Virgil Abloh is an American fashion designer, entrepreneur and DJ, the artistic director of Louis Vuitton's men's wear collection since March 2018. Apart from his work at Louis Vuitton, Abloh serves as the chief executive officer of the Milan-based label Off-White, a fashion house he founded in 2013, he entered the world of fashion with an internship at Fendi in 2009 alongside rapper Kanye West. The two began an artistic collaboration that would launch Abloh's career into founding Off-White. Time magazine named him one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2018. Abloh was featured in conversation with his friend and frequent collaborator Takashi Murakami on the cover of the fall 2018 issue of Cultured magazine. Virgil Abloh was born on September 1980, in Rockford, Illinois, to Ghanaian immigrant parents, his mother was a seamstress. His dad was a manager in a paint company. Abloh was raised in Rockford, where he attended Boylan Catholic High School, graduating in 1998, he graduated from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 2002 with a Bachelor of Science degree in civil engineering.
He received his Master of Architecture at the Illinois Institute of Technology in 2006. While Abloh was attending the Illinois Institute of Technology there was a building created called the Rem Koolhaas which helped spark his aspirations for fashion. After graduating from university, he interned at Fendi in the same class as rapper Kanye West in 2009. Placed in the company's Rome, Italy office, the two began a collaborative relationship. During his collaborative work with the well-renown rapper and designer, he caught the eye of the Louis Vuitton CEO, Michael Burke, through his outlandish takeaways on Fendi; that year and Kanye West's companion, Don C, launched a retail store, called the RSVP Gallery, located in Chicago. Their founded retail space became known for carrying a mixture of fashion apparel, from streetwear to high-end brands, for its reflection of Virgil's style on his design for the store interior. A year West appointed Abloh the creative director of his creative agency, DONDA. In 2011, West asked him to serve as the artistic director for the 2011 Jay-Z/Kanye West album Watch the Throne.
In 2012, Abloh launched Pyrex Vision, a small boutique of couture streetwear. Abloh purchased deadstock clothing from Ralph Lauren for $40, screen-printed designs on them and sold them for prices upward of $550, he closed the company down a year as he did not intend it to be a commercial enterprise but an artistic experiment. Abloh founded his first fashion house and second business overall in 2013 with the high-end streetwear brand Off-White. Based in Milan, the company was described by Abloh as "the gray area between black and white as the color off-white" to investors and fashion critics. During the launch of his brand, he received help from the New Guards Group, who assisted many other designers and brands, such as Palm Angels, Heron Preston, Marcelo Burlon. Abloh's streetwear-meets-couture vision for brand lead towards a widespread gain of attention for his apparel beginning in Paris expanding to China, Tokyo and the United States; the clothing line became identified through its unique use of quotation marks, zip-ties, capital letters and barricade tape.
He launched the company's women's wear line in 2014 and showed the collections at the Paris Fashion Week. His line was selected as a finalist for the LVMH Prize, an industry award, but lost to Marques'Almeida and Jacquemus. Abloh launched his first concept store for Off-White in Tokyo, where he started the company's furniture arm, Grey Area. In 2017, he was asked to design a new collection in conjunction with Nike entitled "The Ten" where he re-designed a variety of the company's best-selling shoes. Through Abloh's re-designing he exercised his self-made rule of only editing the shoes 3% of the way because he was intrigued by still maintaining the original design of the shoe. Virgil partnered up with the Swedish furniture company IKEA to design furniture for apartments and houses; the collection will be named Markerad, a Swedish word meaning "clear-cut. Virgil envisions the collection to adapt the visualization of a practical brief of furniture, while adding contemporary values to his designs to make them complete.
Abloh has worked towards fulfilling his vision for the collection by sketching out drafts of generic pieces of furniture, while adding his own aesthetics to the designs by using a doorstop to level out furniture items. Abloh worked on designs for chairs, coffee tables, storage cabinets and carpets apart of his collaboration with IKEA. Abloh employs quotation marks stylistically in order to convey ironic detachment from society and social norms. During the rise in neo-nationalism in 2017 Abloh worked with conceptual artist Jenny Holzer to create a line emphasizing the positive aspects of immigration, cultural integration, globalization. In December 2017, he worked with Holzer again to design T-shirts for Planned Parenthood in response to the Women's March on Washington. On March 25, 2018, Abloh was named artistic director of Louis Vuitton's menswear ready wear line, marking him the first person of African descent to lead the brand's menswear line, as well as one of the few black designers at the helm of a major French fashion house.
Upon his acceptance of the position, he stated, "It is an honor for me to accept this position. I find the heritage and creative integrity of the house are key inspirations and will look to reference them both while drawing parallels to modern times". Abloh showed his first collection for Louis Vuitton at the 2018 Men's Fashion Week at the Palais-Royal gardens in Paris. Rihanna was
Anna-Lou "Annie" Leibovitz is an American portrait photographer. She is best known for her engaging portraits—particularly of celebrities—which feature subjects in intimate settings and poses, she photographed John Lennon on the day he was murdered, her work has been used on numerous album covers and magazines. She became the first woman to hold an exhibition at Washington's National Portrait Gallery in 1991. Born in Waterbury, Connecticut, on October 2, 1949, Anna-Lou Leibovitz is the third of six children of Marilyn Edith and Samuel Leibovitz, she is a third-generation American. Her mother was a modern dance instructor of Estonian-Jewish heritage, her father was a lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Air Force; the family moved with her father's duty assignments, she took her first pictures when he was stationed in the Philippines during the Vietnam War. She took photographs of nearby locals. Leibovitz passion of art was born out of her mother's engagement with dance and painting. At Northwood High School in Silver Spring, she became interested in various artistic endeavors and began to write and play music.
Leibovitz attended the San Francisco Art Institute, where she studied painting with the intention of becoming an art teacher. At school, she changed her major after to photography, she was inspired by the work of Robert Frank and Henri Cartier-Bresson, which her school taught about. For several years, she continued to develop her photography skills while holding various jobs, including a stint on a kibbutz in Amir, for several months in 1969; when Leibovitz returned to the United States in 1970, she started her career as staff photographer, working for Rolling Stone magazine. In 1973, publisher Jann Wenner named Leibovitz chief photographer of Rolling Stone, a job she would hold for 10 years. Leibovitz worked for the magazine until 1983, her intimate photographs of celebrities helped define the Rolling Stone look. While working for Rolling Stone, Leibovitz learned that she could work for magazines and still create personal work of her family which for her was the most important. “You don’t get the opportunity to do this kind of intimate work except with the people you love, the people who will put up with you.
They're the people who lives to you. You must take care of them.” She was awarded The Royal Photographic Society's Centenary Medal and Honorary Fellowship in recognition of a sustained, significant contribution to the art of photography in 2009. Leibovitz photographed the Rolling Stones in San Francisco in 1971 and 1972, served as the concert-tour photographer for the Rolling Stones' Tour of the Americas'75, her favorite photo from the tour was a photo of Mick Jagger in an elevator. On December 8, 1980, Leibovitz had a photo shoot with John Lennon for Rolling Stone, she promised him he would make the cover, she had tried to get a picture with just Lennon alone, as Rolling Stone wanted, but Lennon insisted that both he and Yoko Ono be on the cover. Leibovitz tried to re-create something like the kissing scene from the couple's Double Fantasy 1980 album cover, a picture Leibovitz loved, she had John remove his clothes and curl up next to Yoko on the floor. Leibovitz recalls, "What is interesting is she said she'd take her top off and I said,'Leave everything on'—not preconceiving the picture at all.
He curled up next to her and it was very strong. You couldn't help but feel that he was cold and he looked like he was clinging on to her. I think it was amazing to look at the first Polaroid and they were both excited. John said,'You've captured our relationship exactly. Promise me it'll be on the cover.' I looked him in the eye and we shook on it." Leibovitz was the last person to professionally photograph Lennon—he was shot and killed five hours later. The photograph was subsequently re-created in 2009 by John and Yoko's son Sean Lennon, posing with his girlfriend Charlotte Kemp Muhl, with male/female roles reversed, by Henry Bond and Sam Taylor-Wood in their YBA pastiche October 26, 1993. In the 1980s, Leibovitz's new style of lighting and use of bold colors and poses got her a position with Vanity Fair magazine. Leibovitz photographed celebrities for an international advertising campaign for American Express charge cards, which won a Clio award in 1987. In 1991, Leibovitz mounted an exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery.
She was first woman to show there. In 1991, Leibovitz had been made Commandeur de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the French government. In 1991, Leibovitz emulated Margaret Bourke-White's feat by mounting one of the eagle gargoyles on the 61st floor of the Chrysler Building in Manhattan, where she photographed the dancer David Parsons cavorting on another eagle gargoyle. Noted Life photographer and picture editor John Loengard made a gripping photo of Leibovitz at the climax of her danger. In 2007, major retrospective of Leibovitz's work was held at the Brooklyn Museum, The retrospective was based on her book, Annie Leibovitz: A Photographer's Life, 1990–2005 and included many of her professional photographs as well as numerous personal photographs of her family and partner Susan Sontag; this show, expanded to include three of the official portraits of Queen Elizabeth II went on the road for seven stops. It was on display at the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C. from October 2007 to January 2008 and at the Palace of the Legion of Honor in San Francisco from March 2008 to May 20
Fashion is a popular style in clothing, lifestyle, makeup and body. Fashion is a distinctive and constant trend in the style in which people present themselves. A fashion can become the prevailing style in behaviour or manifest the newest creations of designers, technologists and design managers; because the more technical term costume is linked to the term "fashion", the use of the former has been relegated to special senses like fancy-dress or masquerade wear, while the word "fashion" refers to clothing, including the study of clothing. Although aspects of fashion can be feminine or masculine, some trends are androgynous. High-flying trendsetters in fashion can aspire to the label haute couture. Early Western travelers, traveling whether to India, Turkey or China, would remark on the absence of change in fashion in those countries; the Japanese shōgun's secretary bragged to a Spanish visitor in 1609 that Japanese clothing had not changed in over a thousand years. However, there is considerable evidence in Ming China of changing fashions in Chinese clothing.
Changes in costume took place at times of economic or social change, as occurred in ancient Rome and the medieval Caliphate, followed by a long period without major changes. In 8th-century Moorish Spain, the musician Ziryab introduced to Córdoba sophisticated clothing-styles based on seasonal and daily fashions from his native Baghdad, modified by his own inspiration. Similar changes in fashion occurred in the 11th century in the Middle East following the arrival of the Turks, who introduced clothing styles from Central Asia and the Far East. Additionally, there is a long history of fashion in West Africa. Cloth was used as a form of currency in trade with the Portuguese and Dutch as early as the 16th Century. Locally produced cloth and cheaper European imports were assembled into new styles to accommodate the growing elite class of West Africans and resident gold and slave traders. There was an strong tradition of cloth-weaving in Oyo and the areas inhabited by the Igbo people; the beginning in Europe of continual and rapid change in clothing styles can be reliably dated.
Historians, including James Laver and Fernand Braudel, date the start of Western fashion in clothing to the middle of the 14th century, though they tend to rely on contemporary imagery and illuminated manuscripts were not common before the fourteenth century. The most dramatic early change in fashion was a sudden drastic shortening and tightening of the male over-garment from calf-length to covering the buttocks, sometimes accompanied with stuffing in the chest to make it look bigger; this created the distinctive Western outline of a tailored top worn over trousers. The pace of change accelerated in the following century, women and men's fashion in the dressing and adorning of the hair, became complex. Art historians are therefore able to use fashion with confidence and precision to date images to within five years in the case of images from the 15th century. Changes in fashion led to a fragmentation across the upper classes of Europe of what had been a similar style of dressing and the subsequent development of distinctive national styles.
These national styles remained different until a counter-movement in the 17th to 18th centuries imposed similar styles once again originating from Ancien Régime France. Though the rich led fashion, the increasing affluence of early modern Europe led to the bourgeoisie and peasants following trends at a distance, but still uncomfortably close for the elites – a factor that Fernand Braudel regards as one of the main motors of changing fashion. In the 16th century, national differences were at their most pronounced. Ten 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten different hats. Albrecht Dürer illustrated the differences in his actual contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian fashions at the close of the 15th century; the "Spanish style" of the late 16th century began the move back to synchronicity among upper-class Europeans, after a struggle in the mid-17th century, French styles decisively took over leadership, a process completed in the 18th century. Though different textile colors and patterns changed from year to year, the cut of a gentleman's coat and the length of his waistcoat, or the pattern to which a lady's dress was cut, changed more slowly.
Men's fashions were derived from military models, changes in a European male silhouette were galvanized in theaters of European war where gentleman officers had opportunities to make notes of foreign styles such as the "Steinkirk" cravat or necktie. Though there had been distribution of dressed dolls from France since the 16th century and Abraham Bosse had produced engravings of fashion in the 1620s, the pace of change picked up in the 1780s with increased publication of French engravings illustrating the latest Paris styles. By 1800, all Western Europeans were dressing alike. Although tailors and dressmakers were no doubt responsible for many innovations, the textile industry led many trends, the history of fashion design is understood to date from 1858 when the English-born Charles Frederick Worth opened the first true haute couture house in Paris; the Haute house was the name established by government for the fashion houses that met the standards of industry. These fashion houses have to adhere to standards such as keeping at least twenty employees
New York Fashion Week
New York Fashion Week, held in February and September of each year, is a semi-annual series of events when international fashion collections are shown to buyers, the press, the general public. It is one of four major fashion weeks in the world, collectively known as the "Big 4," along with those in Paris and Milan; the Council of Fashion Designers of America created the modern notion of a centralized “New York Fashion Week” in 1993, although cities like London were using their city’s name in conjunction with the words “fashion week” in the 1980s. NYFW is based on a much older series of events called “Press Week,” founded in 1943, it has consisted of numerous branded events, such as Olympus Fashion Week New York and MADE Fashion Week, many independent fashion productions around town. Producers of New York Fashion Week include IMG, The SOCIETY Fashion Week, FTL Moda in conjunction with Fashion Week Online, Style 360, Art Hearts Fashion, Style Fashion Week, ASC Fashion week among others. A centralized calendar of citywide events is kept by the CFDA, was acquired from calendar founder Ruth Finley.
The economic impact of New York Fashion Week is estimated at $887 million. The first New York Fashion Week was created in 1943 by Eleanor Lambert, press director of the American fashion industry’s first promotional organization, the New York Dress Institute; the event, the world's first organized fashion week, was called "Press Week", was created to attract attention away from French fashion during World War II, when fashion industry insiders were unable to travel to Paris to see French fashion shows. It was meant to showcase American designers for fashion journalists, who had neglected U. S. fashion innovations. Press Week was a success, fashion magazines like Vogue, which were filled with French designs featured American fashion. By the mid-1950s, the event was known as "Press Week of New York". Spring 1951 was the 16th Annual Press Week of New York. In 1993, the CFDA, led by president Stan Herman and executive director Fern Mallis, consolidated the citywide events known as "New York Fashion Week" by staging them in a cluster of white tents in Bryant Park.
The event was branded with the trademark "7th on Sixth." In 2001, "7th on Sixth" was sold to IMG. In 2004, the camera company Olympus became a sponsor of IMG's events, which were renamed "Olympus Fashion Week."In 2007, Mercedes-Benz became title sponsor of the IMG-produced events, adding New York to its roster of international "Mercedes-Benz fashion weeks," and dubbing it "MB Fashion Week New York."In 2010, IMG/Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week New York left the Bryant Park tents, relocating to the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. In September 2011, New York designers began live-streaming runway shows, following London, who began in February 2010. Streams were offered on YouTube, on other sites. In 2013, IMG and its New York Fashion Week events were sold to William Morris Endeavor and Silver Lake Partners for $2.3 billion. In 2014, the CFDA acquired FashionCalendar.com from Ruth Finley, who had managed it for more than 60 years. In January 2015, Mercedes-Benz announced its departure as title sponsor from WME/IMG's events.
Producer Kanye West announced. In March 2015, WME/IMG announced that it had acquired MADE Fashion Week, which takes place during WME/IMG's events. In 2015, IMG's events were moved from Lincoln Center to Spring Studios. Following the loss of Bryant Park and Lincoln Center as hosting site for New York Fashion Week, the event is no longer held in one central location. Locations have included converted railway terminals and a former post office. In February 2014, Dr. Danielle Sheypuk became the first wheelchair-using model to appear in a show for New York Fashion Week. In September 2014, Karen Crespo became the first quadruple-amputee to walk at New York Fashion Week for Carrie Hammer. On December 12, 2014, a New York state court approved a settlement in a lawsuit by community activists over whether allowing the Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week tents in Damrosch Park was a violation of the public trust doctrine. In accordance with the settlement, the City of New York, the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts agreed not to renew their contract with IMG.
As a result, the February 2015 Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week was the last one staged in Damrosch Park. In 2014, New York State passed legislation designating models under the age of 18 as child performers, restricting the hours they can perform and requiring additional documentation; the fall/winter 2015 shows took place from February 12–19. In that week, actress Jamie Brewer became the first woman with Down syndrome to walk the red carpet at New York Fashion Week, which she did for designer Carrie Hammer; the spring/summer 2016 shows took place from September 10–17, 2015 at two new locations, Skylight at Moynihan Station in Midtown and Skylight Clarkson Square in SoHo. The economic impact of these shows was estimated to be $900 million and attendance was 125,000 people. In December 2015, the CFDA announced that it had hired the Boston Consulting Group to study revising the format of New York Fashion Week to adapt to changes brought about by social media. One option being explored is to bifurcate the event, with private showroom appointments of next season's designs for buyers and public fashion shows displaying in-season merchandise for consumers.
The first New York Fashion Week dedicated menswear shows, called "New York Fashion Week: Men's," were produced by the CFDA i
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Shades of white
Shades of white are colors that differ only from pure white. Variations of white include what are termed off-white colors, which may be considered part of a neutral color scheme. In color theory, a shade is a pure color mixed with black. Speaking, a “shade of white” would be a neutral beige; this article is about off-white colors that vary from pure white in hue, in chroma. Colors considered "shades of white" include cream, ivory, Navajo white, vanilla; the lighting of a room, can cause a pure white to be perceived as off-white. Off-white colors were pervasively paired with beiges in the 1930s, popular again from 1955 to 1975. Whiteness measures the degree. Below is a chart showing the computer web color shades of white. An achromatic white is a white color in which the red and blue codes are equal; the web colors white and white smoke. A chromatic shade of white is a white color in which the red and blue codes are not equal, but are close to each other, what makes it a shade of white. White is a color, the perception of, evoked by light that stimulates all three types of color sensitive cone cells in the human eye in equal amounts and with high brightness compared to the surroundings.
A white visual stimulation will be void of hue and grayness. White is the lightest possible color; the web color ghost white is a tint of white associated with what it is imagined the color of a ghost might be. There is no evidence that this color name was in use before the X11 color names were formulated in 1987; the web color white smoke is displayed on the left. There is no evidence that this color name was in use before the X11 color names were formulated in 1987; the Crayola crayon color baby powder was introduced in 1994 as part of its specialty Magic Scent crayon collection. The web color snow is displayed at left; the first recorded use of snow as a color name in English was in 1000. The color snow was included as one of the X11 colors when they were formulated in 1987. Ivory is an off-white color that resembles ivory, the material out of which the teeth and tusks of animals are made, it has a slight tint of yellow. The first recorded use of ivory as a color name in English was in 1385; the color ivory was included as one of the X11 colors when they were formulated in 1987.
The web color floral white is displayed at left. There is no evidence that this color name was in use before the X11 color names were formulated in 1987. Seashell is an off-white color that resembles some of the pale pinkish tones that are common in many seashells; the first recorded use of seashell as a color name in English was in 1926. In 1987, seashell was included as one of the X11 colors. Cornsilk is a color, a representation of the color of cornsilk; the first recorded use of cornsilk as a color name in English was in 1927. In 1987, cornsilk was included as one of the X11 colors. Old lace is a web color, a pale yellowish orange that resembles the color of an old lace tablecloth, it is one of the original X11 colors. Old lace is used as a color of a certain kind of Caucasian skin type in art. Cream is a color, a representation of the color of the cream produced from the milk of cattle; the first recorded use of cream as a color name in English was in 1590. In 1987, cream was included as one of the X11 colors.
The color beige is displayed at left. The first recorded use of beige as a color name in English was in 1887; the term originates from beige cloth, a cotton fabric left undyed in its natural color. Items that are of beige color in real world applications are closer to yellow than they are to white. Displayed at right is the color parchment In 2001, this was made into one of the colors on the Xona.com color list. Antique white is a web color; the color name antique white began to be used in 1987. The color champagne is displayed at left; the color's name is derived from the typical color of the beverage champagne. The first recorded use of champagne as a color name in English was in 1915; the color eggshell is displayed at left. The color eggshell is a representation of the average color of chicken eggs. Displayed at left is the color Dutch white. Dutch white is one of the colors on the Resene Color List, a color list popular in Australia and New Zealand; the color Dutch white was formulated in 2000.
The color bone is displayed at left. This color is a representation of the color of bones; the first recorded use of bone as a color name in English was in the first decade of the 19th century. Bone colored paint is used by landlords to paint vacant apartments that are for rent since it hides dirt and stains better than white; the color vanilla is a rich tint of off-white as well as a medium pale tint of yellow. The first recorded use of vanilla as a color name in English was in 1925; the color flax is displayed at left. The first recorded use of flax as a color name in English was in 1915. Navajo white is a whitish orange color, derives its name from its similarity to the background color of the Navajo Nation ethnic flag. In 1987, Navajo white was included as one of the X11 colors. Displayed at right is the color alabaster. There is no evidence that this color name was in use before the X11 color names were formulated in 1971. Beige List of colors Shades of black Variations of gray