Polychrome is the practice of decorating architectural elements, etc. in a variety of colors. The term is used to refer to certain styles of architecture, some very early polychrome pottery has been excavated on Minoan Crete such as at the Bronze Age site of Phaistos. In ancient Greece sculptures were painted in strong colors, the paint was frequently limited to parts depicting clothing, and so on, with the skin left in the natural color of the stone. But it could cover sculptures in their totality, the painting of Greek sculpture should not merely be seen as an enhancement of their sculpted form but has the characteristics of a distinct style of art. On high-quality bronzes like the Riace bronzes, an early example of polychrome decoration was found in the Parthenon atop the Acropolis of Athens. By the time European antiquarianism took off in the 18th century, however, some classicists such as Jacques Ignace Hittorff noticed traces of paint on classical architecture and this slowly came to be accepted.
An example of classical Greek architectural polychrome may be seen in the full size replica of the Parthenon exhibited in Nashville, throughout medieval Europe religious sculptures in wood and other media were often brightly painted or colored, as were the interiors of church buildings. The exteriors of churches were painted as well, but little has survived, exposure to the elements and changing tastes and religious approval over time acted against their preservation. With the arrival of European porcelain in the 18th century, brightly colored pottery figurines with a range of colors became very popular. Polychrome brickwork is a style of brickwork which emerged in the 1860s. It was often used to replicate the effect of quoining and to decorate around windows, early examples featured banding, with examples exhibiting complex diagonal, criss-cross, and step patterns, in some cases even writing using bricks. In the 1970s and 1980s, architects working with bold colors included Robert Venturi, Michael Graves, Polychrome building facades rose in popularity as a way of highlighting certain trim features in Victorian and Queen Anne architecture in the United States.
The rise of the paint industry following the civil war helped to fuel the use of multiple colors. These earned the endearment Painted Ladies, a term that in modern times is considered kitsch when it is applied to describe all Victorian houses that have painted with period colors. John Joseph Earley developed a process of concrete slab construction and ornamentation that was admired across America. In the Washington, D. C. metropolitan area, his products graced a variety of buildings — all formed by the staff of the Earley Studio in Rosslyn, earleys Polychrome Historic District houses in Silver Spring, Maryland were built in the mid-1930s. The concrete panels were pre-cast with colorful stones and shipped to the lot for on-site assembly, less well-known, but just as impressive, is the Dr. Fealy Polychrome House that Earley built atop a hill in Southeast Washington, D. C. overlooking the city. His uniquely designed polychrome houses were outstanding among prefabricated houses in the country, appreciated for their Art Deco ornament, the term polychromatic means having several colors
Color or colour is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, purple, or blue. This perception of color derives from the stimulation of cells in the human eye by electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of light. Color categories and physical specifications of color are associated with objects through the wavelength of the light that is reflected from them and this reflection is governed by the objects physical properties such as light absorption, emission spectra, etc. By defining a color space, colors can be identified numerically by coordinates, there may be more than three color dimensions in other color spaces, such as in the CMYK color model, wherein one of the dimensions relates to a colours colorfulness). The photo-receptivity of the eyes of species varies considerably from our own. Honeybees and bumblebees for instance have trichromatic color vision sensitive to ultraviolet but is insensitive to red, papilio butterflies possess six types of photoreceptors and may have pentachromatic vision.
The most complex color vision system in the kingdom has been found in stomatopods with up to 12 spectral receptor types thought to work as multiple dichromatic units. The science of color is sometimes called chromatics, colorimetry, or simply color science and it includes the perception of color by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art, and the physics of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range. Electromagnetic radiation is characterized by its wavelength and its intensity, when the wavelength is within the visible spectrum, it is known as visible light. Most light sources emit light at different wavelengths, a sources spectrum is a distribution giving its intensity at each wavelength. Although the spectrum of light arriving at the eye from a given direction determines the color sensation in that direction, in each such class the members are called metamers of the color in question. The table at right shows approximate frequencies and wavelengths for various pure spectral colors, the wavelengths listed are as measured in air or vacuum.
A common list identifies six main bands, orange, green, Newtons conception included a seventh color, between blue and violet. It is possible that what Newton referred to as blue is nearer to what today is known as cyan, the color of an object depends on both the physics of the object in its environment and the characteristics of the perceiving eye and brain. Some objects not only light, but transmit light or emit light themselves. This effect is known as color constancy, opaque objects that do not reflect specularly have their color determined by which wavelengths of light they scatter strongly. If objects scatter all wavelengths with roughly equal strength, they appear white, if they absorb all wavelengths, they appear black. Opaque objects that reflect light of different wavelengths with different efficiencies look like mirrors tinted with colors determined by those differences
The color amber is a pure chroma color, located on the color wheel midway between the colors of gold and orange. In English the first recorded use of the term as a color name, Amber is one of several technically defined colors used in automotive signal lamps. In North America, SAE standard J578 governs the colorimetry of vehicle lights, both standards designate a range of orange-yellow hues in the CIE color space as amber. In the past, the ECE amber definition was more restrictive than the SAE definition, the SAE formally uses the term yellow amber, though the color is most often referred to as yellow. This is not the same as selective yellow, a used in some fog lamps and headlamps. The color box shown above is an approximation, created by taking the centroid of the standard definition and moving it towards the D65 white point. Computers VT220 computer terminals were available with amber phosphors on their CRTs, interior design The original Amber Room in the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoye Selo near Saint Petersburg was a complete chamber decoration of amber panels backed with gold leaf and mirrors.
Due to its beauty, it was sometimes dubbed the Eighth Wonder of the World. Sports In Gaelic games Armagh play in a darker Amber color, Offaly play in the colors of the Irish flag and Kilkenny play in black and amber. Amber is a worn by English Football Clubs Hull City AFC, Bradford City AFC, Barnet FC, Shrewsbury Town FC, Mansfield Town, Cambridge United FC. The color is worn by the Scottish football club Motherwell FC. Traffic engineering Amber is used in traffic lights and turn signals, business management Amber is used in business management to indicate a status of work, as in RAG status. R stands for Red, A stands for Amber, usually represented as the color Yellow in the reports, spectral color List of colors UNECE Regulation No. 6, Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Direction Indicators for Motor Vehicles,48, Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Vehicles with Regard to the Installation of Lighting and Light-Signalling Devices
Shades of red
Varieties of the color red may differ in hue, chroma or lightness, or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are called tints and shades, a tint being a red or other hue mixed with white, a large selection of these various colors is shown below. At right is displayed the web color pink, a tint of red. The pink is considered to be a basic color term on its own. At right is displayed the tone of salmon that is called salmon in Crayola crayons. This color was introduced by Crayola in 1949, see the List of Crayola crayon colors. The color coral pink is displayed at right, an orange color. The web color salmon is displayed at right, the color displayed at right, Red, RGB red, or electric red is the brightest possible red that can be reproduced on a computer monitor. This color is an approximation of a red spectral color. It is one of the three colors of light in the RGB color model, along with green and blue. Portable devices such as mobile phones might have even narrower gamut due to this purity–power tradeoff and their red may be less colorful and this color is the color called red in the X11 web colors, which were originally formulated in 1987.
It is called color wheel red and it is at precisely zero degrees on the HSV color wheel, known as the RGB color wheel. Pigment red is the red that is achieved by mixing process magenta. This is the red that is shown in the diagram located at the bottom of the following website offering tintbooks for CMYK printing. The purpose of the CMYK color system is to provide the maximum possible gamut of colors capable of being reproduced in printing. Psychedelic art made people used to brighter colors of red, the result approximates the electric red shown above. The color defined as red in the NCS or Natural Color System is shown at right, the Natural Color System is a color system based on the four unique hues or psychological primary colors red, yellow and blue. The NCS is based on the opponent process theory of vision, the Natural Color System is widely used in Scandinavia
Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often divided into the Archaic period, Classical period. It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek, the language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine. Koine is regarded as a historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects, Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers. It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language, Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects. The main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Arcadocypriot, some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions.
There are several historical forms, homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the Iliad and Odyssey, and in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic, the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period and they have the same general outline, but differ in some of the detail. The invasion would not be Dorian unless the invaders had some relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects.
Often non-west is called East Greek, Arcadocypriot apparently descended more closely from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age. Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, and can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect, thessalian likewise had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions, generally equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, and Northern Peloponnesus Doric. The Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek and this dialect slowly replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, which is spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek, by about the 6th century AD, the Koine had slowly metamorphosized into Medieval Greek
Monochrome photography is photography where the image produced has a single hue, rather than recording the colors of the object that was photographed. It includes all forms of photography, which produce images containing tones of grey ranging from black to white. Other hues besides grey, such as sepia, cyan or brown can be used in monochrome photography, monochrome photography is mostly used for artistic reasons in the contemporary world. Most modern black-and-white films, called panchromatic films, record the visible spectrum. Black-and-white photography is considered by some to be subtle and interpretive. Monochrome images are not direct renditions of their subjects, but are abstractions from reality, in computer terms, this is often called greyscale. Black-and-white photography is considered by some to add a more emotional touch to the subject, selenium toner produces a blue-black or purple image, similarly by converting silver into more stable silver selenide. Cyanotypes used iron salts rather than silver salts to create blue, monochrome images may be produced using black-and-white film or paper, or by manipulating color images using computer software.
After software conversion to an image, one or more hues can replace the grey tones to emulate duotones, sepia. Black and White Film Information and Comparisons Chart
Macaws are long-tailed, often colourful New World parrots. Of the many different Psittacidae genera, six are classified as macaws, Anodorhynchus, Primolius, previously, the members of the genus Primolius were placed in Propyrrhura, but the former is correct in accordance with ICZN rules. Macaws are native to Central America and North America, South America, most species are associated with forests, especially rainforests, but others prefer woodland or savannah-like habitats. Proportionately larger beaks, long tails, and relatively bare, light-coloured, sometimes the facial patch is smaller in some species, and limited to a yellow patch around the eyes and a second patch near the base of the beak in the members of the genus Anodorhynchus. A macaws facial feather pattern is as unique as a fingerprint, the largest macaws are the hyacinth and green-winged macaws. While still relatively large, macaws of the genera Cyanopsitta and Primolius are significantly smaller than the members of Anodorhynchus, the smallest member of the family, the red-shouldered macaw, is no larger than some parakeets of the genus Aratinga.
Macaws, like parrots and woodpeckers, are zygodactyl, having their first. There are 19 species of macaws, including extinct and critically endangered species, in addition, there are several hypothetical extinct species that have been proposed based on very little evidence. The Spixs macaw is now extinct in the wild. The glaucous macaw is extinct, with only two reliable records of sightings in the 20th century. The greatest problems threatening the population are the rapid rate of deforestation. International trade of all species is regulated by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora. Some species of macaws—the scarlet macaw as a listed in the CITES Appendix I. Sometimes macaws are hybridized for the pet trade and this would explain why the blue and gold is the most commonly hybridised macaw, and why the hybridising trend took hold among macaws. Common macaw hybrids include the harlequin, miligold macaw and the Catalina, in addition, unusual but apparently healthy intergeneric hybrids between the hyacinth macaw and several of the larger Ara macaws have occasionally been seen in captivity.
Macaws eat a variety of foods including seeds, fruits, palm fruits, flowers, Wild species may forage widely, over 100 km for some of the larger species such as Ara araurana and Ara ambigua, in search of seasonally available foods. Some foods eaten by macaws in certain regions in the wild are said to contain toxic or caustic substances which they are able to digest and it has been suggested that parrots and macaws in the Amazon Basin eat clay from exposed river banks to neutralize these toxins. In the western Amazon hundreds of macaws and other parrots descend to exposed river banks to consume clay on an almost daily basis – except on rainy days, the macaws and other bird and animal species prefer clays with higher levels of sodium
Halftone is the reprographic technique that simulates continuous tone imagery through the use of dots, varying either in size or in spacing, thus generating a gradient-like effect. Halftone can be used to specifically to the image that is produced by this process. This reproduction relies on an optical illusion, the tiny halftone dots are blended into smooth tones by the human eye. At a microscopic level, developed black-and-white photographic film consists of two colors, and not an infinite range of continuous tones. The semi-opaque property of ink allows halftone dots of different colors to create another optical effect—full-color imagery, william Fox Talbot is credited with the idea of halftone printing. In a 1852 patent he suggested using photographic screens or veils in connection with an intaglio process. Several different kinds of screens were proposed during the following decades, one of the well known attempts was by Stephen H. Horgan while working for the New York Daily Graphic. The first printed photograph was an image of Steinway Hall in Manhattan published on December 2,1873, the Graphic published the first reproduction of a photograph with a full tonal range in a newspaper on March 4,1880 with a crude halftone screen.
The first truly successful commercial method was patented by Frederic Ives of Philadelphia in 1881, although he found a way of breaking up the image into dots of varying sizes, he did not make use of a screen. In 1882, the German Georg Meisenbach patented a process in England. His invention was based on the ideas of Berchtold and Swan. He used single lined screens which were turned during exposure to produce cross-lined effects and he was the first to achieve any commercial success with relief halftones. Shortly afterwards, this time in collaboration with Louis and Max Levy, improved the process further with the invention, the relief halftone process proved almost immediately to be a success. The use of blocks in popular journals became regular during the early 1890s. The development of printing methods for lithography appears to have followed a largely independent path. In the 1860s, A. Hoen & Co. focused on methods allowing artists to manipulate the tones of hand-worked printing stones, by the 1880s, Hoen was working on halftone methods that could be used in conjunction with either hand-worked or photolithographic stones.
The most common method of creating screens—amplitude modulation—produces a regular grid of dots that vary in size, the other method of creating screens—frequency modulation—is used in a process known as stochastic screening. Both modulation methods are named by analogy with the use of the terms in telecommunications, the resolution of a halftone screen is measured in lines per inch
Digital photography is a form of photography that uses cameras containing arrays of electronic photodetectors to capture images focused by a lens, as opposed to an exposure on photographic film. The captured images are digitized and stored as a computer file ready for digital processing, viewing. Digital photographs are created solely by computer-based photoelectric and mechanical techniques. Digital photography is one of forms of digital imaging. Digital images are created by non-photographic equipment such as computer tomography scanners. Digital images can be made by scanning other printed photographic images or negatives, the first consumer digital cameras were marketed in the late 1990s. Many mirrorless cameras accept interchangeable lenses and have advanced features through an electronic viewfinder, the first flyby spacecraft image of Mars was taken from Mariner 4 on July 15,1965 with a camera system designed by NASA/JPL. The first recorded attempt at building a digital camera was in 1975 by Steven Sasson and it used the then-new solid-state CCD image sensor chips developed by Fairchild Semiconductor in 1973.
The camera weighed 8 pounds, recorded black and white images to a tape, had a resolution of 0.01 megapixels. The prototype camera was an exercise, not intended for production. This camera was never marketed internationally, and has not been confirmed to have shipped even in Japan, the first commercially available digital camera was the 1990 Dycam Model 1, it sold as the Logitech Fotoman. It used a CCD image sensor, stored pictures digitally, image sensors read the intensity of light, and digital memory devices store the digital image information as RGB color space or as raw data. The two main types of sensors are charge-coupled devices, in which the photocharge is shifted to a central charge-to-voltage converter, Digital cameras can take pictures, and may record sound and video. Some can be used as webcams, some can use the PictBridge standard to connect to a printer without using a computer, many camcorders can take still photographs, and store them on videotape or on flash memorycards with the same functionality as digital cameras.
Digital photography is one of the most exceptional instances of the shift from converting conventional analog information to digital information and this shift is so tremendous because it was a chemical and mechanical process and became an all digital process with a built in computer in all digital cameras. The quality of an image is a composite of various factors. Pixel count is one of the major factors, though it is the most heavily marketed figure of merit. Digital camera manufacturers advertise this figure because consumers can use it to easily compare camera capabilities and it is not, the major factor in evaluating a digital camera for most applications
Images may be two-dimensional, such as a photograph or screen display, or three-dimensional, such as a statue or hologram. They may be captured by optical devices – such as cameras, lenses, microscopes, etc. and natural objects and phenomena, such as the human eye or water. The word image is used in the broader sense of any two-dimensional figure such as a map, a graph. A volatile image is one that only for a short period of time. This may be a reflection of an object by a mirror, a fixed image, called a hard copy, is one that has been recorded on a material object, such as paper or textile by photography or any other digital process. A mental image exists in a mind, as something one remembers or imagines. The subject of an image need not be real, it may be a concept, such as a graph, function. For example, Sigmund Freud claimed to have dreamed purely in aural-images of dialogs, a still image is a single static image, as distinguished from a kinetic image. This phrase is used in photography, visual media and the industry to emphasize that one is not talking about movies. A film still is a taken on the set of a movie or television program during production.
In literature, imagery is a picture which appeals to the senses. It can both be figurative and literal, a moving image is typically a movie or video, including digital video. It could be an animated display such as a zoetrope, library of Congress – Format Descriptions for Still Images Image Processing – Online Open Research Group Legal Issues Regarding Images Image Copyright Case
Red is the color at the longer-wavelengths end of the spectrum of visible light next to orange, at the opposite end from violet. Red color has a predominant light wavelength of roughly 620–740 nanometers, light with a longer wavelength than red but shorter than terahertz radiation and microwave is called infrared. Red is one of the secondary colors, resulting from the combination of yellow. Traditionally, it was viewed as a primary colour, along with yellow and blue, in the RYB color space and traditional color wheel formerly used by painters. Reds can vary in shade from light pink to very dark maroon or burgundy. Red is the color of cyan. In nature, the red color of blood comes from hemoglobin, the red color of the Grand Canyon and other geological features is caused by hematite or red ochre, both forms of iron oxide. It causes the red color of the planet Mars, the color of autumn leaves is caused by pigments called anthocyanins, which are produced towards the end of summer, when the green chlorophyll is no longer produced.
One to two percent of the population has red hair, the color is produced by high levels of the reddish pigment pheomelanin. Since red is the color of blood, it has historically been associated with sacrifice, modern surveys in the United States and Europe show red is the color most commonly associated with heat, passion, anger and joy. In China and many other Asian countries it is the color of symbolizing happiness, since the 19th century, red has been associated with socialism and communism. The word red is derived from the Old English rēad, the word can be further traced to the Proto-Germanic rauthaz and the Proto-Indo European root rewdʰ-. In Sanskrit, the word means red or blood. In the Akkadian language of Ancient Mesopotamia and in the modern Inuit language of Inuit, the words for colored in Latin and Spanish both mean red. In Portuguese the word for red is vermelho, which comes from Latin vermiculus, in the Russian language, the word for red, Кра́сный, comes from the same old Slavic root as the words for beautiful—красивый and excellent—прекрасный.
Thus Red Square in Moscow, named long before the Russian Revolution, in heraldry, the word gules is used for red. Red can vary in hue from orange-red to violet-red, and for each hue there is a variety of shades and tints. Red hematite powder was found scattered around the remains at a grave site in a Zhoukoudian cave complex near Beijing
The ambrotype or amphitype, known as a collodion positive in the UK, is a positive photograph on glass made by a variant of the wet plate collodion process. Like a print on paper, it is viewed by reflected light, like the daguerreotype, which it replaced, and like the prints produced by a Polaroid camera, each is a unique original that could only be duplicated by using a camera to copy it. The ambrotype was introduced in the 1850s, during the 1860s it was superseded by the tintype, a similar photograph on thin black-lacquered iron, hard to distinguish from an ambrotype if under glass. One side of a glass plate was coated with a thin layer of iodized collodion. The plate was exposed in the camera while still wet, exposure times varied from five to sixty seconds or more depending on the brightness of the lighting and the speed of the camera lens. The plate was developed and fixed. The resulting negative, when viewed by reflected light against a background, appears to be a positive image, the clear areas look black.
This effect was integrated by backing the plate with black velvet, by taking the picture on a made of dark reddish-colored glass. Either the emulsion side or the side could be coated, if the bare side was blackened. In either case, another plate of glass was put over the fragile emulsion side to protect it, in some instances the protective glass was cemented directly to the emulsion, generally with a balsam resin. This protected the well but tended to darken it. Ambrotypes were sometimes hand-tinted, untinted ambrotypes are monochrome, gray or tan in their lightest areas, the ambrotype was based on the wet plate collodion process invented by Frederick Scott Archer. Ambrotypes were deliberately underexposed negatives made by that process and optimized for viewing as positives instead, in the US, ambrotypes first came into use in the early 1850s. In 1854, James Ambrose Cutting of Boston took out several patents relating to the process and he may be responsible for coining the term ambrotype. An ambrotype, appeared dull and drab when compared with the brilliance of a well-made, by the late 1850s, the ambrotype was overtaking the daguerreotype in popularity. youtube. com/watch.