The Mongolian Armed Forces is the collective name for the Mongolian army and the joint forces that comprise it. The army is tasked with protecting the independence and territorial integrity of Mongolia. Defined as the peacetime configuration, its current structure consists of two branches: ground forces and air force. In case of war situation Border Troops, Internal Troops and National Emergency Management Agency will be reorganized into the armed forces structure; the official holiday of their military is Men's and Soldiers' Day on March 18, the equivalent of Defender of the Fatherland Day in Russia. As a unified state, Mongolia traces its origins to the Mongol Empire created by Genghis Khan in the 13th century. Genghis Khan unified the various tribes on the Mongol steppe, his descendants conquered the entirety of Asia, the Middle East, parts of Eastern Europe; the military of the Mongol Empire is regarded to be the first modern military system. The Mongol Army was organized into decimal units of tens, hundreds and ten thousands.
A notable feature of the army is that it was composed of cavalry units, giving it the advantage of maneuverability. Siege weaponry was adapted from other cultures, with foreign experts integrated into the command structure; the Mongols used naval power, with a few exceptions. In the 1260s and 1270s they used seapower while conquering the Song dynasty of China, though they were unable to mount successful seaborne campaigns against Japan due to storms and rough battles. Around the Eastern Mediterranean, their campaigns were exclusively land-based, with the seas being controlled by the Crusader and Mamluk forces. With the disintegration of the Mongol Empire in the late 13th century, the Mongol Army as a unified unit crumbled; the Mongols retreated back to their homeland after the fall of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, once again delved into civil war. Although the Mongols became united once again during the reign of Queen Mandukhai and Batmongkhe Dayan Khan, in the 17th century they were annexed into the Qing Dynasty.
Once Mongolia was under the Qing, the Mongol Armies were used to defeat the Ming dynasty, helping to consolidate Manchu Rule. Mongols proved a useful ally in the war. During most of the Qing Dynasty time, the Mongols gave military assistance to the Manchus. With the creation of the Eight Banners, Banner Armies were broadly divided along ethnic lines, namely Manchu and Mongol. In 1911, Outer Mongolia declared independence as the Bogd Khaanate under the Bogd Khan; this initial independence did not last, with Mongolia being occupied successively by the Chinese Beiyang Government, Baron Ungern's White Russian forces. The modern precursor to the Mongolian Armed Forces was placed, with men's conscription and a permanent military structure starting in 1912. With Independence lost again to foreign forces, the newly created Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party created a native communist army in 1920 under the leadership of Damdin Sükhbaatar in order to fight against Russian troops from the White movement and Chinese forces.
The MPRP was aided by the Red Army, which helped to secure the Mongolian People's Republic and remained in its territory until at least 1925. However, during the 1932 armed uprising in Mongolia and the initial Japanese border probes beginning in the mid-1930s, Soviet Red Army troops in Mongolia amounted to little more than instructors for the native army and as guards for diplomatic and trading installations; the Battles of Khalkhin Gol began on 11 May 1939. A Mongolian cavalry unit of some 70–90 men had entered the disputed area in search of grazing for their horses. On that day, Manchukuoan cavalry attacked the Mongolians and drove them back across the Khalkhin Gol. On 13 May, the Mongolian force returned in greater numbers and the Manchukoans were unable to dislodge them. On 14 May, Lt. Col. Yaozo Azuma led the reconnaissance regiment of 23rd Infantry Division, supported by the 64th Infantry Regiment of the same division, under Colonel Takemitsu Yamagata, into the territory and the Mongolians withdrew.
Soviet and Mongolian troops returned to the disputed region and Azuma's force again moved to evict them. This time things turned out differently, as the Soviet–Mongolian forces surrounded Azuma's force on 28 May and destroyed it; the Azuma force suffered eight officers and 97 men killed and one officer and 33 men wounded, for 63% total casualties. The commander of the Soviet forces and the Far East Front was Comandarm Grigori Shtern from May 1938. Both sides began building up their forces in the area: soon Japan had 30,000 men in the theater; the Soviets dispatched a new Corps commander, Comcor Georgy Zhukov, who arrived on 5 June and brought more motorized and armored forces to the combat zone. Accompanying Zhukov was Comcor Yakov Smushkevich with his aviation unit. J. Lkhagvasuren, Corps Commissar of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Army, was appointed Zhukov's deputy; the Battles of Khalkhin Gol ended on 16 September 1939. In the beginning stage of World War II, the Mongolian People's Army was involved in the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, when Japanese forces, together with the puppet state of Manchukuo, attempted to invade Mongolia from the Khalkha River.
Soviet forces under the command of Georgy Zhukov, together with Mongolian forces, defeated the Japanese Sixth army and ended the Soviet–Japanese Border Wars. In 1945, Mongolian forces participated in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria under the command of the Red Army, among the last engagements of World War II. A Soviet–Mongolian Cavalry mechanized group under Issa Pliyev took part as part of the Soviet Transbaikal Front
Vitasoy is a Hong Kong beverage company. It hosts a brand of desserts named Vita. Founded in 1940, it now operates under the Vitasoy International Holdings Limited, its headquarters are in Hong Kong. Vitasoy products were centred on the high-protein soy milk drink. Over the years the company expanded into a wider variety of beverages; some of them were given the derivative brand name "Vita". Vitaland Services Limited was founded in 1991, it specialises in the operation of the tuck shops in Hong Kong primary and secondary schools and the canteen business. "Vitasoy" established "Hong Kong Gourmet" in 2001 to provide catering services to primary and secondary schools, meetings. Vitasoy was founded by Dr. Lo Kwee-seong on 9 March 1940 in Hong Kong with door-to-door delivery of soy milk, selected as a product because many Chinese people are lactose intolerant; the company ceased operations from 1941 to 1945 during the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong. It re-emerged; the soy milk was first delivered to people's homes on bicycle, but began selling through retail outlets.
By 1950, with sales increasing, Vitasoy established a new factory. In 1953, it adopted a sterilisation technology enabling the drinks to be stored without refrigeration. In 1975, Vitasoy became the first Hong Kong company to introduce Tetra Pak packaging technology for drinks production; this involves UHT sterilisation of the product and packaging in aseptic cartons so the drink could be kept for months without refrigeration. Vitasoy started to expand into overseas markets in the 90s. Yvonne Lo, the daughter of Dr. Kwee Seong Lo, introduced their soy milks to the U. S. in 1979. Today, its products are sold in 40 markets around the world, including Macau, Mainland China and New Zealand, the U. S. Canada, Europe and South East Asia. In 1976, Vitasoy launched a series of juice drinks, subsequently launched lemon tea, chrysanthemum tea and other drinks in 1978 and 1979. In 1994, the firm established a new factory in Shenzhen City as the first Hong Kong foreign plant. Four years it established new factories in Shanghai and Ayer, Massachusetts in the United States.
In 2001, it opened a manufacturing plant in Australia. In 2008, it acquired Unicurd Food Co. Ltd. a tofu manufacturing company in Singapore. Vitasoy's plants in Wuhan, Mainland China were opened in 2011 and 2016 respectively. In 2016, Vitasoy divested certain assets of its North American operation. Vitasoy USA continues its distribution of Asian import beverage business in North America. Vitasoy beverages are packed in PET bottles, glass bottles and cans. Vitasoy soy drinks and tofu are produced in a variety of flavours; the company produces a range of non-soy plant milks. Vitasoy offers juices, coffee and water. Tuen Mun, Hong Kong – boxed drinks to Hong Kong and overseas markets Shenzhen, China – for Chinese and Hong Kong markets Shanghai, China – for Chinese and Hong Kong markets Foshan, China – for Chinese and Hong Kong markets Wuhan, China – for Chinese and Hong Kong markets Wodonga, Australia – supplying to Australia and New Zealand Singapore – supplying to Singapore and overseas markets List of food companies Yeo Hiap Seng Flagstaff House Teaware Museum K.
S. Lo Gallery – named for Vitasoy founder and donor of much of the museum's collection Companies of Hong Kong Manufacturing in Hong Kong Vitasoy International Vitasoy Hong Kong Vitasoy USA My Vitasoy: Vitasoy USA's Asian Channel
Ganyū Kenji is a former sumo wrestler from Himeji, Hyōgo, Japan. He made his professional debut in March 1986, reached the top division in March 1996, his highest rank was maegashira 1. In May 1999 he continued fighting in the tournament despite having ligament damage in his ankle, in search of the eighth win that would give him a winning record, he was restricted by persistent knee problems. He became an elder in the Japan Sumo Association under the name Yamahibiki, he took over the running over the Kitanoumi stable in November 2015 after the death of its founder and head, former yokozuna Kitanoumi. The stable was renamed Yamahibiki stable, he was elected to the Sumo Association's board of directors in 2018. Glossary of sumo terms List of past sumo wrestlers List of sumo elders Ganyū Kenji's official biography at the Grand Sumo Homepage
Lott Cary was an African-American Baptist minister and lay physician, a missionary leader in the founding of the colony of Liberia on the west coast of Africa in the 1820s. He founded the first Baptist church there in 1822, now known as Providence Baptist Church of Monrovia, he served as the colony's acting governor from August 1828 to his death in November of that year. Born into slavery in Charles City County, Carey purchased his freedom and that of his children at the age of 33 after saving money from being hired out by his master in Richmond, he became a supervisor in a tobacco warehouse, as the city was a major port for the export of that commodity crop. He emigrated in 1821 with his family to the new colony of Liberia, founded by the American Colonization Society for the resettlement of free people of color and free blacks from the United States. Cary was one of the first black American missionaries, the first American Baptist missionary to Africa, he established the colony's first church, founded schools for natives, helped lead the colony.
In 1780 Lott Cary was born into slavery and humble surroundings in Charles City County, Virginia, on the plantation of John Bowry. In 1804, his master, a planter and Methodist minister, hired Cary out in Virginia's capital city of Richmond, about 25 miles away. Bowry had arranged a one year-long contract for Cary to work at the Shockoe tobacco warehouse. In 1807 Cary joined the First Baptist Church of Richmond, a congregation that included whites and African Americans. During the second Great Awakening and religious revivals of this period and Methodist preachers recruited slaves into their congregations. Cary was baptized by John Courtney. Cary learned to read the Bible and attended a small school for slaves, its twenty young men were taught by Deacon William Crane. He had come from Newark, New Jersey in 1812, opened a shoe store, joined the First Baptist Church. Crane's students met three evenings each week to learn reading, writing and the Bible. Cary rose went from working as a common laborer to shipping clerk and supervisor of a tobacco warehouse on Tobacco Row in Richmond.
Cary was sometimes rewarded by his master with five-dollar bills from the money. He was permitted to collect and sell small bags of waste tobacco for his own profit. In 1813, Cary's first wife died; the same year Cary used his savings to purchase his freedom and that of their two children for $850. As a free man, he continued to be both frugal, he and his family stayed in Richmond. In 1813 Cary became an official Baptist minister, he became a lay medical practitioner while in Richmond. In 1815, he and Collin Teague helped form the African Baptist Missionary Society in Richmond. In the early 19th century, about 2 million African Americans lived in the United States, of whom 200,000 were free located in the North; the states of the Upper South Virginia and Delaware had an increasing number of free blacks in this period. For the first 20 years after the Revolutionary War, some slaveholders freed their slaves to uphold ideals of liberty and in other cases in response to the appeals of preachers active in the Second Great Awakening, who supported the abolition of slavery.
Believing that free blacks threatened the stability of their slave society, in 1816 Virginia politician Charles Fenton Mercer and the Reverend Robert Finley founded the American Colonization Society with the goal of enabling free blacks and former slaves to emigrate to Africa and establish a colony. By this time most enslaved and free blacks were native-born in the United States for generations, they wanted to enjoy the rights of free people in the country where they had grown up and had family and social ties. Members of the ACS supported a goal of "repatriation" of blacks to Africa; the Society was supported by a coalition of philanthropists, members of the clergy and slaveholders. Those favoring abolition wanted to free enslaved blacks and provide them with the chance to go to Africa to escape continuing discrimination in the United States; the slaveholders wanted to expel free blacks from the South and the United States to remove what they perceived as a threat to the stability of their slave societies.
The ACS established the colony of Liberia on the coast in West Africa in 1819. Cary was among numerous free blacks. By 1821, Cary had accumulated a sum to pay for his and his second wife's expenses for transportation to the new colony of Liberia on the African coast, he was giving up his property, purchased in Henrico County, a good income. When asked why he would leave a community in which he was respected and led a comfortable life, he replied:'I am an African, in this country, however meritorious my conduct, and'respectable' my character, I cannot receive the credit due to either. I wish to go to a country, his work in Liberia was supported by the First Baptist Church of Richmond, the American Baptist Foreign Missions Society, the African Baptist Missionary Society of Richmond, of which he was a co-founder. Cary became the first black American missionary to Africa. In the new colony, Cary served as pastor and physician, his second wife died of disease shortly. He married again, but in its November 5, 1825 article about the colony and Cary's life, the New York Observer reported that Cary's third wife had died.
In the Hebrew Bible, the coat of many colors is the name for the garment that Joseph owned, given to him by his father Jacob. According to the King James Version, Genesis 37:3 reads, "Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children, because he was the son of his old age: and he made him a coat of many colours." The Septuagint translation of the passage uses the word ποικίλος, which indicates "many colored". On the other hand, the Revised Standard Version translates ketonet passim as "a long robe with sleeves" while the New International Version notes the translation difficulties in a footnote, translates it as "a richly ornamented robe". Aryeh Kaplan in The Living Torah gives a range of possible explanations: Kethoneth passim in Hebrew, it was a royal garment. The word passim can be translated as'colorful', striped, or with pictures, it can denote a long garment, coming down to the palms of the hands, the feet. Alternatively, the word denotes the material out of which the coat was made, fine wool or silk.
Hence, kethoneth passim, may be translated as "a full-sleeved robe", "a coat of many colors", "a coat reaching to his feet", "an ornamented tunic", "a silk robe", or "a fine woolen cloak". James Swanson suggests that the phrase indicates a "tunic or robe unique in design for showing special favor or relationship" and that "either the robe was long-sleeved and extending to the feet, or a richly-ornamented tunic either of special color design or gold threading, both ornamental and not suitable for working."The phrase is used one other time in the Hebrew Scriptures, to describe the garment worn by Tamar, daughter of David, in 2 Samuel 13:18-19. Joseph's father Jacob gave Joseph the coat as a gift, his brothers' suspicion grew when Joseph told them of his two dreams in which all the brothers bowed down to him. The narrative tells that his brothers plotted against him when he was 17, would have killed him had not the eldest brother Reuben interposed, he secretly planned to rescue him later. However, while Reuben was absent, the others planned to sell him to a company of Ishmaelite merchants.
When the passing Midianites arrived, the brothers dragged Joseph up and sold him to the merchants for 20 pieces of silver. The brothers dipped Joseph's coat in goat blood and showed it to their father, saying that Joseph had been torn apart by wild beasts; the envy of his brothers may have stemmed from the fact that Joseph was the son of Rachel, Jacob's first love. However, Joseph's brothers were the sons of Rachel's older sister Leah and the sons of the handmaidens, who were given to Jacob during a time when Rachel could not conceive. There was a battle between Rachel to compete for Jacob's attention. Jacob had told Joseph. Joseph would report back to his father of their evil deeds. In addition to this he shares his dreams of them bowing down to him, their anger towards him only increased. The coat is featured in the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat. In 1997, Anita Diamant's novel The Red Tent, Dinah mentions that Rachel is making a colorful garment for her son Joseph. In the video game Castlevania Symphony Of The Night for PS1, a cloak called "Joseph's cloak" can be found in the American localization of the game.
It features adjustable colors in the equip screen of the game as further reference from the Bible. The story is referenced in the 1971 Dolly Parton song "Coat of Many Colors". In The Lord of the Rings, Saruman the wizard renounces his status as'Saruman the White' in favor of the title'Saruman of Many Colors' when he announces his allegiance with Sauron
The Bell Ford Post Patented Diagonal "Combination Bridge" simply called the Bell Ford Bridge or Bell Ford Covered Bridge, is a dilapidated covered bridge located in Jackson County, northwest of Seymour, Indiana. The bridge passed over the East Fork of the White River on a former alignment of State Road 258, was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on March 25, 2005; the bridge was built in 1869. Built in two sections, the wood and iron bridge measured 325 feet long, it reflects a time when the construction of bridges began switching from wood to iron / steel, every tensile web in the trusses made of iron, every compression member made from wood. The now unusual use of both materials has made it said that the Bell Ford Bridge is "the best representation of the American engineering “combination” bridge form"; until 1970 it was used by both cars and animals. The western span collapsed in February 1999 during a windstorm, the eastern span collapsed on January 2, 2006, nine months after it made the National Register.
Its collapse meant. After the Bell Ford Bridge's January 2006 collapse, Jackson County Commission President Gary Darlage said: "There is nothing left of the Bell Ford Bridge and I will not spend another tax dollar on it. Ninety percent of the people in this county think it is asinine to consider rebuilding that bridge. On July 25, 2007, United States Representative Baron Hill announced that the National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation Program would be giving the Bell Ford Bridge and two other covered bridges in Jackson County $2.08 million total for restoration. $448,000 of the grant was for the Bell Ford Bridge. On August 19, 2008, the commissioners of Jackson County voted 3-0 to sell what remained of the bridge to an interest group who intended to rebuild the bridge at Fort Benjamin Harrison State Park in Indianapolis, over sixty miles away from its current location, it would allow bikers to cross over Fall Creek. The restoration is expected to take two years and cost $2 million, with a hope that federal grants will be available.
It has been promised that historical markers will denote its history in Jackson County, but some preservationists in Jackson County decry it being moved, saying the grant money was there to pay for its renovation in Jackson County. One thing that might stop the bridge from being moved is if Jackson County would have to repay $123,000 of federal money for design and restoration work it received to use on the bridge since 1999. In late May 2010 an Indiana Department of Transportation representative requested of Jackson County commissioners that a decision be made in the coming month. List of bridges documented by the Historic American Engineering Record in Indiana Historic American Engineering Record No. IN-46, "Bells Ford Bridge, Spanning East Fork White River at State Route 258, Jackson County, IN", 9 photos, 14 measured drawings, 10 data pages, 1 photo caption page, supplemental material