Monism attributes oneness or singleness to a concept e.g. existence. Various kinds of monism can be distinguished: Priority monism states that all existing things go back to a source, distinct from them. In this view only one thing is prior to everything else. Existence monism posits that speaking, there exists only a single thing, the Universe, which can only be artificially and arbitrarily divided into many things. Substance monism asserts that a variety of existing things can be explained in terms of a single reality or substance. Substance monism posits that only one kind of stuff exists, although many things may be made up of this stuff, e.g. matter or mind. There are two sorts of definitions for monism: The wide definition: a philosophy is monistic if it postulates unity of the origin of all things; the restricted definition: this requires not only unity of origin but unity of substance and essence. Although the term "monism" is derived from Western philosophy to typify positions in the mind–body problem, it has been used to typify religious traditions.

In modern Hinduism, the term "absolute monism" is being used for Advaita Vedanta. The term "monism" was introduced in the 18th century by Christian von Wolff in his work Logic, to designate types of philosophical thought in which the attempt was made to eliminate the dichotomy of body and mind and explain all phenomena by one unifying principle, or as manifestations of a single substance; the mind–body problem in philosophy examines the relationship between mind and matter, in particular the relationship between consciousness and the brain. The problem was addressed by René Descartes in the 17th century, resulting in Cartesian dualism, by pre-Aristotelian philosophers, in Avicennian philosophy, in earlier Asian and more Indian traditions, it was also applied to the theory of absolute identity set forth by Hegel and Schelling. Thereafter the term was more broadly used, for any theory postulating a unifying principle; the opponent thesis of dualism was broadened, to include pluralism. According to Urmson, as a result of this extended use, the term is "systematically ambiguous".

According to Jonathan Schaffer, monism lost popularity due to the emergence of Analytic philosophy in the early twentieth century, which revolted against the neo-Hegelians. Carnap and Ayer, who were strong proponents of positivism, "ridiculed the whole question as incoherent mysticism"; the mind–body problem has reemerged in social psychology and related fields, with the interest in mind–body interaction and the rejection of Cartesian mind–body dualism in the identity thesis, a modern form of monism. Monism is still relevant to the philosophy of mind, where various positions are defended. Different types of monism include: Substance monism, "the view that the apparent plurality of substances is due to different states or appearances of a single substance" Attributive monism, "the view that whatever the number of substances, they are of a single ultimate kind" Partial monism, "within a given realm of being there is only one substance" Existence monism, "the view that there is only one concrete object token" Priority monism, "the whole is prior to its parts" or "the world has parts, but the parts are dependent fragments of an integrated whole" Property monism, "the view that all properties are of a single type" Genus monism, "the doctrine that there is a highest category.

Metaphysical nihilism, negates any of the above categories. Monism in modern philosophy of mind can be divided into three broad categories: Idealist, mentalistic monism, which holds that only mind or spirit exists. Neutral monism, which holds that one sort of thing fundamentally exists, to which both the mental and the physical can be reduced Material monism, which holds that the material world is primary, consciousness arises through the interaction with the material worlda. Eliminative Materialism, according to which everything is physical and mental things do not exist b. Reductive physicalism, according to which mental things do exist and are a kind of physical thingCertain positions do not fit into the above categories, such as functionalism, anomalous monism, reflexive monism. Moreover, they do not define the meaning of "real". While the lack of information makes it difficult in some cases to be sure of the details, the following pre-Socratic philosophers thought in monistic terms: Thales: Water Anaximander: Apeiron.

Reality is some, one thing, but we cannot know what. Anaximenes of Miletus: Air Heraclitus: Change, symbolized by fire. Parmenides: Being or Reality is an unmoving perfect sphere, undivided. Neopythagorians such as Apollonius of Tyana centered their cosmologies on One. Stoics taught. Middle Platonism under such works as those by Numenius taught that the Universe emanates from the Monad or One. Neoplatonism is monistic. Plotinus taught that there was an ineffable transcendent god,'The One,' of which subsequent realities were emanations. From The One emanates the Divine Mind, the Cosmic Soul, an

The Giant Plane

The Giant is a London plane tree, located in the city Chojna, Poland. It is one of the thickest trees in the country; the name of the tree in Polish – Olbrzym – means a large, huge thing. The Giant is about 300 years old, according to the dendrochronological research, once stood in the Viereck'scher Garten, it is a monumental, 35 m tall tree with a trunk circumference of 1066 cm. Its circumference at breast height is 11 m; this plane has a large multistemmed, ellipsoid trunk. It forks at heights of 5 m, creating a large crown; the tree is preserved by the local government. Since 2011 it is fenced to protect it from insects. In 2012, it was judged among the best trees in the competition for tree of the year in Poland; the Giant Plane is the third thickest tree in Poland, the largest and oldest London plane in the country. Paweł Zarzyński, Robert Tomusiak, Krzysztof Borkowski, Drzewa Polski, PWN, Warszawa, 2016, ISBN 978-83-01-18438-4 Krzysztof Borkowski, Polskie drzewa, Wyd. DALPO, Poznań, 2014, ISBN 978-83-61766-08-7 Paweł Zarzyński, Robert Tomusiak, 90 drzew - Okazy niezwykłe Centrum Informacyjne Lasów Państwowych, Warszawa, 2014, ISBN 978-83-63895-16-7 Bartek oak Bażyński Oak Jagiełło Oak

Mayan Smith-Gobat

Mayan Smith-Gobat is a professional big-wall climber from New Zealand and, as of 2019, held the record for fastest all-female team ascent of El Capitan's The Nose in Yosemite, California at four hours and forty three minutes. Smith-Gobat, along with climbing partner Libby Sauter, completed the climb in October, 2014. Other notable ascents include her 2012 first female ascent of Punks in the Gym in the Arapiles climbing region of Australia, the first all female Half Dome/El Cap link up in Yosemite in 2013. Smith-Gobat is from New Zealand. Although she became interested in alpine and sport climbing around Mount Cook as a teenager, her focus turned to alpine skiing for several years. In 2000, she was competing in extreme skiing competitions and ranked as the best female extreme skier in New Zealand. Smith-Gobat recalls that "when I left school I became side-tracked by skiing - I followed winters around the world and climbed for a couple of years... until a skiing accident turned my attention back to climbing" at the age of 21.

Smith-Gobat had been skiing in Breckenridge, Colorado at the time of the accident, a run-in with a pine tree. The collision broke a heel in one leg and ankle in the other, left her with a temporarily wired-shut jaw and six months of crutches. Grounded from skiing, Smith-Gobat turned to climbing as an outlet for her energies. After recovery from her accident, Smith-Gobat began racking up a string of sport climbing and bouldering accomplishments. Starting in 2002, Smith-Gobat made FFAs of many New Zealand-based bouldering routes and won the New Zealand National Bouldering Series in 2002, 2003 and 2004, the Christchurch Indoor Bouldering Series in 2005. By 2007 she was climbing up to 8b+ level routes, including a first ascent Heaven/ Little Babylon in Milford, NZ. By the late 2000's, Smith-Gobat was one of the leading climbers from New Zealand, male or female, as the first New Zealander to complete an 8c level climb, with L’academicien in Ceuse, France. By 2009, Smith-Gobat was climbing in Yosemite and interested in taking on big-wall challenges.

The Salathé Wall is a classic route up El Capitan in Yosemite Valley. At 3500ft and 35-pitches, it is one of the longest routes, known for its difficult, off-width crack sections. A single female climber, Steph Davis, had free climbed Salathé. Smith-Gobat spent the summer of 2010 working out the beta for the crux sections before making a ground-up attempt. A five-day rain storm hit while she was in the upper reaches of the climb, forcing her to bail out. In 2011, Smith-Gobat returned and, in a six day final push, managed to complete the remaining pitches, becoming only the second woman to do so, she described the experience as "900m of air under my feet and only one single flared crack splitting the sheer overhung granite wall. It felt so good." Smith-Gobat became interested in attempting to break the women's record for climbing speed on The Nose after hearing how slow the old one was. "I first started thinking about doing it when the women’s record was 12 hours because I felt that this was an embarrassment to us."

In 2012, she and partner Chantel Astorga set a new record with a seven hour and 26 minute climb of The Nose. They linked to Half Dome, becoming the first all female team to complete the linked climb in under 24 hours. Smith-Gobat broke the mixed-gender record for The Nose, finishing it in three hours and 29 minutes with partner Sean Leary. By the end of 2012, between Salathé, a FFA of Australia's iconic Punks in the Gym in October, 2012 and the Yosemite speed records, Planet Mountain would describe Smith-Gobat as "certainly one of the world's leading rock climbers."In 2014, with partner Libby Sauter, Smith-Gobat would set a new women's record, four hours and forty three minutes. The women made several attempts that season. Smith-Gobat noted that they had to work both on developing trust and communication and to learn a different style of climbing that emphasized speed over safety; the team decreased the number of bolts. On easier sections, the climbers simul-climbed, a higher-risk climbing technique, while on harder sections, they employed a short-fixing style.

Smith-Gobat described the technique they used to increase speed as "pretty risky...if I fall off, I'm not going to die, but I'm going to fall a hell of a long way before I hit the end of that rope." She noted that "the main difference between us and the guys who are climbing it in 2:30, is that they simulclimb more of the upper half of the route, where we are short-fixing more to keep it within the safety margin we are happy with." By 2016, Smith-Gobat had turned her focus towards making the first free ascent of Riders on the Storm, a massive 1300m route up the east face of Torre Central in Torres del Paine, Patagonia. The region surrounding Torre Central is notorious for poor conditions. Several key pitches are nearly always encased in ice, the route, crusted with unstable rock, requires strength in a variety of styles, including crack and face. Wolfgang Güllich and Kurt Albert put up Riders on the Storm over the winter of 1990/1991 using a mixed aid climbing technique; the original climbers were able to free climb pitches up to 7c and aid climb to A3.

While the first free ascent of Riders is considered a "plum objective throughout the big wall climbing world," according to PlanetMountain, the region's notoriously bad weather and the allure of more popular routes nearby at Fitz Roy and Cerro Torre, limited the number of attempts. Up to 2016, three teams reached the summit following Riders on the Storm, none making a free ascent. Over the