Kalmyk Oirat known as the Kalmyk language, is a register of the Oirat language, natively spoken by the Kalmyk people of Kalmykia, a federal subject of Russia. In Russia, it is the standard form of the Oirat language, which belongs to the Mongolic language family; the Kalmyk people of the northwest Caspian Sea of Russia claim descent from the Oirats from Eurasia, who have historically settled in Mongolia and northwest China. According to UNESCO, the language is "Definitely endangered". According to the Russian census of 2010, there are 80,500 speakers of an ethnic population consisting of 183,000 people. Kalmyk is now only spoken as a native language by a small minority of the Kalmyk population, its decline as a living language began after the Kalmyk people were deported en masse from their homeland in December 1943, as punishment for limited Kalmyk collaboration with the Nazis. Significant factors contributing to its demise include: the deaths of a substantial percentage of the Kalmyk population from disease and malnutrition, both during their travel and upon their arrival to remote exile settlements in Central Asia, south central Siberia and the Soviet Far East.
Collectively, these factors discontinued the intergenerational language transmission. In 1957, the Soviet government reinstated the Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast and reestablished the Autonomous Republic of Kalmykia; the Kalmyk people were permitted to return to the Republic 14 years after exile. The Russian language, was made the official language of the Republic, Sovietisation was imposed on the Kalmyk people, leading to drastic cuts in Kalmyk language education; the Cyrillic alphabet became established among the Kalmyks. For instance, periodicals, etc. were published using it. By the late 1970s, the Russian language became the primary language of instruction in all schools in the Republic. During the period of Perestroika, Kalmyk linguists, in collaboration with the Kalmyk government and tried to implement the revival of the Kalmyk language; this revival was seen as an integral part of the reassertion of Kalmyk culture. In an important symbolic gesture, the Kalmyk language was declared an official language of the Republic, giving it equal status with the Russian language with respect to official governmental use and language education.
During the production of the film Return of the Jedi, sound designer Rafe Mercieca—with his life-time partner Ben Curtis—based the language of the Ewoks on Kalmyk after hearing it spoken in a documentary and being impressed with its unusual phonology. The majority of Kalmyk language speakers live in the Republic of Kalmykia, where it is an official language. A small group of Kalmyk language speakers live in France and the USA, but the use of Kalmyk is in steep decline. In all three locations, the actual number of speakers is unknown. Kalmyk is regarded as an endangered language; as of 2012, the Kalmyk community in New Jersey, which arrived in the US in the 1950s, was planning to work with the Endangered Voices project to promote Kalmyk language and culture. From a synchronic perspective, Kalmyk is the most prominent variety of Oirat, it is close to the Oirat dialects found in Mongolia and the People’s Republic of China, both phonologically and morphologically. The differences in dialects, concern the vocabulary, as the Kalmyk language has been influenced by and has adopted words from the Russian language and various Turkic languages.
Two important features that characterise Kalmyk are vowel harmony. In an agglutinative language, words are formed by added suffixes to existing words, called stem words or root words. Prefixes, are not common in Mongolic. Vowel harmony refers to the agreement between the vowels in the root of a word and the vowels in the word's suffix or suffixes. Other features include the absence of grammatical gender, it has some elements in common with the Uralic and Uyghur languages, which reflects its origin from the common language of the Oirats, a union of four Oirat tribes that absorbed some Ugric and Turkic tribes during their expansion westward. The literary tradition of Oirat reaches back to 11th century; the official Kalmyk alphabet, named Clear Script or, in Oirat, Todo bichig, was created in the 17th century by a Kalmyk Buddhist monk called Zaya Pandita. Like the Old Mongolian letter, the todo bicig had the direction of writing from top to bottom. Despite the attempts to bring the letter closer to the spoken language, the written Oirat language contained many words borrowed from the Mongolian language and not used in live speech.
Thus at the beginning of the 18th century, two written forms of the Kalmyk language were recorded - “bookish”, used in religious practice and having numerous Mongolian and Tibetan borrowings and preserving archaic language forms, as well as “conversational”, used in private correspondence and reflecting the changes taking place in the language. Todo bichig called by the name of its creator, “zayapandit script”, existed among the Kalmyks until 1924 with minor changes. Oirats of China use it to the present. In 1924 this script was replaced by a Cyrillic script, abandoned in 1930 in favour of a Latin script. At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries, the Orthodox Missionary Society p
Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region, is one of the autonomous regions of the People's Republic of China, located in the north of the country. Its border includes most of the length of China's border with Mongolia; the rest of the Sino–Mongolian border coincides with part of the international border of the Xinjiang autonomous region and the entirety of the international border of Gansu province and a small section of China's border with Russia. Its capital is Hohhot; the Autonomous Region was established in 1947, incorporating the areas of the former Republic of China provinces of Suiyuan, Rehe and Xing'an, along with the northern parts of Gansu and Ningxia. Its area makes it the third largest Chinese subdivision, constituting 1,200,000 km2 and 12% of China's total land area, it recorded a population of 24,706,321 in the 2010 census, accounting for 1.84% of Mainland China's total population. Inner Mongolia is the country's 23rd most populous province-level division.
The majority of the population in the region are Han Chinese, with a sizeable titular Mongol minority. The official languages are Mandarin and Mongolian, the latter of, written in the traditional Mongolian script, as opposed to the Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet, used in the state of Mongolia. In Chinese, the region is known as "Inner Mongolia", where the terms of "Inner/Outer" are derived from Manchu dorgi/tulergi. Inner Mongolia is distinct from Outer Mongolia, a term used by the Republic of China and previous governments to refer to what is now the independent state of Mongolia plus the Republic of Tuva in Russia; the term Inner 内 referred to the Nei Fan 内藩, i.e. those descendants of Genghis Khan who granted the title khan in Ming and Qing dynasties and lived in part of southern part of Mongolia. In Mongolian, the region was called Dotugadu monggol during Qing rule and was renamed into Öbür Monggol in 1947, öbür meaning the southern side of a mountain, while the Chinese term Nei Menggu was retained.
Much of what is known about the history of Greater Mongolia, including Inner Mongolia, is known through Chinese chronicles and historians. Before the rise of the Mongols in the 13th century, what is now central and western Inner Mongolia the Hetao region, alternated in control between Chinese agriculturalists in the south and Xiongnu, Khitan, Jurchen and nomadic Mongol of the north; the historical narrative of what is now Eastern Inner Mongolia consists of alternations between different Tungusic and Mongol tribes, rather than the struggle between nomads and Chinese agriculturalists. Slab Grave cultural monuments are found in northern and eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, north-western China, central-eastern and southern Baikal territory. Mongolian scholars prove. During the Zhou dynasty and western Inner Mongolia were inhabited by nomadic peoples such as the Loufan, Dí, while eastern Inner Mongolia was inhabited by the Donghu. During the Warring States period, King Wuling of the state of Zhao based in what is now Hebei and Shanxi provinces pursued an expansionist policy towards the region.
After destroying the Dí state of Zhongshan in what is now Hebei province, he defeated the Linhu and Loufan and created the commandery of Yunzhong near modern Hohhot. King Wuling of Zhao built a long wall stretching through the Hetao region. After Qin Shi Huang created the first unified Chinese empire in 221 BC, he sent the general Meng Tian to drive the Xiongnu from the region, incorporated the old Zhao wall into the Qin dynasty Great Wall of China, he maintained two commanderies in the region: Jiuyuan and Yunzhong, moved 30,000 households there to solidify the region. After the Qin dynasty collapsed in 206 BC, these efforts were abandoned. During the Western Han dynasty, Emperor Wu sent the general Wei Qing to reconquer the Hetao region from the Xiongnu in 127 BC. After the conquest, Emperor Wu continued the policy of building settlements in Hetao to defend against the Xiong-Nu. In that same year he established the commanderies of Wuyuan in Hetao. At the same time, what is now eastern Inner Mongolia was controlled by the Xianbei, who would on eclipse the Xiongnu in power and influence.
During the Eastern Han dynasty, Xiongnu who surrendered to the Han dynasty began to be settled in Hetao, intermingled with the Han immigrants in the area. On during the Western Jin dynasty, it was a Xiongnu noble from Hetao, Liu Yuan, who established the Han Zhao kingdom in the region, thereby beginning the Sixteen Kingdoms period that saw the disintegration of northern China under a variety of Han and non-Han regimes; the Sui dynasty and Tang dynasty re-established a unified Chinese empire, like their predecessors, they conquered and settled people into Hetao, though once again these efforts were aborted when the Tang empire began to collapse. Hetao was taken over by the Khitan Empire, founded by the Khitans, a nomadic people from what is no
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north. The region consists of the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, it is colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of". Central Asia has a population of about 72 million, consisting of five republics: Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Afghanistan, a part of South Asia, is sometimes included in Central Asia. Central Asia has been tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road, it has acted as a crossroads for the movement of people and ideas between Europe, Western Asia, South Asia, East Asia. The Silk Road connected Muslim lands with the people of Europe and China; this crossroads position has intensified the conflict between tribalism and traditionalism and modernization. In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, Central Asia was predominantly Iranian, populated by Eastern Iranian-speaking Bactrians, Sogdians and the semi-nomadic Scythians and Dahae.
After expansion by Turkic peoples, Central Asia became the homeland for the Kazakhs, Tatars, Turkmen and Uyghurs. From the mid-19th century until the end of the 20th century, most of Central Asia was part of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, both Slavic-majority countries, the five former Soviet "-stans" are still home to about 7 million ethnic Russians and 500,000 Ukrainians; the idea of Central Asia as a distinct region of the world was introduced in 1843 by the geographer Alexander von Humboldt. The borders of Central Asia are subject to multiple definitions. Built political geography and geoculture are two significant parameters used in the scholarly literature about the definitions of the Central Asia; the most limited definition was the official one of the Soviet Union, which defined Middle Asia as consisting of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, hence omitting Kazakhstan. This definition was often used outside the USSR during this period. However, the Russian culture has two distinct terms: Средняя Азия and Центральная Азия.
Soon after independence, the leaders of the four former Soviet Central Asian Republics met in Tashkent and declared that the definition of Central Asia should include Kazakhstan as well as the original four included by the Soviets. Since this has become the most common definition of Central Asia; the UNESCO History of the Civilizations of Central Asia, published in 1992, defines the region as "Afghanistan, northeastern Iran and central Pakistan, northern India, western China and the former Soviet Central Asian republics."An alternative method is to define the region based on ethnicity, in particular, areas populated by Eastern Turkic, Eastern Iranian, or Mongolian peoples. These areas include Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the Turkic regions of southern Siberia, the five republics, Afghan Turkestan. Afghanistan as a whole, the northern and western areas of Pakistan and the Kashmir Valley of India may be included; the Tibetans and Ladakhi are included. Insofar, most of the mentioned peoples are considered the "indigenous" peoples of the vast region.
Central Asia is sometimes referred to as Turkestan. There are several places that claim to be the geographic center of Asia, for example Kyzyl, the capital of Tuva in the Russian Federation, a village 200 miles north of Ürümqi, the capital of the Xinjiang region of China. Central Asia is an large region of varied geography, including high passes and mountains, vast deserts, treeless, grassy steppes; the vast steppe areas of Central Asia are considered together with the steppes of Eastern Europe as a homogeneous geographical zone known as the Eurasian Steppe. Much of the land of Central Asia is too rugged for farming; the Gobi desert extends from the foot of the Pamirs, 77° E, to the Great Khingan Mountains, 116°–118° E. Central Asia has the following geographic extremes: The world's northernmost desert, at Buurug Deliin Els, Mongolia, 50°18' N; the Northern Hemisphere's southernmost permafrost, at Erdenetsogt sum, Mongolia, 46°17' N. The world's shortest distance between non-frozen desert and permafrost: 770 km.
The Eurasian pole of inaccessibility. A majority of the people earn a living by herding livestock. Industrial activity centers in the region's cities. Major rivers of the region include the Amu Darya, the Syr Darya, the Hari River and the Murghab River. Major bodies of water include the Aral Sea and Lake Balkhash, both of which are part of the huge west-central Asian endorheic basin that includes the Caspian Sea. Both of these bodies of water have shrunk in recent decades due to diversion of water from rivers that feed them for irrigation and industrial purposes. Water is an valuable resource in arid Central Asia and can lead to rather significant international disputes. Central Asia is bounded on the north by the forests of Siberia; the northern half of Cent
Mongolia is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area is equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state, it is sandwiched between China to Russia to the north. Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan. At 1,564,116 square kilometres, Mongolia is the 18th-largest and the most sparsely populated sovereign state in the world, with a population of around three million people, it is the world's second-largest landlocked country behind Kazakhstan and the largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea. The country contains little arable land, as much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the country's population. Ulaanbaatar shares the rank of the world's coldest capital city with Moscow and Nur-Sultan. 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic. The majority of its population are Buddhists.
The non-religious population is the second largest group. Islam is the dominant religion among ethnic Kazakhs; the majority of the state's citizens are of Mongol ethnicity, although Kazakhs and other minorities live in the country in the west. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade groups; the area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Turkic Khaganate, others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous land empire in history, his grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan. In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism began to spread in Mongolia, being further led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty, which absorbed the country in the 17th century.
By the early 1900s one-third of the adult male population were Buddhist monks. After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, achieved actual independence from the Republic of China in 1921. Shortly thereafter, the country came under the control of the Soviet Union, which had aided its independence from China. In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was founded as a socialist state. After the anti-Communist revolutions of 1989, Mongolia conducted its own peaceful democratic revolution in early 1990; this led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, transition to a market economy. Homo erectus inhabited Mongolia from 850,000 years ago. Modern humans reached Mongolia 40,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic; the Khoit Tsenkher Cave in Khovd Province shows lively pink and red ochre paintings of mammoths, bactrian camels, ostriches, earning it the nickname "the Lascaux of Mongolia". The venus figurines of Mal'ta testify to the level of Upper Paleolithic art in northern Mongolia.
Neolithic agricultural settlements, such as those at Norovlin, Tamsagbulag and Rashaan Khad, predated the introduction of horse-riding nomadism, a pivotal event in the history of Mongolia which became the dominant culture. Horse-riding nomadism has been documented by archeological evidence in Mongolia during the Copper and Bronze Age Afanasevo culture; the wheeled vehicles found in the burials of the Afanasevans have been dated to before 2200 BC. Pastoral nomadism and metalworking became more developed with the Okunev culture, Andronovo culture and Karasuk culture, culminating with the Iron Age Xiongnu Empire in 209 BC. Monuments of the pre-Xiongnu Bronze Age include deer stones, keregsur kurgans, square slab tombs, rock paintings. Although cultivation of crops has continued since the Neolithic, agriculture has always remained small in scale compared to pastoral nomadism. Agriculture arose independently in the region; the population during the Copper Age has been described as mongoloid in the east of what is now Mongolia, as europoid in the west.
Tocharians and Scythians inhabited western Mongolia during the Bronze Age. The mummy of a Scythian warrior, believed to be about 2,500 years old, was a 30- to 40-year-old man with blond hair; as equine nomadism was introduced into Mongolia, the political center of the Eurasian Steppe shifted to Mongolia, where it remained until the 18th century CE. The intrusions of northern pastoralists into China during the Shang dynasty and Zhou dynasty presaged the age of nomadic empires; the concept of Mongolia as an independent power north of China is expressed in a letter sent by Emperor Wen of Han to Laoshang Chanyu in 162 BC: Since prehistoric times, Mongolia has been inhabited by nomads who, from time to time, formed great confederations that rose to power and prominence. Common institutions were the office of the Khan, the Kurultai and right wings, imperial army and the decimal military system; the first of these empires, the Xiongnu of undetermined
Herāt is the third-largest city of Afghanistan. It has a population of about 436,300, serves as the capital of Herat Province, situated in the fertile valley of the Hari River in the western part of the country, it is linked with Kandahar and Mazar-i-Sharif via Highway 1 or the ring road. It is further linked to the city of Mashhad in neighboring Iran through the border town of Islam Qala, to Mary in Turkmenistan to the north through the border town of Torghundi. Herat was traditionally known for its wine; the city has a number including the Herat Citadel and the Musalla Complex. During the Middle Ages Herat became one of the important cities of Khorasan, as it was known as the Pearl of Khorasan, it has been governed by various Afghan rulers since the early 18th century. In 1717, the city was invaded by the Hotaki forces until they were expelled by the Afsharids in 1729. After Nader Shah's death and Ahmad Shah Durrani's rise to power in 1747, Herat became part of Afghanistan, it witnessed some political disturbances and military invasions during the early half of the 19th century but the 1857 Treaty of Paris ended hostilities of the Anglo-Persian War.
Herat lies on the ancient trade routes of the Middle East and South Asia, today is a regional hub in western Afghanistan. The roads from Herat to Iran and other parts of Afghanistan are still strategically important; as the gateway to Iran, it collects high amount of customs revenue for Afghanistan. It has an international airport; the city has high residential density clustered around the core of the city. However, vacant plots account for a higher percentage of the city than residential land use and agricultural is the largest percentage of total land use. Today the city is considered to be safe. Herat dates back to ancient times. During the period of the Achaemenid Empire, the surrounding district was known as Haraiva, in classical sources the region was correspondingly known as Aria. In the Zoroastrian Avesta, the district is mentioned as Haroiva; the name of the district and its main town is derived from that of the chief river of the region, the Herey River, which traverses the district and passes some 5 km south of modern Herāt.
Herey is mentioned in Sanskrit as golden color equivalent to Persian "Zard" meaning Gold. The naming of a region and its principal town after the main river is a common feature in this part of the world—compare the adjoining districts/rivers/towns of Arachosia and Bactria; the district Aria of the Achaemenid Empire is mentioned in the provincial lists that are included in various royal inscriptions, for instance, in the Behistun inscription of Darius I. Representatives from the district are depicted in reliefs, e.g. at the royal Achaemenid tombs of Naqsh-e Rustam and Persepolis. They are wearing Scythian-style dress and a twisted Bashlyk that covers their head and neck. Hamdallah Mustawfi, composer of the 14th century work The Geographical Part of the Nuzhat-al-Qulub writes that:Herāt was the name of one of the chiefs among the followers of the hero Narīmān, it was he who first founded the city. After it had fallen to ruin Alexander the Great rebuilt it, the circuit of its walls was 9000 paces.
Herodotus described Herat as the bread-basket of Central Asia. At the time of Alexander the Great in 330 BC, Aria was an important district, it was administered by a satrap called Satibarzanes, one of the three main Persian officials in the East of the Empire, together with the satrap Bessus of Bactria and Barsaentes of Arachosia. In late 330 BC, Alexander captured the Arian capital, called Artacoana; the town was rebuilt and the citadel was constructed. Afghanistan became part of the Seleucid Empire. Most sources suggest, it became part of the Parthian Empire in 167 BC. In the Sasanian period, Harēv is listed in an inscription on the Ka'ba-i Zartosht at Naqsh-e Rustam. In around 430, the town is listed as having a Christian community, with a Nestorian bishop. In the last two centuries of Sasanian rule, Aria had great strategic importance in the endless wars between the Sasanians, the Chionites and the Hephthalites, settled in the northern section of Afghanistan since the late 4th century. At the time of the Arab invasion in the middle of the 7th century, the Sasanian central power seemed largely nominal in the province in contrast with the role of the Hephthalites tribal lords, who were settled in the Herat region and in the neighboring districts in pastoral Bādghis and in Qohestān.
It must be underlined, that Herat remained one of the three Sasanian mint centers in the east, the other two being Balkh and Marv. The Hephthalites from Herat and some unidentified Turks opposed the Arab forces in a battle of Qohestān in 651-52 AD, trying to block their advance on Nishāpur, but they were defeated When the Arab armies appeared in Khorāsān in the 650s AD, Herāt was counted among the twelve capital towns of the Sasanian Empire; the Arab army under the general command of Ahnaf ibn Qais in its conquest of Khorāsān in 652 seems to have avoided Herāt, but it can be assumed that the city submitted to the Arabs, since shortly afterwards an Arab governor is mentioned there. A treaty was drawn in which the regions of Bushanj were included; as did many other places in Khorāsān, Herāt reb
The Khalkha is the largest subgroup of Mongol people in Mongolia since the 15th century. The Khalkha, together with Chahars and Tumed, were directly ruled by Borjigin khans until the 20th century; the two original major Khalkha groups were ruled by the direct male line descendants of Dayan Khan. The Baarin, Jaruud and the O'zeed became Dayan Khan's fifth son Achibolod's subjects, thus formed the Southern Five Halhs; the Qaraei, Olkhonud, Besut, Gorlos, Sartuul, Khotogoid and Tsookhor became Dayan Khan's youngest son Geresenje's subjects, thus formed the "Аглагийн арван гурван хүрээ Халх" or Thirteen Khalkhas of the Far North. There were numerous direct descendants of Genghis Khan who had formed the ruling class of the Khalkha Mongols prior to the 20th century, but they were and still regarded as Khalkha Mongols rather than belonging to a special unit; the Thirteen Khalkhas of the Far North are the major subethnic group of the independent state of Mongolia. They number 1,610,400 of Mongolia's population.
The Khalkha or Halh dialect is the standard written language of Mongolia. The term Халх has always puzzled historians. One possible interpretation is that it shares the same root as the words xалхавч "shield" and xалхлах "to protect. In a similar manner, the sub-ethnic groups within the Khalkha Unit have been recorded in books and documents as "Jalair Khalkha", "Sartuul Khalkha", "Tanghut Khalkha" etc; the word order in the phrases Southern Five Khalkha and Northern Thirteen Khalkha implies that the word Халх correlates to the units within the Southern and Northern tribal federations, but it does not stand for the group as a whole. Lastly, Mongolians have always linked the term Халх to the name of the Khalkhyn Gol. Dayan Khan created Khalkha Tumen out of Mongols residing in the territory of present-day central Mongolia and northern part of Inner Mongolia. In Mongolian historical sources such as Erdeniin Erih it stated how Khalkha Tumen was created and where these people resided at the time of its creation.
The statement goes as follows: Transliteration:Hangai Khand nutuglan suuj Hari daisind chinu Khalkha bolson Haluun amind chinu Tushee bolson Irehiin uzuur, Harahiin haruul bolson Khalkha tumen chinu Ter bukhii beer ajaamuuCyrillic:Хангай ханд нутаглан сууж Харь дайсанд чинь халх болсон Халуун аминд чинь түшээ болсон Ирэхийн үзүүр, харахын харуул болсон Халх түмэн чинь тэр бүхий бээр ажаамууEnglish translation:"Dwelling in the Hangai Mountains" "A shield against alien enemies" "A support for your precious life" "A blade towards those who come, a guard towards those who look" "Your Khalkha Tumen is indeed for you"It is believed that Southern Khalkha people who now reside in Inner Mongolia were moved to south from its original territory Khangai Mountains. To commemorate and signify its origin, every new year during white month/moon celebration all southern Khalkhas perform special Khangai Mountain worshipping ceremonies and they face northwest and pray; this special ceremony is maintained by only southern khalkhas and no other southern Mongols have such rituals.
Under Dayan Khan, the Khalkha were organized as one of three tümen of the Left Wing. Dayan Khan installed the eleventh son Geresenje on the Khalkha; the former became the founder of the Five Halh of Southern Mongolia and the latter became the founder of the Seven Halh of the Northern Mongolia. They were called Inner Khalkha and Outer Khalkha by the Manchus. Mongolian chronicles called Geresenje as "Khong Tayiji of the Jalayir", which indicates that the core part of the Khalkha were descendants of the Jalayir tribe. By extension, some scholars consider that the Halh had a close connection with the Five Ulus of the Left Wing of the former Yuan dynasty, led by the five powerful tribes of Jalayir, Ikires and Mangghud; the Five Halh consisted of five tribes called Jarud, Onggirat, Bayaud and Öjiyed. They lived around the Shira Mören valley east of the Greater Khingan, they clashed with but were conquered by the rising Manchus. The Five Khalkha except for the Jarud and the Baarin were organized into the Eight Banners.
Note that Khalkha Left Banner of Juu Uda League and Khalkha Right Banner of Ulaanchab League were offshoots of the Seven Khalkha. The Seven Khalkha were involved in regular fights against the Oyirad in the west. Geresenje's descendants formed the houses of Zasagt Khan and Setsen Khan, they preserved their independence until they had to seek help from the Kangxi Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty against the Zungar leader Galdan in 1688. In 1725 the Yongzheng Emperor gave Tsering independence from the house of Tüsheet Khan, forming the house of Sain Noyon Khan; the Khalkha led the Mongolian independence movement in the 20th century. After enduring countless hardships, they established the independent state of Mongolia in northern Mongolia; the overwhelming majority of Khalkha Mongols now reside in the modern state of Mongolia. However, there are four small banners in China: two in Inner Mongolia. There are several groups among the Buriats in Russ
The Brothers Grimm, Jacob Ludwig Karl and Wilhelm Carl, were German academics, cultural researchers and authors who together collected and published folklore during the 19th century. They were among the first and best-known collectors of folk tales, popularized traditional oral tale types such as "Cinderella", "The Frog Prince", "The Goose-Girl", "Hansel and Gretel", "Rapunzel", "Rumpelstiltskin", "Sleeping Beauty", "Snow White", their classic collection Children's and Household Tales, was published in two volumes, in 1812 and in 1815. The brothers were born in the town of Hanau in Hesse-Cassel and spent most of their childhood in the nearby town of Steinau, their father's death in 1796 affected the brothers for many years after. They attended the University of Marburg where they began a lifelong dedication to researching the early history of German language and literature, including German folktales; the rise of Romanticism during the 18th century had revived interest in traditional folk stories, which to the Grimms and their colleagues represented a pure form of national literature and culture.
The Brothers Grimm established a methodology for collecting and recording folk stories that became the basis for folklore studies. Between the first edition of 1812-15, the seventh and final edition of 1857, they revised their collection many times, so that it grew from 156 stories to more than 200. In addition to collecting and editing folk tales, the brothers compiled German legends. Individually, they published a large body of literary scholarship. Together, in 1838 they began work on a massive historical German dictionary, which, in their lifetimes, they completed only as far as the word Frucht,'fruit'. Many of Grimms' folk tales have enjoyed enduring popularity; the tales are available in more than 100 languages and have been adapted by filmmakers including Lotte Reiniger and Walt Disney, with films such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and Sleeping Beauty. During the 1930s and 40s, the tales were used as propaganda by the Third Reich. Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm was born on 4 January 1785, his brother Wilhelm Carl Grimm was born on 24 February 1786.
Both were born in Hanau, in the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel within the Holy Roman Empire, to Philipp Wilhelm Grimm, a jurist, Dorothea Grimm née Zimmer, daughter of a Kassel city councilman. They were the second- and third-eldest surviving siblings in a family of nine children, three of whom died in infancy. In 1791, the family moved to the countryside town of Steinau, when Philipp was employed there as district magistrate; the family became prominent members of the community. Biographer Jack Zipes writes that the brothers were happy in Steinau and "clearly fond of country life"; the children were educated at home by private tutors, receiving strict instruction as Lutherans that instilled in both a lifelong religious faith. They attended local schools. In 1796, Philipp Grimm died of pneumonia, plunging his family into poverty, they were forced to relinquish their servants and large house. Dorothea depended on financial support from her father and sister, first lady-in-waiting at the court of William I, Elector of Hesse.
Jacob was the eldest living son, he was forced at age 11 to assume adult responsibilities for the next two years. The two boys adhered to the advice of their grandfather, who continually exhorted them to be industrious; the brothers left Steinau and their family in 1798 to attend the Friedrichsgymnasium in Kassel, arranged and paid for by their aunt. By they were without a male provider, forcing them to rely on each other, they became exceptionally close; the two brothers differed in temperament. Sharing a strong work ethic, they excelled in their studies. In Kassel, they became acutely aware of their inferior social status relative to "high-born" students who received more attention. Still, each brother graduated at the head of his class: Jacob in 1803 and Wilhelm in 1804. After graduation from the Friedrichsgymnasium, the brothers attended the University of Marburg; the university was small with about 200 students and there they became painfully aware that students of lower social status were not treated equally.
They were disqualified from admission because of their social standing and had to request dispensation to study law. Wealthier students received stipends, but the brothers were excluded from tuition aid, their poverty kept them from university social life. The brothers were inspired by their law professor Friedrich von Savigny, who awakened in them an interest in history and philology, they turned to studying medieval German literature, they shared Savigny's desire to see unification of the 200 German principalities into a single state. Through Savigny and his circle of friends—German romantics such as Clemens Brentano and Ludwig Achim von Arnim—the Grimms were introduced to the ideas of Johann Gottfried Herder, who thought that German literature should revert to