho Ortigão (1836-1915)
- Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen (1919-2004)
- Anton Bakov (born 1965)
- Nikolai Tolstoy (born 1935)
- Natalia Poklonskaya (born 1980)
- Vladimir Zhirinovsky (born 1946)
- Abolished monarchy
- Dark Enlightenment
- List of kingdoms and royal dynasties
- Neoreactionary movement
- Reactionary modernism
- Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1989 edition, p. 924.
- "Sumerian King List" (PDF). Retrieved 7 April 2012.
- Otto von Habsburg "Monarchy or Republic?". ("Excerpted from The Conservative Tradition in European Thought, Copyright 1970 by Educational Resources Corporation.")
- Bogdanor, Vernon (6 December 2000). "The Guardian has got it wrong". The Guardian.
- Feeney, Matthew (July 25, 2013). "The Benefits of Monarchy". Reason magazine.
- C.S. Lewis (26 August 1943). "Equality". The Spectator.
- Marica, Irina. "How popular is the monarchy restoration idea in Romania?". www.romania-insider.com. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- "Albanien, 29. Juni 1997 : Staatsform -- [in German]". www.sudd.ch (in German). Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- Sinelschikova, Yekaterina (14 April 2017). "Will Russia ever revert back to a monarchy?". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- Sinelschikova, Yekaterina (30 June 2018). "Queen of Hawaii demands independence from 'US occupiers". The Telegraph. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
- "A century after Austrian-Hungarian Empire's fall, some nostalgic for monarchy". EFE. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- "Restored monarchy gains young Germans' support". The Local. 25 April 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- (PDF). BVA http://www.bva.fr/data/sondage/sondage_fiche/1897/fichier_bva_pour_lalliance_royale_-_les_francais_et_la_monarchiefe87e.pdf. Retrieved 3 December 2018. Missing or empty
- "Emanule Filiberto: "Politici? Sono dei parac***"". Occhio, il Savoia vuole fare il re" (in Italian). Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- Almeida, Henrique. "Portugal royal says monarchy still tops republic". Reuters. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- "Το ΒΗΜΑ onLine - ΠΟΛΙΤΙΚΑ" (in Greek). 25 April 2007. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- (PDF) http://www.paranapesquisas.com.br/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/BROnline_Jun17-Monarquia.pdf. Retrieved 3 December 2018. Missing or empty
- "Průzkum ke 100 rokům od vzniku Československa: kdyby se monarchie nerozpadla, měli bychom se lépe nebo stejně". iROZHLAS (in Czech). Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- "Partido Imperialista busca convertirse en partido político". SDPnoticias (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 March 2019.
- Patron of Australians for Constitutional Monarchy
- "Ten things you didn't know about Tony Abbott". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 19 Nov 2013.
- "I am a monarchist and I think Queen Elizabeth has done a wonderful job for our beloved country. The Royal Family deserve more respect." (2003) "When you talk about our beloved Queen Elizabeth, I don't think there is a more gracious world leader." Princes Charles and Andrew are "intelligent, wise and kind men." (2010)
- Letters, no. 52, to Christopher Tolkien, 29 November 1943
- "Joan Collins so happy with husband". Film-News.co.uk. 4 February 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
- Expressed support for the British monarchy in the TV series Royalty A-Z (2002). Narrator of The Royal Story.
- "The monarchy remains the most powerful symbol of one unified nation." (2002).
- "A lot of people of my generation have decided in part because of how important a unifier for the country the Queen has been that actually [the monarchy] is a better system - rationally." (2002)
- "The monarchy stands for everything that I love and I feel proud to be British. Yes, I am a royalist." (2007)
- "Tracey Emin: I'm abused by other artists for voting Tory". Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- "I used to be anti monarchy – but now I’m a royalist." (2017)
- Gray, Charlotte (2016). The Promise of Canada: 150 Years--People and Ideas That Have Shaped Our Country. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 1-4767-8469-8.
Back home, Cartier impressed Upper Canadians with his unabashed anglophilia: he was a passionate monarchist who named his third daughter Reine-Victoria and believed that the Conquest in 1763 had saved Lower Canada from the misery and shame of the French Revolution.
- Brouillet, Eugénie; Gagnon, Alain-G.; Laforest, Guy (2018). The Quebec Conference of 1864: Understanding the Emergence of the Canadian Federation. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 121. ISBN 0-7735-5605-2.
- Little, John (2013). Patrician Liberal: The Public and Private Life of Sir Henri-Gustave Joly de Lotbinière, 1829-1908. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 1-4426-6699-4.
As a Canadian nationalist and constitutional monarchist, he firmly believed that the lieutenant governor was considerably more than a figurehead...
- Udall, Sharyn Roshlfsen (2001). Carr, O'Keeffe, Kahlo: Places of Their Own. Yale University Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-3000-9186-9.
- Chodos, Robert; Murphy, Rae; Hamovitch, Eric (1991). The Unmaking of Canada: The Hidden Theme in Canadian History Since 1945. James Lorimer Company. p. 20. ISBN 1-5502-8337-5.
- Silcox, David P.; Milne, David (1996). Painting Place: The Life and Work of David B. Milne, Volume 1. University of Toronto Press. p. 206. ISBN 0-8020-4095-0.
- Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Garry (2002). Fifty Years the Queen: A Tribute to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on Her Golden Jubilee. Dundurn. p. 12. ISBN 1-5500-2360-8.
- Hubbard, R. H. (1977). Rideau Hall: An Illustrated History of the Government House, Ottawa, from Victorian Times to the Present Day. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 221. ISBN 0-7735-9452-3.
- Coady, Mary Frances (2011). Georges and Pauline Vanier: Portrait of a Couple. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 208. ISBN 0-7735-3883-6.
- Blake, Jason (2010). Canadian Hockey Literature: A Thematic Study. University of Toronto Press. p. 19. ISBN 0-8020-9713-8.
- Buckner, Philip (2007). Canada and the End of Empire. UBC Press. p. 67–68. ISBN 0-7748-5066-3.
- Forsey, Helen (2012). Eugene Forsey, Canada's Maverick Sage: Canada's Maverick Sage. Dundurn. p. 434. ISBN 1-4597-0243-3.
- Tombs, George (2010). Robber Baron: Lord Black of Crossharbour. ECW Press. p. 67. ISBN 1-5549-0312-2.
- Ross, Val (2009). Robertson Davies: A Portrait in Mosaic. McClelland & Stewart. p. 96. ISBN 1-5519-9211-6.
- Harrison, Trevor W.; Friesen, John W. (2015). Canadian Society in the Twenty-First Century, 3e: An Historical Sociological Approach. Canadian Scholars' Press. p. 208. ISBN 1-5513-0735-9.
- Hutchison, Bruce (1985). The unfinished country: to Canada with love and some misgivings. Douglas & McIntyre. p. 40. ISBN 0-8889-4481-0.
- "Nancy Bell, 65 independent voice in Senate", Toronto Star, December 1, 1989
- Jackson, D. Michael (2013). The Crown and Canadian Federalism. Dundurn. ISBN 1-4597-0990-X.
[s]ome people think the NDP may want to get rid of the monarchy but I can assure you that's absolutely not the case. My Dad was a big time monarchist and so am I.
- Clarkson, Michael (2010). The Secret Life of Glenn Gould: A Genius in Love. ECW Press. ISBN 1-5549-0681-4.
Glenn was a right winger and a monarchist, said pianist Anton Kuerti, who was friends with Gould and taught Gaylord.
- Chrétien, Jean (2018). My Stories, My Times. Random House of Canada. ISBN 0-7352-7735-4.
Seeing me, she exclaimed, "You again!" I instantly replied, "I am the monarchist from Quebec."
- O'Connor, Joe (2 March 2012). "Don Cherry happy Canada finally coming around to his way of thinking". National Post. Postmedia Network Inc. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- Atwood, Margaret [@MargaretAtwood] (20 May 2013). "Actually I'm a monarchist. Read again. Nobody's suggesting Queen Vic must go. But nice if (real) Canada honoured its treaties" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Wise, Leonard (2017). Charles Pachter: Canada's Artist. Dundurn. ISBN 1-4597-3876-4.
Paradox defines him... He's a monarchist who loves royalty, yet he delights in satirizing them.
- Johnson, David (2018). Battle Royal: Monarchists vs. Republicans and the Crown of Canada. Dundurn. p. 160. ISBN 1-4597-4014-9.
- Shore, Cris; Williams, David V. (2019). The Shapeshifting Crown: Locating the State in Postcolonial New Zealand, Australia, Canada and the UK. Cambridge University Press. p. 156. ISBN 1-1084-9646-6.
- Smith, Jordan Michael (March 2012). "Reinventing Canada: Stephen Harper's Conservative Revolution". World Affairs Journal. World Affairs Institute. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
- Cosh, Colby (23 July 2013). "God save the constitutional Monarchy: Colby Cosh on why he will take his chances with the Royal Baby as head of state". Maclean's. Rogers Digital Media. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
- "Meet Ray Novak, the PM's new chief of staff". CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 19 May 2013.