George Washington was an American political leader, military general and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War of Independence, he presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which established the new federal government, he has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation. Washington received his initial military training and command with the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War, he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was named a delegate to the Continental Congress, where he was appointed Commanding General of the nation's Continental Army. Washington allied with France, in the defeat of the British at Yorktown. Once victory for the United States was in hand in 1783, Washington resigned his commission. Washington played a key role in the adoption and ratification of the Constitution and was elected president by the Electoral College in the first two elections.
He implemented a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in a fierce rivalry between cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. During the French Revolution, he proclaimed a policy of neutrality while sanctioning the Jay Treaty, he set enduring precedents for the office of president, including the title "President of the United States", his Farewell Address is regarded as a pre-eminent statement on republicanism. Washington utilized slave labor and trading African American slaves, but he became troubled with the institution of slavery and freed them in his 1799 will, he was a member of the Anglican Church and the Freemasons, he urged tolerance for all religions in his roles as general and president. Upon his death, he was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." He has been memorialized by monuments, geographical locations and currency, many scholars and polls rank him among the top American presidents. Washington's great-grandfather John Washington immigrated in 1656 from Sulgrave, England to the British Colony of Virginia where he accumulated 5,000 acres of land, including Little Hunting Creek on the Potomac River.
George Washington was born February 22, 1732 at Popes Creek in Westmoreland County and was the first of six children of Augustine and Mary Ball Washington. His father was a justice of the peace and a prominent public figure who had three additional children from his first marriage to Jane Butler; the family moved to Little Hunting Creek to Ferry Farm near Fredericksburg, Virginia. When Augustine died in 1743, Washington inherited ten slaves. Washington did not have the formal education that his older brothers received at Appleby Grammar School in England, but he did learn mathematics and surveying, he was talented in draftsmanship and map-making. By early adulthood, he was writing with "considerable force" and "precision."Washington visited Mount Vernon and Belvoir, the plantation that belonged to Lawrence's father-in-law William Fairfax, which fueled ambition for the lifestyle of the planter aristocracy. Fairfax became Washington's patron and surrogate father, Washington spent a month in 1748 with a team surveying Fairfax's Shenandoah Valley property.
He received a surveyor's license the following year from the College of Mary. He resigned from the job in 1750 and had bought 1,500 acres in the Valley, he owned 2,315 acres by 1752. In 1751, Washington made his only trip abroad when he accompanied Lawrence to Barbados, hoping that the climate would cure his brother's tuberculosis. Washington contracted smallpox during that trip, which immunized him but left his face scarred. Lawrence died in 1752, Washington leased Mount Vernon from his widow. Lawrence's service as adjutant general of the Virginia militia inspired Washington to seek a commission, Virginia's Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed him as a major in December 1752 and as commander of one of the four militia districts; the British and French were competing for control of the Ohio Valley at the time, the British building forts along the Ohio River and the French doing between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. In October 1753, Dinwiddie appointed Washington as a special envoy to demand that the French vacate territory which the British had claimed.
Dinwiddie appointed him to make peace with the Iroquois Confederacy and to gather intelligence about the French forces. Washington met with Half-King Tanacharison and other Iroquois chiefs at Logstown to secure their promise of support against the French, his party reached the Ohio River in November, they were intercepted by a French patrol and escorted to Fort Le Boeuf where Washington was received in a friendly manner. He delivered the British demand to vacate to French commander Saint-Pierre, but the French refused to leave. Saint-Pierre gave Washington his official answer in a sealed envelope after a few days' delay, he gave Washington's party food and extra winter clothing for the trip back to Virginia. Washington completed the precarious mission in 77 days in difficult winter conditions and achieved a measure of distinction when his report was published in Virginia and London. In February 1754, Dinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel and second-in-command of the 300-strong Virginia R
Orange County, New York
Orange County is a county located in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 372,813; the county seat is Goshen. This county was first created in 1683 and reorganized with its present boundaries in 1798. Orange County is included in the New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is in the state's Mid-Hudson Region of the Hudson Valley. The County Executive is Steve Neuhaus; as of the 2010 census the centre of population of New York state was located in Orange County three miles west of the hamlet of Westbrookville. Orange County was established on November 1, 1683, when the Province of New York was divided into twelve counties; each of these was named to honor a member of the British royal family, Orange County took its name from the Prince of Orange, who subsequently became King William III of England. As defined, Orange County included only the southern part of its present-day territory, plus all of present-day Rockland County further south.
The northern part of the present-day county, beyond Moodna Creek, was a part of neighbouring Ulster County. At that date, the only European inhabitants of the area were a handful of Dutch colonists in present-day Rockland County, the area of modern Orange County was occupied by the native Munsee people. Due to its small population, the original Orange County was not independent and was administered by New York County; the first European settlers in the area of the present-day county arrived in 1685. They were a party of around twenty-five families from Scotland, led by David Toshach, the Laird of Monzievaird, his brother-in-law Major Patrick McGregor, a former officer of the French Army, they settled in the Hudson Highlands at the place where the Moodna Creek enters the Hudson River, now known as New Windsor. In 1709, a group of German Palatine refugees settled at Newburgh, they were Protestants from a part of Germany along the Rhine that had suffered during the religious wars. Queen Anne's government arranged for passage from England of nearly 3,000 Palatines in ten ships.
Many were settled along the Hudson River in work camps on property belonging to Robert Livingston. A group of Dutch and English settlers arrived at Goshen in 1712. Additional immigrants came from Ireland. During the American Revolutionary War the county was a hotbed of anti-Patriot activity. Claudius Smith was a Loyalist marauder whose team terrorized citizens; the Mathews family of Blooming Grove were active Loyalists. In 1798, after the American Revolutionary War, the boundaries of Orange County changed, its southern corner was used to create the new Rockland County, in exchange, an area to the north of the Moodna Creek was added, in Ulster County. This caused a reorganization of the local administration, as the original county seat had been fixed at Orangetown in 1703, but this was now in Rockland County. Duties were subsequently shared between Goshen, the center of government for the northern part of Orange County, Newburgh, which played a similar role in the area transferred from Ulster County.
The county court was established in 1801. It was not until 1970. Due to a boundary dispute between New York and New Jersey, the boundaries of many of the southern towns of the county were not definitively established until the 19th century. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 839 square miles, of which 812 square miles is land and 27 square miles is water. Orange County is in southeastern New York State, directly north of the New Jersey-New York border, west of the Hudson River, east of the Delaware River and northwest of New York City, it borders the New York counties of Dutchess, Rockland, Sullivan and Westchester, as well as Passaic and Sussex counties in New Jersey and Pike County in Pennsylvania. Orange County is the only county in New York State which borders both the Hudson and Delaware Rivers. Orange County is where the Great Valley of the Appalachians opens up and ends; the western corner is set off by the Shawangunk Ridge. The area along the Rockland County border and south of Newburgh is part of the Hudson Highlands.
The land in between is the valley of the Wallkill River. In the southern portion of the county the Wallkill valley expands into a wide glacial lake bed known as the Black Dirt Region for its fertility; the highest point is Schunemunk Mountain, at 1,664 feet above sea level. The lowest is sea level along the Hudson. Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge Ulster County – north Dutchess County – northeast Putnam County - east Rockland County – southeast Passaic County, New Jersey - southeast Sussex County, New Jersey - south Pike County, Pennsylvania – southwest Sullivan County – northwest As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 372,813 people residing in the county; the population density was 444 people per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 77.2% White, 10.2% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 2.4% Asian, 3.1% from two or more races. 18% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. According to the 2000 United States Census, 18.3% were of
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Monroe (village), New York
Monroe is a village in Orange County, New York, United States. The population was 8,364 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Poughkeepsie–Newburgh–Middletown, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the larger New York–Newark–Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area. The community is named not after President James Monroe but an early 19th-century New York state senator; the Village of Monroe is in the northwest part of the Town of Monroe by NY Route 17 and US 6. NY 17M is its main street. Monroe is located at 41°19′25″N 74°11′16″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 3.5 square miles, of which, 3.4 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,780 people, 2,569 households, 2,101 families residing in the village; the population density was 2,269.7 people per square mile. There were 2,620 housing units at an average density of 764.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 91.03% White, 2.57% Black or African American, 0.40% Native American, 2.34% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 2.28% from other races, 1.38% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.73% of the population. 22.9% were of Irish, 22.4% Italian, 6.3% Polish and 6.3% German ancestry according to Census 2000. 86.9 % spoke 7.1 % Spanish, 2.4 % Ukrainian and 1.2 % Italian as their first language. There were 2,569 households out of which 44.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.8% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.2% were non-families. 14.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.01 and the average family size was 3.35. In the village, the population was spread out with 29.4% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 31.0% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, 9.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males. The median income for a household in the village was $70,809, the median income for a family was $76,894.
Males had a median income of $63,033 versus $33,184 for females. The per capita income for the village was $25,614. About 4.6% of families and 4.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.5% of those under age 18 and 5.1% of those age 65 or over. Harriman, New York Village website The Photo News, community newspaper
Velveeta is a brand name for a processed cheese product that tastes like an American cheese, with a softer and smoother texture than non processed cheese. When melted, Velveeta keeps a integrated and evenly clump-free liquid texture, it was invented in 1918 by Emil Frey of the Monroe Cheese Company in New York. In 1923, The Velveeta Cheese Company was incorporated as a separate company, sold to Kraft Foods in 1927; the product was advertised as a nutritious health food. In the 1930s, Velveeta became the first cheese product to gain the American Medical Association's seal of approval, it was reformulated in 1953 as a "cheese spread", but as of 2002 Velveeta must be labeled in the United States as a "Pasteurized Prepared Cheese Product."The name "Velveeta" was intended to connote a "velvety smooth" edible product. Smoothness and melting ability are promoted as properties that result from reincorporating the whey with the curd; the brand has been made into a varied Velveeta-based product line with products like cheesy bites, macaroni & cheese, cheesy skillets.
As is the case with most processed cheeses, the manufacturer recommends Velveeta be refrigerated after opening. Kraft Foods has listed Velveeta's ingredients as follows: milk, whey, milk protein concentrate, whey protein concentrate, sodium phosphate, 2% or less of salt, calcium phosphate, lactic acid, sorbic acid, sodium citrate, sodium alginate, apocarotenal, cheese culture. In 2002, the FDA issued a warning letter to Kraft that Velveeta was being sold with packaging that described it as a "Pasteurized Process Cheese Spread", which the FDA claimed was false because the product listed milk protein concentrate in its ingredients. Velveeta is now sold in the US as a "Pasteurized Prepared Cheese Product", a term for which the FDA does not maintain a standard of identity, which therefore may contain milk protein concentrate. Velveeta is sold in the United States, Panama, Hong Kong, the Philippines, South Korea. In the 1930s and'40s, it was sold in the United Kingdom and Germany as "Velveta". In the 1980s, Velveeta used the advertising jingle, "Colby and Cheddar, blended all together" in its US television commercials to explain its taste and texture because real cheese was used in the product at that time.
Kraft Foods has marketed Velveeta as an ingredient in chile con queso and grilled cheese sandwiches. Food industry Processed cheese Velveeta Shells & Cheese Processed food Kraft's Velveeta page Smithsonian.com: There is No Shortage of History When it Comes to Velveeta
U.S. Route 6
U. S. Route 6 called the Grand Army of the Republic Highway, honoring the American Civil War veterans association, is a main route of the U. S. Highway system. While it runs east-northeast from Bishop, California to Provincetown, the route has been modified several times; the highway's longest-lasting routing, from 1936 to 1964, had its western terminus at Long Beach, California. During this time, US 6 was the longest highway in the country. In 1964, the state of California renumbered its highways, most of the route within California was transferred to other highways; this dropped the highway's length below that of US 20. US 6 is a diagonal route, whose number is out of sequence with the rest of the U. S. Highway grid in the western US; when it was designated in 1926, US 6 only ran east of Pennsylvania. Subsequent extensions replacing the former U. S. Route 32 and U. S. Route 38, have taken it south of US 30 near Chicago, Illinois, US 40 near Denver, Colorado, US 50 at Ely, US 70 near Los Angeles, due to its north–south alignment in that state.
US 6 does not serve a major transcontinental corridor, unlike other highways. George R. Stewart, author of U. S. 40: Cross Section of the United States of America considered US 6, but realized that "Route 6 runs uncertainly from nowhere to nowhere, scarcely to be followed from one end to the other, except by some devoted eccentric". In the famous "beat" novel On the Road by Jack Kerouac, protagonist Sal Paradise considers hitchhiking on US 6 to Nevada, but is told by a driver that "there's no traffic passes through 6" and that he'd be better off going via Pittsburgh; the modern US 6 in California is a short, two-lane, north–south surface highway from Bishop to the Nevada state line. Prior to a 1964 highway renumbering project, US 6 extended to Long Beach along what is now US 395, California 14, Interstate 5, Interstate 110/California 110, California 1. Despite the renumbering having removed all freeway portions, it is still part of the California Freeway and Expressway System. US 6's former routing included a short segment of the famous Arroyo Seco Parkway.
US 6 begins at US 395 in Bishop and heads north between farms and ranches in the Chalfant Valley at the base of the 14,000-foot western escarpment of the White Mountains. After about 30 miles Benton is reached, which has a gas station. California 120 begins here, heading west past Mono Lake through Lee Vining, over Tioga Pass, through Yosemite National Park to the San Joaquin Valley. US 6 continues north to the Nevada state line. From the California border, US 6 heads northeast through the semidesert Queen Valley with Boundary Peak, Nevada's highest summit, Montgomery Peak in California on the right; these twin peaks are the northmost high summits of the White Mountains, both over 13,000 ft. The highway climbs into the Pinyon-Juniper zone and crosses Montgomery Pass 7,167 ft. From the pass, US 6 descends into barren shadscale desert, passing Columbus Salt Marsh on the left merging with US 95 from Coaldale Junction to Tonopah. Nevada Test and Training Range begins about 15 mi southeast of Tonopah.
Just east of Tonopah, US 6 continues east across a series of desert mountain ranges and valleys, including the Monitor Range. At Warm Springs, State Route 375 known as the "Extraterrestrial Highway", departs to the southeast and US 6 assumes a northeasterly alignment across the Reveille, Pancake and White Pine Ranges. Rainfall increases eastward, so valleys become less barren and peaks over 11,500 ft add scenic interest. Ely is the largest city on Route 6 in Nevada. US 50 joins Route 6 at Ely. East of Ely, Routes 6/50 cross the Schell Creek Range, known for verdant forests and meadows, for a large deer and elk population; the highway descends to Spring Valley crosses the Snake Range at Sacramento Pass, north of Nevada's second-highest mountain, Wheeler Peak, where a branch road accesses Great Basin National Park. Beyond the pass, US 6 passes just north of Baker, a Mormon farming community, reaches the Utah state line. US 6 enters and leaves Utah concurrent with US 50. However, the two routes are different through the state.
US 50 is the shorter route. US 6 is the former route of US 50. US 6 forms an arch-shaped route with Spanish Fork at the apex. US 6 is now concurrent with Interstate 70 for a significant portion of its length from the Utah state line to Denver. Within the city limits, US 6 follows Denver's 6th Avenue; the highway travels north and it follows Interstate 76 for most of its length east of Denver. It is unsigned; the highest altitude along US 6 is 11,990 feet at Loveland Pass, where it crosses the Continental Divide. It continues down Clear Creek Valley until it reaches I-70, where it is overlapped until I-70 leaves Clear Creek Valley. US 6 continues into Denver, where it turns into a freeway with six lanes. East of Denver, it continues east while joined with I-76 until it reaches Sterling, where it diverges from the interstate; the last town in Colorado that it passes is Holyoke. From the Colorado state line, US 6 starts going southeast; the first town it goes into is Imperial. US 6 conjoins with US 34 near Culbertson.
US 6 moves to the northeast, through Hastings. At Hastings, US 34 moves north. US 6 parallels Interstate 80 north of Milford. At Lincoln, US 6 becomes West "O" Street Cornhusker Highway and moves north of I-80 outside of the city, paralleling I-80 to Gretna. There US 6 moves due north an
The Italians are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula and its neighbouring insular territories. Most Italians share a common culture, ancestry or language. All Italian nationals are citizens of the Italian Republic, regardless of ancestry or nation of residence and may be distinguished from people of Italian descent without Italian citizenship and from ethnic Italians living in territories adjacent to the Italian Peninsula without Italian citizenship; the majority of Italian nationals are speakers of a regional variety thereof. However, many of them speak another regional or minority language native to Italy. In 2017, in addition to about 55 million Italians in Italy, Italian-speaking autonomous groups are found in neighbouring nations: a quarter million are in Switzerland, a large population is in France, the entire population of San Marino, there are smaller groups in Slovenia and Croatia in Istria and Dalmatia; because of the wide-ranging diaspora, about 5 million Italian citizens and nearly 80 million people of full or partial Italian ancestry live outside their own homeland, which include the 62.5% of Argentina's population, 1/3 of Uruguayans, 40% of Paraguayans, 15% of Brazilians, people in other parts of Europe bordering Italy, the Americas and the Middle East.
Italians have influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and music and technology, cuisine, jurisprudence and business both abroad and worldwide. Furthermore, Italian people are known for their localism, both regionalist and municipalist; the Latin name Italia according to Strabo's Geographica was used by Greeks to indicate the southwestern tip of the Italian peninsula, corresponding to the current region of Calabria, from the strait of Messina to the line connecting the gulf of Salerno and gulf of Taranto. It most originates with Oscan Víteliú, meaning "land of young cattle"; the bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. The name was extended to include all the Italian peninsula south of the Rubicon, still by the end of the 1st century BC, to all of the peninsula and beyond. Latin Italicus as a substantive meaning "a man of Italy" is first recorded in Pliny the Elder, Letters 9.23.
The adjective italianus, from which are derived the Italian name of the Italians is medieval. The Italian peninsula was divided into a multitude of tribal or ethnic territory prior to the Roman conquest of Italy in the 3rd century BC. After a series of wars between Greeks and Etruscans, the Latins, with Rome as their capital, gained the ascendancy by 272 BC, completed the conquest of the Italian peninsula by 218 BC; this period of unification was followed by one of conquest in the Mediterranean, beginning with the First Punic War against Carthage. In the course of the century-long struggle against Carthage, the Romans conquered Sicily and Corsica. In 146 BC, at the conclusion of the Third Punic War, with Carthage destroyed and its inhabitants enslaved, Rome became the dominant power in the Mediterranean; the process of Italian unification, the associated Romanization, culminated in 88 BC, when, in the aftermath of the Social War, Rome granted its Italian allies full rights in Roman society, extending Roman citizenship to all Italic peoples.
From its inception, Rome was a republican city-state, but four famous civil conflicts destroyed the republic: Lucius Cornelius Sulla against Gaius Marius and his son, Julius Caesar against Pompey, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus against Mark Antony and Octavian, Mark Antony against Octavian. Octavian, the final victor, was accorded the title of Augustus by the Senate and thereby became the first Roman emperor. Augustus created for the first time an administrative region called Italia with inhabitants called "Italicus populus", stretching from the Alps to Sicily: for this reason historians like Emilio Gentile called him Father of Italians. In the 1st century BC, Italia was still a collection of territories with different political statuses; some cities, called municipia, had some independence from Rome, while others, the coloniae, were founded by the Romans themselves. Around 7 BC, Augustus divided Italy into eleven regiones. During the Crisis of the Third Century the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasions, military anarchy and civil wars, hyperinflation.
In 284, emperor Diocletian restored political stability. The importance of Rome declined; the seats of the Caesars were Augusta Treverorum for Constantius Chlorus and Sirmium (on the Riv