Sir Isaac Pitman, was a teacher of the English language who developed the most used system of shorthand, known now as Pitman shorthand. He first proposed this in Stenographic Soundhand in 1837, he was the vice-president of the Vegetarian Society. Pitman was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1894. Pitman was born in Wiltshire in England. One of his cousins was Abraham Laverton. In 1831 he had five months' training at the Training College of the British and Foreign School Society, sufficient to qualify him as a teacher, he started teaching at Lincolnshire. In 1835 he married a widow, moved in 1836 to Wotton-under-Edge, where he started his own school. In 1839 he moved to Bath. In the 1851 census he appears in Bath aged 38, living with his wife, aged 58, born in Newark-on-Trent, Nottinghamshire, he married Isabella Masters in 1861, he appears in the 1871 census, aged 58, with his new wife Isabella, aged 46. Isaac Pitman was a lifelong advocate of spelling reform for the English language, producing many pamphlets during his lifetime on spelling reform.
His motto was "time saved is life gained". One of the outcomes of his interest in spelling reform was the creation of his system of phonetic shorthand which he first published in 1837, in a pamphlet titled Sound-Hand. Among the examples in this pamphlet, were Psalm 100, the Lord's Prayer, Swedenborg's Rules of Life. By 1843 his business of preparing and publishing had expanded sufficiently to give up teaching, to set up his own printing press, as well as compositing and a binding. In 1844 he published his major work on spelling reform. In 1845 he published the first version of the English Phonotypic Alphabet. In the 1881 census his name is spelled phonetically as Eisak Pitman. In the 1891 census he is again listed as Isaac. In 1886 Pitman went into partnerships with his sons Ernest to form Isaac Pitman and Sons. In the same year the millionth copy of the Phonographic Teacher was sold in Great Britain. Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons was to become one of the world's leading educational publishers and training businesses with offices in London, New York City, Johannesburg and Tokyo.
The publishing division was bought by rival Pearson Plc in 1985. The training business evolved into two separate businesses: Pitman Training and JHP Training; the first distance education course in the modern sense was provided by Sir Isaac Pitman in the 1840s, who taught a system of shorthand by mailing texts transcribed into shorthand on postcards and receiving transcriptions from his students in return for correction. The element of student feedback was a crucial innovation of Pitman's system; this scheme was made possible by the introduction of uniform postage rates across Britain in 1840. Isaac Pitman was fervently Swedenborgian. Not only did he read The Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg daily, he devoted much time and energy to educating the world about them, he distributed books and tracts by and about Swedenborg. Among the authors he encouraged. Pitman was active in the local New Church congregation in Bath while living on Royal Crescent, he was one of the founding members, when this congregation was formed in 1841.
He served as president of this society from 1887 to his death in 1897. His contribution to this church was honoured by the congregation with a stained glass window depicting the golden cherub in the temple of wisdom described in Swedenborg's True Christian Religion No. 508. The window was dedicated on 5 September 1909, his memorial plaque on the north wall of Bath Abbey reads, "His aims were steadfast, his mind original, his work prodigious, the achievement world-wide. His life was ordered in service to God and duty to man." Isaac Pitman is the grandfather of Sir James Pitman. His great-grandson John Hugh Pitman was appointed an OBE in 2010 for services to Vocational Training. In 1837, Pitman discontinued the use of all alcoholic beverages, became a vegetarian, both lifelong practices he embraced. Pitman advocated a simple vegetarian diet, he did not smoke. He was Vice-President of the Vegetarian Society. In an 1879 letter to The Times, he attributed his vegetarian diet and abstinence from alcohol to his excellent health and his ability to work long hours.
His brother, Benjamin noted that Pitman "became a vegetarian, not for religious, but humanitarian and physiological reasons." Benjamin Pitman, his brother who introduced his system to America Jacob Pitman a settler in South Australia, founded a Swedenborg Church there, taught Pitman shorthand in New South Wales. Mentions Uncle William, who emigrated to South Australia with his large family. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Pitman, Sir Isaac". Encyclopædia Britannica. 21. Cambridge University Press. P. 666
Order of St Michael and St George
The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent King George IV, while he was acting as regent for his father, King George III. It is named in honour of St Michael and St George; the Order of St Michael and St George was awarded to those holding commands or high position in the Mediterranean territories acquired in the Napoleonic Wars, was subsequently extended to holders of similar office or position in other territories of the British Empire. It is at present awarded to men and women who hold high office or who render extraordinary or important non-military service in a foreign country, can be conferred for important or loyal service in relation to foreign and Commonwealth affairs; the Order includes three classes, in descending order of seniority and rank: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross Knight Commander or Dame Commander Companion It is used to honour individuals who have rendered important services in relation to Commonwealth or foreign nations.
People are appointed to the Order rather than awarded it. British Ambassadors to foreign nations are appointed as KCMGs or CMGs. For example, the former British Ambassador to the United States, Sir David Manning, was appointed a CMG when he worked for the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office, after his appointment as British Ambassador to the US, he was promoted to a Knight Commander, it is the traditional award for members of the FCO. The Order's motto is Auspicium melioris ævi, its patron saints, as the name suggests, are St. Michael the Archangel, St. George, patron saint of England. One of its primary symbols is that of St Michael subduing Satan in battle; the Order is the sixth-most senior in the British honours system, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick, The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. The third of the aforementioned Orders—which relates to Ireland, no longer a part of the United Kingdom—still exists but is in disuse.
The last of the Orders on the list, related to India, has been in disuse since that country's independence in 1947. The Prince Regent founded the Order to commemorate the British amical protectorate over the Ionian Islands, which had come under British control in 1814 and had been granted their own constitution as the United States of the Ionian Islands in 1817, it was intended to reward "natives of the Ionian Islands and of the island of Malta and its dependencies, for such other subjects of His Majesty as may hold high and confidential situations in the Mediterranean". In 1864, the protectorate ended and the Ionian Islands became part of Greece. A revision of the basis of the Order in 1868, saw membership granted to those who "hold high and confidential offices within Her Majesty's colonial possessions, in reward for services rendered to the Crown in relation to the foreign affairs of the Empire". Accordingly, numerous Governors-General and Governors feature as recipients of awards in the order.
In 1965 the order was opened to women, with Evelyn Bark becoming the first female CMG in 1967. The British Sovereign appoints all other members of the Order; the next-most senior member is the Grand Master. The office was filled by the Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands. Grand Masters include: 1818–1825: Sir Thomas Maitland 1825–1850: Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge 1850–1904: Prince George, Duke of Cambridge 1904–1910: George, Prince of Wales 1910–1917: None 1917–1936: Edward, Prince of Wales 1936–1957: Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone 1957–1959: Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax 1959–1967: Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis 1967–present: Prince Edward, Duke of KentThe Order included 15 Knights Grand Cross, 20 Knights Commanders, 25 Companions but has since been expanded and the current limits on membership are 125, 375, 1,750 respectively. Members of the Royal Family who are appointed to the Order do not count towards the limit, nor do foreign members appointed as "honorary members".
The Order has six officers. The Order's King of Arms is not a member of the College of Arms, like many other heraldic officers; the Usher of the Order is known as the Lady Usher of the Blue Rod. Blue Rod does not, unlike the usher of the Order of the Garter, perform any duties related to the House of Lords. Prelate – The Rt. Rev. David Urquhart Chancellor – Rt Hon. Lord Robertson of Port Ellen Secretary – Sir Simon McDonald Registrar – Sir David Manning King of Arms – Sir Jeremy Greenstock Lady Usher of the Blue Rod – Dame DeAnne Julius Members of the Order wear elaborate regalia on important occasions, which vary by rank: The mantle, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of Saxon blue satin lined with crimson silk. On the left side is a representation of the star; the mantle is bound with two large tassels. The collar, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of gold, it consists of depictions of crowned lions, Maltese Crosses, the cyphers "SM" and "SG", all alternately.
In the centre are two winged lions, each holding a book and seven arrows. At less important occasions, simpler insignia are used: The star is an insignia used only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross and Knights and Dames Commanders, it is worn pinned to the left breast. The Knight and
Independent school (United Kingdom)
In the United Kingdom, independent schools are fee-paying private schools, governed by an elected board of governors and independent of many of the regulations and conditions that apply to state-funded schools. For example, pupils do not have to follow the National Curriculum. Many of the older and more exclusive schools catering for the 13–18 age-range in England and Wales are known as public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868, the term "public" being derived from the fact that they were open to pupils regardless of where they lived or their religion. Prep schools educate younger children up to the age of 13 to "prepare" them for entry to the public schools and other independent schools; some former grammar schools converted to an independent fee-paying model following the 1965 Circular 10/65 which marked the end of their state funding. There are around 2,500 independent schools in the UK, which educate around 615,000 children, some 7 per cent of all British children and 18 per cent of pupils over the age of 16.
In addition to charging tuition fees, many benefit from gifts, charitable endowments and charitable status. Many of these schools are members of the Independent Schools Council. In 2017, the average cost for private schooling was £14,102 for day school and £32,259 for boarding school; some independent schools are old, such as The King's School, The King's School, Rochester, St Peter's School, Sherborne School, Warwick School, The King's School, Ely and St Albans School. These schools were under their complete dominion. However, it was during the late 14th & early 15th centuries that the first schools, independent of the church, were founded. Winchester & Oswestry were the first of their kind and paved the way for the establishment of the modern "Public school"; these were established for male scholars from poor or disadvantaged backgrounds. For instance, the Queen's Scholarships founded at Westminster in 1560, are for "the sons of decay'd gentlemen"; the transformation of free charitable foundations into institutions which sometimes charge fees came about readily: the foundation would only afford minimal facilities, so that further fees might be charged to lodge and otherwise maintain the scholars, to the private profit of the trustees or headmaster.
Facilities provided by the charitable foundation for a few scholars could profitably be extended to further paying pupils. After a time, such fees would eclipse the original charitable income, the original endowment would become a minor part of the capital benefactions enjoyed by the school. In 2009 senior boarding schools were charging fees of nearly £ 30,000 per annum. However, a majority of the independent schools today are still registered as a charity, bursary is available to students on a means test basis. Christ's Hospital in Horsham is an example. A large proportion of its students are funded by its charitable foundation or by various benefactors; the educational reforms of the 19th century were important under first Thomas Arnold at Rugby, Butler and Kennedy at Shrewsbury, the former emphasising team spirit and muscular Christianity and the latter the importance of scholarship and competitive examinations. Edward Thring of Uppingham School introduced major reforms, focusing on the importance of the individual and competition, as well as the need for a "total curriculum" with academia, music and drama being central to education.
Most public schools developed during the 18th and 19th centuries, came to play an important role in the development of the Victorian social elite. Under a number of forward-looking headmasters leading public schools created a curriculum based on classics and physical activity for boys and young men of the upper and upper middle classes, they were schools for the gentlemanly elite of Victorian politics, armed forces and colonial government. Successful businessmen would send their sons to a public school as a mark of participation in the elite. Much of the discipline was in the hands of senior pupils, not just a means to reduce staffing costs, but was seen as vital preparation for those pupils' roles in public or military service. More heads of public schools have been emphasising that senior pupils now play a much reduced role in disciplining. To an extent, the public school system influenced the school systems of the British Empire, recognisably "public" schools can be found in many Commonwealth countries.
Until 1975 there had been a group of 179 academically selective schools drawing on both private and state funding, the direct grant grammar schools. The Direct Grant Grammar Schools Regulations 1975 required these schools to choose between full state funding as comprehensive schools and full independence; as a result, 119 of these schools became independent. Pupil numbers at independent schools fell during the mid-1970s recession. At the same time participation at all secondary schools grew so that the share of the independent sector fell from a little under 8 per cent in 1964 to reach a low of 5.7 per cent in 1978. Both these trends were reversed during the 1980s, the share of the indepe
Henry Shapland "Harry" Colt was a golf course architect born in Highgate, England. He worked predominantly with Charles Alison, John Morrison, Alister MacKenzie, in 1928 forming Colt, Alison & Morrison Ltd, he participated in the design of over 300 golf courses in North America, South America, Australia and Africa. Colt's courses of note in the UK include: St George's Hill, Rye, Swinley Forest, Brancepeth Castle, Brokenhurst Manor, Camberley Heath, Stoke Park Club, Calcot Park and Streatley Golf Club, Grimsby Golf Club, Hendon Golf Club and the East & West Courses at Wentworth Club, he performed extensive redesigns of Sunningdale, Woodhall Spa, of Muirfield, Royal Liverpool Golf Club and Royal Portrush, three of the courses on the rota for the Open Championship. In Canada, his courses for the Hamilton Golf and Country Club and the Toronto Golf Club are respected, he designed in 1914 the first Spanish course bigger than 4.300 yards, the Club de Golf Sant Cugat, promoted by the Barcelona Traction Light and Power Company Ltd.
While it is joked that "the sun never sets" on a course designed by architect Robert Trent Jones, this is true for the works of Colt and his collaborators. H. S Colt teamed up with George Crump in 1918 to design Pine Valley Golf Club, ranked the #1 Golf Course in the United States, as of April 2017; the classic Plum Hollow Country Club in Southfield, Michigan was designed by Colt and Alison in 1921. The course played host to the 1947 PGA Championship, the 1957 Western Open, Ryder Cup Challenge Matches in 1943. Colt was educated at Monkton Combe School near Bath before taking a law degree at Clare College, where he captained the Cambridge University Golf Club in 1890. In 1897 he became a Founder Member of the Ancient Rules of Golf Committee. Note: Colt played in only The Open Championship and The Amateur Championship. DNP = Did not play "T" indicates a tie for a place R128, R64, R32, R16, QF, SF = Round in which player lost in match play Yellow background for top-10 Source for 1895 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 8 May 1895, pg. 8.
Source for 1896 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 21 May 1896, pg. 11. Source for 1898 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 25 May 1898, pg. 10. Source for 1899 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 25 May 1899, pg. 11. Source for 1900 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 10 May 1900, pg. 13. Source for 1901 British Amateur: Golf, June 1901, pg. 413. Source for 1902 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 30 April 1902, pg. 10. Source for 1904 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 1 June 1904, pg. 11. Source for 1906 British Amateur: Golf, July 1906, pg. 30. Source for 1907 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 29 May 1907, pg. 12. Source for 1908 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 29 May 1908, pg. 14. Source for 1909 British Amateur: The American Golfer, July 1909, pg. 11. Source for 1910 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 2 June 1910, pg. 8. Source for 1911 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 2 June 1911, pg. 9. Source for 1912 British Amateur: The American Golfer, July 1912, pg. 198. England–Scotland Amateur Match: 1908 Colt Association Official Site Oxford Dictionary of National Biography article by Mark Pottle, ‘Colt, Henry Shapland ’ accessed 2 March 2007 Bath Golf Club Official Site
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating; the Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games, the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The Deaflympics and Special Olympics are endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic and technological advancements; the abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games; the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter; the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold and bronze, respectively; the Games have grown so much. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, a terrorist attack in 1972; every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world; the Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several kingdoms of Ancient Greece; these Games featured athletic but combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration and chariot racing events. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished.
This cessation of hostilities was known as truce. This idea is a modern myth; the truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus. The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in legend. According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years; the myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which became a unit of distance; the most accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon, wrestling and equestrian events. Tradition has it that a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion; the Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia.
Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. The winners of the events were immortalised in poems and statues; the Games were held every four years, this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games; the Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Gr
Combined Cadet Force
The Combined Cadet Force is a youth organisation in the United Kingdom, sponsored by the Ministry of Defence, which operates in schools, includes Army, Royal Navy and Royal Air Force sections. Its aim is to "provide a disciplined organisation in a school so that pupils may develop powers of leadership by means of training to promote the qualities of responsibility, self reliance, resourcefulness and perseverance". One of its objectives is "to encourage those who have an interest in the services to become Officers of the Regular or Reserve Forces", a significant number of British military officers have had experience in the CCF. Prior to 1948 cadet forces in schools existed as the junior division of the Officers' Training Corps framework, but in 1948 Combined Cadet Force was formed covering cadets affiliated to all three services; as of 2018 there were 43,400 Cadets and 3,640 Cadet Force Adult Volunteers The MOD provides £28M per year of funding to the CCF. The CCF was created in 1948 by the amalgamation of the Junior Training Corps and the school contingents of the Sea Cadet Corps and Air Training Corps.
CCFs are still referred to as "The Corps". On 12 May 1859, the Secretary of State for War, Jonathan Peel, sent out a circular letter to the public schools and universities inviting them to form units of the Volunteer Corps; the first school cadet corps was established at Rossall School in February 1860 as an army contingent only. Felsted had an armed drill contingent at the time of the War Office letter under the command of Sgt. Major Rogers RM. In February 1861 the Oxford City Rifle Cadet Corps was founded, with five companies, the first of, composed of pupils of the Linden House School, a private school in Headington, the second composed of pupils from Magdalen College School. In 1908, the units were re-titled the Officer Training Corps. A school contingent may have any combination of Royal Navy, Royal Air Force and sometimes Royal Marines sections, the army section is invariably the largest; the CCF movement is dominated by the independent sector with 200 contingents still being based in independent schools with only around 60 in state schools.
It was reported in 2008 that some private school CCF detachments would be opened to pupils of local state schools however there was no resultant change. Unlike established CCFs, the MoD's model to expand cadet forces into schools require new schools with cadet units to either sponsor their own cadets or find a third party sponsor who can meet some of the cost to the MoD of funding and training Cadet Forces. Therefore, costs to schools involved are considerable, at over £200 per cadet per year and many thousands of pounds more for a cadet force to become an independent unit. In July 2014 the following changes to CCF funding were proposed: From September 2015, MOD will no longer make a Contingent Grant. Schools would need to determine how best to fund those costs met by the grant. From September 2016, MOD will no longer fund the remuneration of adult volunteers. From September 2017, MOD will apply an additional charge to cover running costs, such as uniform and ammunition. In this year the charge will be about £75 per cadet per year, applied termly in arrears.
From September 2018, the charge will rise to £150 per cadet per year. A Memorandum of Understanding, setting out what the MOD and each school are expected to provide, is under development. In January 2015, the proposal was shelved, all funding was to remain in place, as well as removing the requirement of CEP cadets having to pay an annual fee. CCF Contingents are part of the CCF, but are part of their own school and as such are semi-autonomous organisations, run by internal school or school-related staff, supported by armed forces personnel. Army sections may wear their own capbadge, this might consist of the school or college logo or crest. However, Army headgear is worn with this capbadge. Royal Navy and Royal Air Force sections wear the appropriate RN/RAF other rank and officer capbadges, they may be issued with combat uniform if required and some schools have No 1 uniform for senior cadets. Number 3 uniform is the parade uniform for the CCF and consists of a white Shirt, black tie, blue trousers, blue heavy wool jersey, worn with plain black shoes, a Brassard should be worn on the right arm, displaying qualification badges.
Number 4 uniform is the standard working uniform of the Royal Navy, in one form or another it has been in existence for over 60 years. This uniform is fire retardant and consists of a blue shirt, blue trousers, blue heavy wool jersey, with CCF badge and black boots. Royal Marines sections wear the bronzed Royal Marines badge with a red "tombstone" backing on a blue beret with MTP clothing, either brown or black boots, they may wear a version of No.1 Ceremonial Uniform with Cadet insignia for special occasion. The Army Section dress regulations are set out in Army Dress Regulations. Army Section Cadets wear Multi-terrain Pattern uniform for most occasions. A contingent badge may be worn on the left. All cadets wear a rank slide with the word "CADET" in embroidered red capital letters at the top, any rank is shown underneath in black. Cadets may be given permission to wear a stable belt of CCF, school, or affiliated unit pattern. No. 2 Dress may be worn for ceremonial or other relevant uses and is to be worn in accordance with the dress regulations mentioned above.
RAF cadets wear a version of the No.2 dress. This consists of ei