The monarchy of Canada is at the core of Canada's constitutional federal structure and Westminster-style parliamentary democracy. The monarchy is the foundation of the executive and judicial branches of both federal and provincial jurisdictions; the sovereign is the personification of the Canadian state and is Queen of Canada as a matter of constitutional law. The current Canadian monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952. Elizabeth's eldest son, Prince of Wales, is heir apparent. Although the person of the sovereign is shared with 15 other independent countries within the Commonwealth of Nations, each country's monarchy is separate and distinct; as a result, the current monarch is titled Queen of Canada and, in this capacity, her consort, other members of the Canadian Royal Family undertake public and private functions domestically and abroad as representatives of Canada. However, the Queen is the only member of the Royal Family with any constitutional role.
While some powers are exercisable only by the sovereign, most of the monarch's operational and ceremonial duties are exercised by his or her representative, the Governor General of Canada. In Canada's provinces, the monarch in right of each is represented by a lieutenant governor.. As all executive authority is vested in the sovereign, assent is required to allow for bills to become law and for letters patent and orders in council to have legal effect. While the power for these acts stems from the Canadian people through the constitutional conventions of democracy, executive authority remains vested in the Crown and is only entrusted by the sovereign to the government on behalf of the people; this underlines the Crown's role in safeguarding the rights and democratic system of government of Canadians, reinforcing the fact that "governments are the servants of the people and not the reverse". Thus, within a constitutional monarchy the sovereign's direct participation in any of these areas of governance is limited, with the sovereign exercising executive authority only on the advice of the executive committee of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, the sovereign's legislative and judicial responsibilities carried out through parliamentarians as well as judges and justices of the peace.
The Crown today functions as a guarantor of continuous and stable governance and a nonpartisan safeguard against abuse of power. The sovereign acts as a custodian of the Crown's democratic powers and a representation of the "power of the people above government and political parties". Canada is one of the oldest continuing monarchies in the world. Established in the 16th century, monarchy in Canada has evolved through a continuous succession of French and British sovereigns into the independent Canadian sovereigns of today, whose institution is sometimes colloquially referred to as the Maple Crown; the person, the Canadian sovereign is shared with 15 other monarchies in the 53-member Commonwealth of Nations. The monarch resides predominantly in the United Kingdom; the emergence of this arrangement paralleled the fruition of Canadian nationalism following the end of the First World War and culminated in the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931. Since the pan-national Crown has had both a shared and a separate character: the sovereign's role as monarch of Canada has been distinct from his or her position as monarch of any other realm, including the United Kingdom.
Only Canadian federal ministers of the Crown may advise the sovereign on any and all matters of the Canadian state, of which the sovereign, when not in Canada, is kept abreast by weekly communications with the federal viceroy. The monarchy thus ceased to be an British institution and in Canada became a Canadian, or "domesticated", though it is still denoted as "British" in both legal and common language, for reasons historical, of convenience; this division is illustrated in a number of ways: The sovereign, for example, holds a unique Canadian title and, when she and other members of the Royal Family are acting in public as representatives of Canada, they use, where possible, Canadian symbols, including the country's national flag, unique royal symbols, armed forces uniforms, the like, as well as Canadian Forces aircraft or other Canadian-owned vehicles for travel. Once in Canadian airspace, or arrived at a Canadian event taking place abroad, the Canadian Secretary to the Queen, officers of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, other Canadian officials will take over from whichever of their other realms' counterparts were escorting the Queen or other member of the Royal Family.
The sovereign only draws from Canadian funds for support in the performance of her duties when in Canada or acting as Queen of Canada abroad. As in the other Commonwealth realms, the current heir apparent to the throne is Prince Charles, followed in the line of succession by his elder son, Prince William, William's eldest child, Princ
Louisa Alice Baker was an English-born New Zealand journalist and novelist. Louisa Alice Dawson was born in Aston, England, on 13 January 1856. At the age of 7, her family immigrated to New Zealand. In 1874, she married John William Baker and they had two children, John William Walter Baker and Ethel Elizabeth Baker She used several pen names for the different aspects for her career; when writing for the Otago Witness writing their children's column she was known as'Dot' and used the name'Alice when writing for the Otago Witness women's column. She continued to write for the Witness after she moved to England in 1894. After her move to England, Louisa wrote novels under the name'Alien' and continued to write popular articles until her death in 1926 as a result of burns from a stove fire in her home. In 1886, Baker moved with her children to Dunedin, New Zealand to work for the Otago Witness as writer, she began working as a writer for a women's column. She began to write for the children's column first called Letters From Little Folk which became known as Our Little Folks and Dot's Little Folks.
She would write short stories. At some point in 1893, Baker left New Zealand to publish her first novel in England. Due to her many pen names, her novels can be found under many names which include: Louisa Alice Baker, Mrs. Louis Alien Baker, Louisa Alien Baker, Alien. Most of her novels are credited to'Alien', her first novel A daughter of the king was published in 1894, followed by The majesty of man: a novel, In golden shackles, The untold half, The devil's half-acre Another woman's territory, His neighbour's landmark, A Maid of Mettle. Baker began writing a column for the Otago Witness again in 1903 called "Alien's Letter from England", she wrote for them until her death in 1926
The Woodland Trust is the largest woodland conservation charity in the United Kingdom concerned with the creation and restoration of native woodland heritage. It has planted over 43 million trees since 1972; the Woodland Trust has three key aims: i) to protect ancient woodland, rare and irreplaceable, ii) the restoration of damaged ancient woodland, iii) plant native trees and woods with the aim of creating resilient landscapes for people and wildlife. The Woodland Trust maintains ownership of over 1,000 sites covering over 24,700 hectares. Of this, 8,070ha is ancient woodland.. It ensures public access to its woods; the charity was founded in Devon, England in 1972 by retired farmer and agricultural machinery dealer Kenneth Watkins. The Trust's first purchase was part of the Avon Valley Woods, near Devon. By 1977 it had twenty two woods in six counties. In 1978 it relocated to Grantham in Lincolnshire and announced an expansion of its activities across the UK. In 1984, Balmacaan Wood next to Loch Ness became the Trust's first Scottish acquisition.
It has supported the National Tree Week scheme, which takes place in late November and is run by The Tree Council. From 2005 to 2008 it co-operated with the BBC for their Springwatch programme and the BBC's Breathing Places series of events held at woods, it continues to work with Springwatch and Autumnwatch most in 2015 as part of the Big Spring Watch, which encouraged viewers to record the signs of nature through the Trust's Nature's Calendar project. It now has over 80 woods in Scotland, covering 21,000 acres. In Wales, it acquired the 94 acres Coed Lletywalter in Snowdonia National Park in 1980, it now has over 100 woods in Wales. It started in Northern Ireland in 1996 when it received a grant from the Millennium Commission to set up over 50 community woods; the scheme was called Woods on Your Doorstep. Its first employee and Director, John James, came from Lincolnshire and was living in Nottingham at the time, it had a small office on Westgate. John James was Chief Executive from 1992-97, Michael Townsend from 1997-2004, Sue Holden from 2004-14 and Beccy Speight from 2014-19.
The current Chief Executive is Darren Moorcroft. A new eco-friendly headquarters, adjacent to the former HQ, was completed in 2010 at a cost of GB£5.1million. The new headquarters have been designed by Feilden Clegg Bradley Studios as Architect and Atelier One as Structural Engineer, incorporates light shelves to distribute natural daylight around the 200 workstations, concrete panels to absorb daytime heat, to provide the thermal mass that the lightweight wooden structure would otherwise lack, it is estimated that compared to a concrete framed construction, the timber structure saved the equivalent in carbon production as nine years of the building's operation. The Woodland Trust's Head Office is located in Grantham in South Kesteven, south Lincolnshire, with regional offices across the UK, it employs around 300 people at its Grantham headquarters. Its current president is Clive Anderson since 2003. In 2016 Barbara Young, Baroness Young of Old Scone became the charity's Chair; the Woodland Trust receives funding from a wide range of sources including membership, legacies and appeals, corporate supporters and charitable trusts including lottery funding, other organisations and landfill tax.
The Woodland Trust uses its experience and authority in conservation to influence others who are in a position to improve the future of native woodland. This includes government, other landowners, like-minded organisations, it campaigns to protect and save ancient woodland from destructive development. Its projects include the Nature Detectives youth programme, a project for schools learning about the seasonal effect on woodlands - phenology - and the Ancient Tree Hunt campaign, it looks after groups of woods covering 190 square kilometres. Nearly 350 of its sites contain ancient woodland of which 70 per cent is semi-natural ancient woodland – land, under tree cover since at least 1600, it manages over 110 Sites of Special Scientific Interest. There are over 600 ancient woods under threat across the UK, it has created new woodlands: over 32 km2 have been created, including 250 new community woods in England and Northern Ireland. Its largest current projects include the 41.7 km2 Glen Finglas Estate in the Trossachs and the Heartwood Forest near St Albans, England, which will cover 347 ha.
It owns 20 sites covering 4.3 km2 in the National Forest and has twelve sites in Community Forests in England. The Woodland Trust provides free trees to communities or places of education in order to facilitate the creation of new woodland; the Woodland Trust's Woods on Your Doorstep project created 250 "Millennium woods" to celebrate the millennium 2000/2001. The Trust ran the Jubilee Woods project, which aimed to plant 6 million trees and create 60 commemorative'Diamond' woods across the UK as part of Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee celebrations in 2012; the largest of these and managed by the Trust itself, is the Flagship Diamond Wood in Leicestershire. Situated within the National Forest this will be planted with 300,000 trees; the Ancient Tree Inventory is a project run by the Woodland Trust in partnership with the Tree Register of the British Isles and the Ancient Tree Forum. The aim is to record ancient and notable trees in the United Kingdom. To date over 170,000 trees have been recorded.
The database allows a better understanding of the number and spread of ancient trees in the UK. The records can be viewed through the tree search on the Ancient Tree Invento