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Monday is the day of the week between Sunday and Tuesday. According to the international standard ISO 8601 it is the first day of the week. In countries that adopt the "Sunday-first" convention, it is the second day of the week; the name of Monday is derived from Old English Mōnandæg and Middle English Monenday a translation of Latin dies lunae "day of the Moon". The names of the day of the week were coined in the Roman era, in Greek and Latin, in the case of Monday as ἡμέρᾱ Σελήνης, diēs Lūnae "day of the Moon". Many languages use terms either directly derived from these names, or loan-translations based on them; the English noun Monday derived sometime before 1200 from monedæi, which itself developed from Old English mōnandæg and mōndæg, which has cognates in other Germanic languages, including Old Frisian mōnadeig, Middle Low German and Middle Dutch mānendag, mānendach, Old High German mānetag, Old Norse mánadagr. The Germanic term is a Germanic interpretation of Latin lunae dies. Japanese and Korean share the same ancient Chinese words'月曜日' for Monday which means "day of the moon".

In many Indo-Aryan languages, the word for Monday is Somavāra or Chandravāra, Sanskrit loan-translations of "Monday". In some cases, the "ecclesiastical" names are used, a tradition of numbering the days of the week in order to avoid the "pagan" connotation of the planetary names, in which Monday is the "second day". In many Slavic languages the name of the day translates to "after Sunday/holiday". Russian понедельник translated, Monday means "next to the week", по "next to" or "on" недельник " week" Croatian ponedjeljak, Serbian понедељак, Ukrainian понеділок, Bulgarian понеделник, Polish poniedziałek, Czech pondělí, Slovak pondelok, Slovenian ponedeljek. In Turkish it is called pazartesi, which means "after Sunday"; the Greco-Roman week began with Sunday, Monday was the second day of the week. It is still the custom to refer to Monday as feria secunda in the liturgical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church. Quakers traditionally referred to Monday as "Second Day"; the Portuguese and the Greek retain the ecclesiastical tradition.

The Modern Hebrew name for Monday is yom-sheni. In modern times, it has become more common to consider Monday the first day of the week; the international ISO 8601 standard places Monday as the first day of the week, this is used on calendars in Europe and in international business. Monday is xīngqīyī in Chinese, meaning "day one of the week". Modern Western culture looks at Monday as the beginning of the workweek. In the Eastern Orthodox Church Mondays are days; the Octoechos contains hymns on this theme, arranged in an eight-week cycle, that are chanted on Mondays throughout the year. At the end of Divine Services on Monday, the dismissal begins with the words: "May Christ our True God, through the intercession, s of his most-pure Mother, of the honourable, Bodiless Powers of Heaven…". In many Eastern monasteries Mondays are observed as fast days. In these monasteries the monks abstain from meat, dairy products, fish and oil; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints spend one evening per week called Family Home Evening or Family Night Monday, that families are encouraged to spend together in study and other family activities.

Many businesses owned by Latter-Day Saints close early on Mondays so they and their customers are able to spend more time with their families. In Islam, Mondays are one of the days in a week in which Muslims are encouraged to do voluntary fasting, the other being Thursdays. There are a number of Hadith. According to the same Hadith, prophet Muhammad was born on Monday, it is narrated that he received his first revelation on Monday. In Judaism Mondays are considered auspicious days for fasting; the Didache warned early Christians not to fast on Mondays to avoid Judaizing, suggests Wednesdays instead. In Judaism the Torah is read in public on Monday mornings, one of three days the Torah is read each week. Special penitential prayers are recited on Monday, unless there is a special occasion for happiness which cancels them. In Hebrew, Monday is called "Yom Shayni," meaning "Second Day." This reflects the Jewish practice of beginning the week with Sunday, the day after the Jewish sabbath. A number of popular songs in Western culture feature Monday as a day of depression, avolition, hysteria, or melancholy.

For example, "Monday, Monday" from the Mamas & the Papas, "Rainy Days and Mondays" from the Carpenters, "I Don't Like Mondays" from the Boomtown Rats, Monday, Monday from Tegan and Sara, "Manic Monday" from the Bangles. There is an American pop punk band Hey Monday; the popular comic strip character Garfield by Jim Davis is well known for his disdain for Mo


The House of Tutkowski is a Pomeranian noble family known as landowners at the current site of the city of Gdynia. The Tutkowski's were most of Lithuanian descent; this theory is supported by parochial documents from Kościerzyna County, which indicate that the last name's original form was Tutkus. The original last name is still common in the Anykščiai area in Lithuania; the pivotal point in the family's history was the rapid transformation of the village of Gdynia into one of Poland's major cities in the interwar period thanks to the construction of a nearby port. The local branch of the Tutkowski family owned vast fields at the site of the current downtown area of the city, the port, the villa district of Kamienna Góra; because the family was one of the main families involved in the construction of the port of city of Gdynia, they are referred to as one of the Four Big Families of Gdynia, along with the clans of Skwiercz and Dorsz. Along with their substantial growth in wealth, the Gdynia branch of the Tutkowski family, once local Pomeranian nobility, became part of the Polish elite, marrying into established families of Wittstock, the owners of the village of Wittstock in the Free City of Danzig.

After WWII, the Tutkowski family lost most of its estates in the Gdynia area due to expropriations executed by the communist government against landowners. The government motivated the expropriations with the provisions of eminent domain laws; the Tutkowski's and other families in the city were only able to keep some of their built-up parcels. After the communist era, another blow was dealt to the Tutkowski family when their grand villa in the Kamienna Góra district was torn down before being returned to the family, it was only in the 2010's that the family started recovering its land and getting compensation for illegal expropriations of the 60's. According to 19th century heraldist Teodor Chrząński, the coat of arms of the House of Tutkowski is a variation on the Łuk coat of arms, common in Poland; the theory is supported not only by the presence of the namesake bow on the shield, but the crest's three ostrich feathers. In the chaotic Kashubian heraldry, coats of arms functioned more as a connector to one's region, rather than to particular lineage, which explains the abundance of common heraldic elements such stars and arrows, connecting their bearing families with Kashubia.

As a consequence of contacts with Polish nobility, it was quite common in Kashubia to either include Polish elements in one's coat of arms or replace it with a Polish one, such as the popularized Nałęcz and Brochwicz. The House of Tutkowski coat of arms is typical for Kashubia, with its classic Kashubian star and a bow as per Chrząński most derived from Polish heraldry

Uralic–Yukaghir languages

Uralic–Yukaghir known as Uralo-Yukaghir, is a proposed language family composed of Uralic and Yukaghir. Uralic is a large and diverse family of languages spoken in northern and eastern Europe and northwestern Siberia. Among the better-known Uralic languages are Finnish and Hungarian. Yukaghir is a small family of languages spoken in eastern Siberia, it extended over a much wider area. It consists of Tundra Yukaghir and Kolyma Yukaghir. Similarities between Uralic and Yukaghir were first pointed out by Paasonen and Lewy, although they did not consider these to be sufficient evidence for a genetic relationship between the two. Holger Pedersen included Uralic and Yukaghir in his proposed Nostratic language family, noted some similarities between them. A genetic relationship between Uralic and Yukaghir was first argued for in detail in 1940, independently by Karl Bouda and Björn Collinder; the hypothesis was further elaborated by Collinder in subsequent publications, by other scholars including Harms and Piispanen.

Uralic–Yukaghir is listed as a language family in A Guide to the World's Languages by Merritt Ruhlen, is accepted as a unit in controversial long-range proposals such as "Eurasiatic" by Joseph Greenberg and "Nostratic" by Allan Bomhard, both based on evidence collected by earlier scholars like Collinder. Collinder based his case for a genetic relationship between Uralic and Yukaghir on lexical and grammatical evidence; the following list of lexical correspondences is taken from Nikolaeva. The Uralic–Yukaghir hypothesis is rejected by many researchers as unsupported. While most agree that there is a core of common vocabulary that cannot be dismissed as chance resemblances, it has been argued that these are not the result of common inheritance, but rather due to contact between Yukaghir and Uralic speakers, which resulted in borrowing of vocabulary from Uralic languages into Yukaghir. Rédei assembled a large corpus of. Häkkinen argues that the grammatical systems show too few convincing resemblances the morphology, proposes that putative Uralic–Yukaghir cognates are in fact borrowings from an early stage of Uralic into an early stage of Yukaghir, while Uralic was spoken near the Sayan region and Yukaghir near the Upper Lena River and near Lake Baikal.

Aikio agrees with Rédei and Häkkinen that Uralic–Yukaghir is unsupported and implausible, that common vocabulary shared by the two families is best explained as the result of borrowing from Uralic into Yukaghir, although he rejects many of their examples as spurious or accidental resemblances and puts the date of borrowing much arguing that the loanwords he accepts as valid were borrowed from an early stage of Samoyedic into Yukaghir, in the same general region between the Yenisei River and Lake Baikal. Aikio, Ante. "The Uralic–Yukaghir lexical correspondences: genetic inheritance, language contact or chance resemblance?". Finnisch-Ugrische Forschungen. 2014: 7–76. Doi:10.33339/fuf.86078. Bomhard, Allan R. 2008. Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic: Comparative Phonology and Vocabulary, 2 volumes. Leiden: Brill. Bouda, Karl. "Die finnisch-ugrisch-samojedische Schicht des Jukagirischen". Ungarische Jahrbücher. 20: 80–101. Collinder, Björn. Jukagirisch und Uralisch. Uppsala Universitets Årsskrift 8. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Collinder, Björn. "Uralo-jukagirische Nachlese". Uppsala Universitets Årsskrift. 12: 105–130. Collinder, Björn. "Hat das Uralische Verwandte? Eine sprachvergleichende Untersuchung". Acta Societatis Linguisticae Upsaliensis. 1: 109–180. Collinder, Björn. "An Introduction to the Uralic Languages". Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Greenberg, Joseph H. 2000. Indo-European and Its Closest Relatives: The Eurasiatic Language Family, Volume 1: Grammar. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. Greenberg, Joseph H. 2002. Indo-European and Its Closest Relatives: The Eurasiatic Language Family, Volume 2: Lexicon. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. Greenberg, Joseph H. 2005. Genetic Linguistics: Essays on Theory and Method, edited by William Croft. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Häkkinen, Jaakko. "Early contacts between Uralic and Yukaghir". Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Toimituksia − Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne. 264: 91–101. Harms, Robert. "The Uralo-Yukaghir focus system and problem in remote genetic relationship".

In Hopper, Paul J.. Studies in descriptive and historical linguistics. Festschrift for Winfred P. Lehmann. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Pp. 301–316. Lewy, Ernst. "Possessivisch und Passivisch. Bemerkungen zum Verbalausdruck in der sprachlichen Typenlehre". Ungarische Jahrbücher. 8: 274–289. Nikolaeva, Irina. Проблема урало-юкагирских генетических связей. Moscow: Institute of Linguistics. Nikolaeva, Irina. A Historical Dictionary of Yukaghir. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Paasonen, Heikki. "Zur Frage von der Urverwandschaft der finnisch-ugrischen und indoeuropäischen Sprachen". Finnisch-Ugrische Forschungen. 7: 13–31. Pedersen, Holger. Linguistic Science in the Nineteenth Century: Methods and Results. Tr

Sir Robert Grierson, 1st Baronet

Sir Robert Grierson, 1st Baronet, of Lag was a Scottish baronet. He is best remembered as a notorious persecutor of the Covenanters among the people of Galloway, is still referred to as Cruel Lag; the character of Sir Robert Redgauntlet of Wandering Willie's tale in Sir Walter Scott's Redgauntlet is based on Grierson. Robert Grierson was born at the farm of Barquhar, the son of the 1st Tutor of Lag, William Grierson, the Laird of Barquhar, Kirkcudbright and his wife, Margaret Douglas, the daughter of Sir James Douglas, of Mouswald, Dumfriesshire; the Griersons were an ancient family who claimed descent from Malcolm MacGregor of Glenorchy a key ally of Robert the Bruce, claimed they had been granted the lands of Lag in Dumfriesshire in 1408 by Henry II Sinclair, Earl of Orkney. In 1666, Robert Grierson succeeded his cousin as Laird of Lag and he was for some years Steward of Kirkcudbright. In 1676 he married the daughter of James Douglas, 2nd Earl of Queensberry. Grierson sat as a Member of Parliament for Dumfriesshire between 1678 and 1686.

Between the 1660s and 1680s the Stuart king Charles II acted to suppress dissent among the militant Presbyterians of Galloway, who refused to conform to the king's authority and in several cases broke out into armed rebellion. The local heritors were charged with enforcing this policy, Lag, a Stuart loyalist and Episcopalian, proved a energetic supporter. In 1678 he made his own tenants sign a bond in which they agreed not to attend illegal conventicles or to commune with "vagrant preachers", he subsequently assisted John Graham of Claverhouse in policing the south-west of the country. As a commissioner for Galloway he was given control of one of the military courts set up to try rebellious Covenanters, in this capacity was responsible for several executions of those refusing to take the oaths of loyalty to the monarch. Most traditions make Grierson the presiding officer at the court that condemned the "Wigtown Martyrs", Margaret Wilson and Margaret McLachlan, in May 1685. A Cloud of Witnesses, the principal martyrology of the time, charged him with command of the troop of dragoons that shot John Bell of Whiteside along with four others in Tongland Parish in February 1685, David Halliday and George Short in Twynholm in the year.

In 1685, after the accession of King James II and VII, Grierson was created a Baronet, of Lag, in the Baronetage of Nova Scotia, awarded a pension. Subsequent to the 1688 Glorious Revolution, Lag was arrested in May 1689 as a supporter of the old Stuart regime. Although he obtained his release on a substantial bail, continued to receive his pension from William III, he remained under suspicion as a potential Jacobite rebel and was imprisoned again several times during the 1690s. In 1696 he was charged with being involved with the coining of false money at his mansion, but it was discovered that the house was being used for experiments in stamping linen with decorative patterns. For much of the remainder of his life Lag's fortunes were impacted by fines, he took no further part in the politics of the period, though he continued to serve as a Justice of the peace and permitted his sons to become involved in the 1715 Jacobite Rising. However, the family's status never came under real threat as their connections with the influential Duke of Queensberry, both by blood and by marriage served to protect them to some extent.

Although Lag lived on unmolested in semi-retirement he remained feared and reviled by Covenanters: the writer Patrick Walker in his Remarkable Passages of the Life and Death of Mr. Alexander Peden, described him as "a great persecutor, a great swearer, a great whorer, drunkard and cheat, yet out of hell". In 1713 Lag handed over his estates to his eldest son William in return for a life rent; the two subsequently fell out over Lag's request to sell some of the property, though the resulting legal cases had the unintended effect of protecting the estates from forfeiture after William became involved in the 1715 rebellion. It was noted that father and son had been "thoroughly reunited by the common cause of retrieving their property", Lag was able to transfer the estates back to William in 1725. Grierson of Lag was a byword for evil among the common Presbyterian folk in Annandale, who gravely asserted that he, like the other persecutors of the Covenanters, had intimate dealings with the devil, that he was "partly in hell" before his death, in evidence of which they told that his saliva burnt holes where it fell, his feet put into cold water made it boil.

Lag died, aged 77, at his town house in Dumfries on 31 December 1733, was buried two days in the Grierson family burial plot in Old Dunscore Churchyard, the cost of the funeral being £240 Scots. A story was told that on the night he died a chariot surrounded by thunder clouds swept his soul away to hell. Another described how the horses pulling his hearse to Dunscore churchyard died of exhaustion on the way and a black raven flew down and settled on the coffin, flying away only at the moment of burial; the antiquary Charles Kirkpatrick Sharpe claimed that the story regarding the horses was in fact true, that his grand-uncle Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick, a nephew of Lag's, had both attended the funeral and supplied the horses which subsequently died. Whereas the Presbyterian m

Son of the South (film)

Son of the South is an upcoming American biographical drama film and directed by Barry Alexander Brown, in his directorial debut. Based on Bob Zellner's autobiography, The Wrong Side of Murder Creek: A White Southerner in the Freedom Movement, it stars Lucas Till, Lucy Hale, Lex Scott Davis, Julia Ormond, Cedric the Entertainer, Sharonne Lainer, Mike C. Manning, Brian Dennehy and Chaka Forman. Lucas Till as Bob Zellner Lucy Hale as Carol Anne Lex Scott Davis as Joanne Julia Ormond as Virginia Durr Cedric the Entertainer as Ralph Abernathy Sharonne Lainer as Rosa Parks Brian Dennehy as Grandfather Chaka Forman as Jim Forman Mike C. Manning as Townsend Ellis Shamier Anderson as Reggie Ludi Lin as Derek Ang Jake Abel Dexter Darden as John Lewis Matt William Knowles as Jim Zwerg Byron Herlong as James Zellner Onye Eme-Akwari as Charles McDew In February 2019, it was announced Barry Alexander Brown would direct the film, from a screenplay he wrote, while Colin Bates, Eve Pomerance, Bill Black, Stan Erdreich will serve as producers on the film, while Spike Lee will serve as an executive producer.

In April 2019, Lucas Till, Lucy Hale, Lex Scott Davis, Julia Ormond, Cedric the Entertainer, Mike C. Manning, Sharonne Lainer, Brian Dennehy, Chaka Forman, Shamier Anderson, Jake Abel, Ludi Lin, Onye Eme-Akwari, Dexter Darden, Matt William Knowles joined the cast of the film. Principal photography began in April 2019. Son of the South on IMDb

Queen's Gate (gamebook)

Queen's Gate is a series of visual combat books published by Hobby Japan. The supplement to the Queen's Blade series, it features licensed female characters from other games and works, including those from Hobby Japan. Like Queen's Blade before it, it is compatible with Flying Buffalo's Lost Worlds gamebooks; the first gamebook, featuring Alice, was released on November 30, 2007, with a total of nineteen gamebooks released as of June 29, 2012. A novel adaptation by Eiji Okita and Eiichi Shitara was published by Kenkyusha from April to July 2009. A video game adaptation of Queen's Gate was developed by Bandai Namco Games for the PlayStation Portable and released on July 28, 2011. In the original game, the general story comes from Alice's bio: she is a treasure hunter who one day discovers the "Queen's Gate", which unleashes a battle across space-time. In the novels, the plot is expanded a little more, introducing her rival Dorothy, Alice's mother Lewis, Dorothy's mother Glinda, as they fight against various monsters.

Alice Voiced by: Kana Ueda An original character from Nitroplus who wields a pair of modified Mauser C96 pistols with built-in combat knives and a whip that she wears as a tail. The pistols are called Angra Aeshma, for the black and silver one respectively. Illustrated by Niθ. In the novels, she follows an Alice in Wonderland theme, as not only her mother is called Lewis, but she has a tactician expert subordinate called Hatter, a subordinate expert in machinery dressed in a bunny girl costume called March Hare, she belongs to the Dodgson Foundation. Ink Nijihara Voiced by: Yukari Tamura From the anime series Moetan. Illustrated by POP. Iroha Voiced by: Mayumi Shindō From the Samurai Shodown video game series. Illustrated by Tasuku Iizuki. Mai Shiranui Voiced by: Ami Koshimizu From The King of Fighters and Fatal Fury video game series. Illustrated by Mahiru Izumi. Dizzy From the Guilty Gear video game series. Illustrated by Takumi Inoue. Mina Majikina Voiced by: Rie Tanaka From Samurai Shodown. Illustrated by Otsudo Shinozuki.

Cham Cham Voiced by: Eri Kitamura From Samurai Shodown. Illustrated by BLADE. Kasumi Voiced by: Houko Kuwashima From the Dead or Alive video game series. Illustrated by Insert it's. Lili Voiced by: Rina Sato From Tekken 5: Dark Resurrection. Illustrated by Meiwa Morita. Katja Voiced by: Aya Hirano From The Qwaser of Stigmata. Illustrated by Hoods Entertainment. Junko Hattori Voiced by: Yōko Hikasa From the light novel and anime series Demon King Daimao. Illustrated by Zundarepon. Jubei Yagyu Voiced by: Aoi Yūki From the light novel and anime series Hyakka Ryōran Samurai Girls. Illustrated by Mahiru Izumi. Ivy Voiced by: Yumi Tōma From the Soulcalibur series. Illustrated by 2-go. Yukimura Sanada Voiced by: Rie Kugimiya From Hyakka Ryōran Samurai Girls. Illustrated by Keitaro Arima. Noel Vermillion Voiced by: Kanako Kondō From the BlazBlue series. Illustrated by Nagi Takatsuki. Taki From the Soulcalibur series. Illustrated by Isse. Kanu From the Koihime Musō series. Illustrated by Takumi Inoue. Pyrrha From Soulcalibur V.

Illustrated by refeia. Suchie-Pai From the mahjong games Idol Janshi Suchie-Pai. Illustrated by Kenichi Sonoda. Maron Makaron Voiced by: Mai Nakahara The main heroine of Queen's Gate: Spiral Chaos. Illustrated by Poyoyon Rock. Painkiller Kotone Voiced by: Megumi Kojima From the Hyper Nurse series. Illustrated by Junichi Inoue. Wonder Momo Voiced by: Haruko Momoi From the video game Wonder Momo. Illustrated by Poyoyon Rock. Luna Voiced by: Saki Fujita Illustrated by Atsuko Ishida. Eine Voiced by: Hisako Kanemoto Illustrated by Keiji Gotoh. Humina Voiced by: Kaoru Mizuhara Illustrated by Makoto Koga. Arutta Catus Voiced by: Asami Shimoda Illustrated by Poyoyon Rock. Audrey Plum Voiced by: Rei Mitsuzaki One of the Gal Monsters featured in the game. Illustrated by Y Nin. Lov