Monotheism is the belief in one god. A narrower definition of monotheism is the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world. A distinction may be made between exclusive monotheism, both inclusive monotheism and pluriform monotheism which, while recognising various distinct gods, postulate some underlying unity. Monotheism is distinguished from henotheism, a religious system in which the believer worships one god without denying that others may worship different gods with equal validity, monolatrism, the recognition of the existence of many gods but with the consistent worship of only one deity; the term "monolatry" was first used by Julius Wellhausen. The broader definition of monotheism characterizes the traditions of Bábism, the Baháʼí Faith, Balinese Hinduism, Cao Dai, Christianity, Eckankar, Hindu sects such as Shaivism and Vaishnavism, Judaism, Rastafari, Seicho no Ie, Tengrism, Tenrikyo and Zoroastrianism, elements of pre-monotheistic thought are found in early religions such as Atenism, ancient Chinese religion, Yahwism.
The word monotheism comes from the Greek μόνος meaning "single" and θεός meaning "god". The English term was first used by Henry More. Quasi-monotheistic claims of the existence of a universal deity date to the Late Bronze Age, with Akhenaten's Great Hymn to the Aten. A possible inclination towards monotheism emerged during the Vedic period in Iron-Age South Asia; the Rigveda exhibits notions of monism of the Brahman in the comparatively late tenth book, dated to the early Iron Age, e.g. in the Nasadiya sukta. Since the sixth century BCE, Zoroastrians have believed in the supremacy of one God above all: Ahura Mazda as the "Maker of All" and the first being before all others. Nonetheless, Zoroastrianism was not monotheistic because it venerated other yazatas alongside Ahura Mazda. Ancient Hindu theology, was monist, but was not monotheistic in worship because it still maintained the existence of many gods, who were envisioned as aspects of one supreme God, Brahman. Numerous ancient Greek philosophers, including Xenophanes of Colophon and Antisthenes believed in a similar polytheistic monism that came close to monotheism, but fell short.
Judaism was the first religion to conceive the notion of a personal monotheistic God within a monist context. The concept of ethical monotheism, which holds that morality stems from God alone and that its laws are unchanging, first occurred in Judaism, but is now a core tenet of most modern monotheistic religions, including Zoroastrianism, Islam and Baháʼí Faith. According to Jewish and Islamic tradition, monotheism was the original religion of humanity. Scholars of religion abandoned that view in the 19th century in favour of an evolutionary progression from animism via polytheism to monotheism, but by 1974 this theory was less held, a modified view similar to Lang's became more prominent. Austrian anthropologist Wilhelm Schmidt had postulated an Urmonotheismus, "original" or "primitive monotheism" in the 1910s, it was objected that Judaism and Islam had grown up in opposition to polytheism as had Greek philosophical monotheism. More Karen Armstrong and other authors have returned to the idea of an evolutionary progression beginning with animism, which developed into polytheism, which developed into henotheism, which developed into monolatry, which developed into true monotheism.
While all adherents of the Abrahamic religions consider themselves to be monotheists, some in Judaism do not consider Christianity to be a pure form of monotheism, classifying it as Shituf. Islam does not recognize modern-day Christianity as monotheistic due to the Christian doctrine of Trinity, which Islam argues was not a part of the original monotheistic Christianity as preached by Jesus. Christians, on the other hand, argue that the doctrine of the Trinity is a valid expression of monotheism, citing that the Trinity does not consist of three separate deities, but rather the three persons, who exist consubstantially within a single Godhead. Judaism is traditionally considered one of the oldest monotheistic religions in the world, although it is believed that the earliest Israelites were polytheistic, evolved into henotheistic and monolatristic, rather than monotheistic. God in Judaism was monotheistic, an absolute one and incomparable being, the ultimate cause of all existence; the Babylonian Talmud references other, "foreign gods" as non-existent entities to whom humans mistakenly ascribe reality and power.
One of the best-known statements of Rabbinical Judaism on monotheism is the Second of Maimonides' 13 Principles of faith: God, the Cause of all, is one. This does not mean one as in one of a pair, nor one like a species, nor one as in an object, made up of many elements, nor as a single simple object, infinitely divisible. Rather, God is a unity unlike any other possible unity; some in Judaism and Islam reject the Christian idea of monotheism. Judaism uses the term shituf to refer to the worship of God in a manner which Judaism deems to be neither purely monotheistic nor polytheistic. During the 8th century BCE, the worship of Yahweh in Israel was in competition with many other cults, described by the Y
The Kaiservilla in Bad Ischl, Upper Austria, was the summer residence of Emperor Franz Joseph I and Empress Elisabeth of Austria, known as Sisi. The mansion is the residence of their great-grandson Archduke Markus Emanuel Salvator; the palace was a Biedermeier villa belonging to a Viennese notary named Josef August Eltz. In 1850 it was purchased by Dr Eduard Mastalier. After Franz Joseph's engagement to Princess Elisabeth of Bavaria in 1853, Franz Joseph's mother, Princess Sophie of Bavaria, purchased the villa as a wedding present for the couple. In subsequent years, the villa was expanded in a Neoclassical style by Antonio Legrenzi; the extant central portion was expanded towards the park and the posterior portion of the house was converted to form the entrance with Classical columns and tympana. Two additional wings were constructed, giving the building the overall shape of an "E"; the villa is surrounded by a large park in the "English Style". The architectural ensemble in its contemporary form was completed in 1860.
Construction was slowed by the fact that it could not proceed during the summer months due to the presence of the royal family. Today, the mansion is home to the Archduke Markus, but offers grounds tours to the public. Notes Bibliography Official website
UFC 179: Aldo vs. Mendes 2 was a mixed martial arts event held on October 25, 2014, at Ginásio do Maracanãzinho in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; the event was headlined by a Featherweight Championship rematch between the current champion José Aldo, top contender Chad Mendes. Their first fight at UFC 142 contested in Rio de Janeiro, ended in a first round knockout victory in favor of Aldo; the headliner was scheduled to take place on August 2, 2014 at UFC 176. However, on July 2, Aldo pulled out of the fight citing a neck injury suffered during training. Subsequent to Aldo's injury, that event was postponed on July 8, when the UFC announced they were unable to replace the original main event fight and with less than a month before the event, the decision was made to postpone the event – though the promotion said the numbering scheme for scheduled pay-per-views after it, including UFC 177 in Sacramento on August 30, would remain in consecutive order; that entire fight card was re-booked for other events.
Jeremy Stephens was linked to a possible bout with Lucas Martins at the event. However, Stephens' manager indicated shortly after the fight announcement was leaked that they had no intention of taking the fight. Martins faced Darren Elkins instead. Fabrício Camões was scheduled to face Josh Shockley at the event. However, Shockley was replaced by Tony Martin. Alan Patrick was expected to face Beneil Dariush at this event. However, Patrick was forced to pull out due to a broken jaw. Dariush instead faced Carlos Diego Ferreira. During weigh ins, three fighters missed weight: Fabrício Camões and Tony Martin. None of the three were able to make weight therefore all fights were changed to catchweight. Jorgensen was fined 20% of his purse, while Camões and Martin, who were involved in the same fight, weren't issued a fine; the following fighters were awarded $50,000 bonuses: Fight of the Night: José Aldo vs. Chad Mendes Performance of the Night: Fábio Maldonado and Gilbert Burns List of UFC events 2014 in UFC