Derby Museum and Art Gallery
Derby Museum and Art Gallery was established in 1879 in Derby, along with Derby Central Library, in a new building designed by Richard Knill Freeman and given to Derby by Michael Thomas Bass. The collection includes a gallery displaying many paintings by Joseph Wright of Derby. Further displays include archaeology, natural history, military collections and world cultures; the Art Gallery was opened in 1882. The museum can trace its start to the formation of the Derby Town and County Museum and Natural History Society on 10 February 1836; the society was housed by Full Street Public Baths but it was a private society funded by its members' subscriptions. Its collections were created by donations from Dr Forrester, a President of Derby Philosophical Society; the patron of the Museum Society was William Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire, the President was Sir George Crewe, a keen naturalist. Col. George Gawler contributed a collection of minerals and exotic stuffed birds which included an albatross from his time as governor in South Australia.
In 1839 a major exhibition was held at the Mechanics' Institute which contained many items including those from Joseph Strutt's collection. Many of these made their way into Derby Museum's collection; the society moved in 1840 to the Athenaeum in Victoria Street. The society's collections grew in 1856 and they were first offered for incorporation into the town by William Mundy, but the offer was rejected. In 1857, Llewellyn Jewitt became secretary and the museum was opened to the general public on Saturday mornings. In 1858 the Derby Philosophical Society moved to a house on the Wardwick in Derby as it merged with what was called the Derby Town and County Museum and the Natural History Society; this move included the society's library of 4,000 volumes and scientific apparatus and its collection of fossils. In 1863 the botanist Alexander Croall was appointed the first Librarian and Curator and the following year the museum and library were joined together. Croall left in 1875 to become the curator of the Smith Institute in Stirling.
The Derby Town and County Museum was transferred into the ownership of Derby Corporation in 1870, but there were difficulties in finding space to display the collections. After placing all the artefacts into storage for three years, the museum was opened to the public on 28 June 1879; the Art Gallery opened in 1882 and in 1883 the museum had electricity supplied for new lighting. In 1936 the museum was given a substantial collection of paintings by Alfred E. Goodey, collecting art for 50 years. At his death in 1945 he left £13,000 to build an extension to the museum; the extension, which now houses the museum, was completed in 1964. Refurbishment to parts of both the new and old buildings were undertaken in 2010–11. In 2012, over 1,000 items were stolen from 19 June; the museum did not know about the theft until they accessed the facility to remove an item from storage. Stolen items included coins and watches. A man was charged with receiving stolen goods in connection with the theft in January 2013.
Derby was significant in the eighteenth century for its role in the Enlightenment, a period in which science and philosophy challenged the divine right of kings to rule. The enlightenment has many strands, including the philosophical "Scottish enlightenment" centred around the philosopher David Hume, political changes that culminated in the French revolution, but the English Midlands was an area where many key figures of industry and science came together; the Lunar Society included Erasmus Darwin, Matthew Boulton, Joseph Priestley and Josiah Wedgwood with Benjamin Franklin corresponding from America. Erasmus Darwin, grandfather of Charles Darwin, started the Derby Philosophical Society when he moved to Derby in 1783; some of the paintings by Joseph Wright of Derby, which are renowned for their use of light and shade, are of Lunar Society members. The Derby Gallery possesses over 300 sketches and 34 oil paintings by Wright, holds a document collection. One of the paintings is entitled The Alchymist in Search of the Philosopher's Stone and it depicts the discovery of the element phosphorus by German alchemist Hennig Brand in 1669.
A flask into which a large quantity of urine has been boiled down is seen bursting into light as the phosphorus, abundant in urine, ignites spontaneously in air. A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery shows an early mechanism for demonstrating the movement of the planets around the sun, an actual orrery is on display in the centre of the gallery in front of the painting; the Scottish scientist and lecturer James Ferguson undertook a series of lectures in Derby in July 1762. They were based on his book Lectures on Select Subjects in Mechanics, Pneumatics, Optics &c. published in 1760. In order to illustrate his lectures he used various machines and instruments. Wright attended Ferguson’s lecture as tickets for the event were available from John Whitehurst, his close neighbour, the clockmaker and scientist; the artist could have drawn on Whitehurst's practical knowledge to find out more about the orrery and its operation. These factual paintings are considered to have metaphorical meaning too, the bursting into light of the phosphorus in front of a praying figure signifying the problematic transition from faith to scientific understanding and enlightenment, the various expressions on the figures around the bird in the airpump indicating concern over the possible inhumanity of the coming age of science.
These paintings represent a high point in scientific
The Peak District is an upland area in England at the southern end of the Pennines. It is in northern Derbyshire, but includes parts of Cheshire, Greater Manchester, West Yorkshire and South Yorkshire. An area of great diversity, it is split into the Dark Peak, where most of the moorland is found and the geology is gritstone, the limestone area of the White Peak; the Peak District National Park became the first national park in the United Kingdom in 1951. With its proximity to the cities of Manchester, Stoke-on-Trent and Sheffield, access by road and rail, it attracts millions of visitors every year. Inhabited from the Mesolithic era, evidence exits from the Neolithic and Iron Ages. Settled by the Romans and Anglo-Saxons, the area remained agricultural and mining grew in importance in the medieval era. Richard Arkwright built his cotton mills at the start of the Industrial Revolution. Quarrying became important. Tourism grew after the advent of the railways, visitors attracted by the landscape, spa towns at Buxton and Matlock Bath, Castleton's show caves, Bakewell, the national park's only town.
Tourism remains important for its towns and villages and their varied attractions, country houses and heritage sites. Outside the towns, walking on the extensive network of public footpaths, cycle trails, rock climbing and caving are popular pursuits; the Peak District is at the southern end of the Pennines and much of the area is upland above 1,000 feet. Its high point is Kinder Scout at 2,087 ft. Despite its name, the landscape lacks sharp peaks, is characterised by rounded hills, valleys, limestone gorges and gritstone escarpments; the area rural, is surrounded by conurbations and large urban areas including Manchester, Sheffield and Stoke-on-Trent. The national park has a formal boundary, but the wider Peak District is less well defined; the Dark Peak is uninhabited moorland and gritstone escarpments in the north of the Peak District and its eastern and western margins. It encloses the central and southern White Peak, where most settlements and limestone gorges are located. Three of Natural England's National Character Areas include the landscape.
They cover areas inside the national park, with one including the northern and eastern parts of the Dark Peak and another including the White Peak. The western margins of the Dark Peak are in the South West Peak NCA, where farmland and pastured valleys are found as well as gritstone edges and moorland. Outside the park, some of the outer fringes and foothills are considered to be part of the Peak District, including the Churnet and lower Derwent Valleys; the region is surrounded by lowlands with gritstone moorlands of the South Pennines to the north. The national park covers 555 square miles, including most of the region in Derbyshire and extends into Staffordshire, Greater Manchester and South and West Yorkshire; the park's northern limits are on the A62 road between Huddersfield and Oldham, its southernmost point is on the A52 road near Ashbourne. The park boundaries were drawn to exclude industrial areas. Bakewell and many villages are in the national park; as of 2010, it is the fifth largest national park in Wales.
In the UK, designation as a national park means that planning and other functions are provided by a national park authority with additional planning restrictions that provide enhanced protection against inappropriate development. Land within this national park as in other UK parks is in a mix of private ownership; the National Trust, a charity that conserves historic and natural landscapes, owns about 12% of the land in the national park. Its three estates include ecologically or geologically significant areas at Bleaklow, Derwent Edge, Hope Woodlands, Kinder Scout, the Manifold valley, Mam Tor, Dovedale and Winnats Pass; the park authority owns around 5%, other major landowners include several water companies. Bakewell is the largest settlement and only town in the national park. Castleton is the centre of production of the semi-precious mineral Blue John while the village of Eyam is known for its self-imposed quarantine during the Black Death. Edale is the southern terminus of the Pennine Way, is sometimes considered to be the southern end of the Pennines.
Other villages within the park include Flash, Hartington and Tideswell. The towns of Glossop, Chapel-en-le-Frith, Macclesfield, Ashbourne and Chesterfield are on the fringes of the national park; the spa town of Buxton was developed by the Dukes of Devonshire as a genteel health resort in the 18th century while the spa at Matlock Bath in the valley of the River Derwent was popularised in the Victorian era. Hayfield is at the foot of the highest summit in the area. Other towns and villages fringing the park include Whaley Bridge, Marsden, Stocksbridge, Darley Dale and Wirksworth. Several rivers have their sources on the moorland plateaux of the Dark Peak and the high ridges of the White Peak. Many rivers in the Dark Peak and outer fringes were dammed to create reservoirs for supplying drinking water. Streams were dammed to provide headwater for water driven mills; the reservoirs of the Longdendale Chain were completed in February 1877 to provide compensation water, ensuring a continuous flow along the River Ether
Duffield Castle, Derbyshire
Duffield Castle was a Norman Castle in Duffield, Derbyshire. The site is a Scheduled Ancient Monument, it was on a rocky promontory facing the river defended, though it is debatable whether it was inhabited in prehistoric times. It is controversial whether the Romans maintained a military presence to protect the ford, across which the convoys of lead from Lutudarum joined Rykneld Street at Derventio, en route for the North Sea ports. However, remains that appear to be of Anglo-Saxon origin have been found, suggesting occupation by persons of some position a Saxon Thane of the name of Siward, or his relatives. Considerable amounts of Roman or Romano-British pottery have been found, including roof tiles of Roman pattern; some of the artefacts that were discovered were lodged with the Derby Museum, while others were kept in the Parish Room. What is known, however, is that in or around 1066 Henry de Ferrers, having rendered great service to King William, was granted estates in Derbyshire, which became known as Duffield Frith.
This extended between Heage and Shottle on the North, Tutbury on the South. He built Tutbury Castle, made it his chief seat, his third son, distinguished himself in the Battle of the Standard against the Scots in 1138 and was made the Earl of Derby. His great grandson, who succeeded to the position in 1162 joined the King's sons in a rebellion against their father, Henry II, in 1173 both castles were destroyed. Following him was his second, William, a favourite of King John who restored his earldom along with the manors of Wirksworth and Horston Castle. At some time, the castles at Tutbury and Duffield were rebuilt, this time of stone; the next William enjoyed many Royal favours. The next Earl, the seventh generation, rebelled against Henry III and Tutbury Castle was destroyed. Although pardoned, Robert rebelled again and being defeated in battle at Chesterfield was dispossessed in 1269 and Duffield Castle was destroyed, his lands were given to Prince Edmund, shortly afterwards created Earl of Lancaster.
The castle was razed to the ground, much of the stone being scavenged for other buildings, became overgrown. Memories of a castle persisted, preserved in the name of "Castle Orchard", which extended from the present cottages of that name at the base of the castle mound, to the Hazlewood Road; the site was rediscovered in 1885. Duffield Castle occupied over an estimated 5 acres of land and had a massive keep; the was constructed from stone. In 1924, a H. Walton stated that there was a series of stairways and entrances on the west side that lead to the first floor; the first floor was believed to contain some private inner rooms. Furthermore, H. Walton believed that the second floor contained domestic and small apartments, private retirement rooms and a chapel; when the site was excavated, the foundations of a traditional Norman motte and bailey castle were discovered, with a stone keep built upon it. What was remarkable was the size of the latter, about 98 feet in length and 95 feet in breadth, only smaller than the White Tower in London.
The grounds were preserved, with the foundations marked out, donated to the National Trust, in 1899, one of its earliest archaeological monuments. For many years, upkeep was carried out by the Parish Council, but has been taken back by the Trust. Although further investigations were carried out in the 1930s and in 1957, few medieval remains were found, but the idea that the site had been occupied before the arrival of the Normans was confirmed by a number of Romano‑British finds. A geophysical investigation of the site was carried out by the University of Bradford in 2001 and this revealed traces of other structures to the south and the southeast which would appear to date from the same period; the Trust is considering raising the necessary funds to carry out further investigations. As a postscript, the de Ferrers family in Normandy presided over an important centre for iron manufacture, it has been suggested. William Bland. "Duffield Castle". Retrieved 2010-05-26. - History of the de Ferrers family Maps of present day Duffield and the castle's location
Mam Tor is a 517 m hill near Castleton in the High Peak of Derbyshire, England. Its name means "mother hill", so called because frequent landslips on its eastern face have resulted in a multitude of "mini-hills" beneath it; these landslips, which are caused by unstable lower layers of shale give the hill its alternative name of Shivering Mountain. In 1979, the continual battle to maintain the A625 road on the crumbling eastern side of the hill was lost when the road closed as a through-route, with the Fox House to Castleton section of the road being re-designated as the A6187; the hill is crowned by a late Bronze Age and early Iron Age univallate hill fort, two Bronze Age bowl barrows. At the base of the Tor and nearby are four show caves: Blue John Cavern, Speedwell Cavern, Peak Cavern and Treak Cliff Cavern where lead, Blue John and other minerals were once mined. Simon Jenkins rates the panorama from Kinder Scout to Stanage Edge as one of the top ten in England. Mam Tor is on the southern edge of the Dark Peak and overlooks the White Peak, including the notable dry gorge of Winnats Pass.
It is a dominating link between the eastern end of Rushup Edge and the western end of the Great Ridge, which together separate the Hope Valley to the south from Edale to the north, is a popular ridgewalk. Mam Tor is made of rocks of Carboniferous age 320 million years old; the base of Mam Tor is composed of black shales of the Bowland Shale Formation of Serpukhovian age overlain by turbiditic sandstone of the Mam Tor Sandstone Formation of Bashkirian age. The most notable feature of Mam Tor is the active landslide which invades its southeast side to the summit, interrupts the ramparts of the hillfort, unless its builders used it as part of the defences; this rotational landslide began 4,000 years ago. The toe is a debris flow; the landslide is due to weak shales underlying sandstones, a common phenomenon all around the Dark Peak, notably at Alport Castles, Longdendale and Canyards Hills, Sheffield. Indeed, three larger landslides occur on the north side of Mam Tor, one of them cutting the main ridge at Mam Nick which allows a minor road over into Edale.
Evidence for the continued movement of the slide mass is demonstrated graphically by the severe damage to the old Mam Tor road that traversed this flow. The road was built at the beginning of the 1800s and was subsequently relaid until local authorities closed it in 1979. Layers of tarmac and gravel are up to 2 metres thick in places, demonstrating the numerous efforts to keep the road open. A short tunnel could have been made avoiding the landslip zone, but the opportunity to exclude heavy business and lorry traffic from the middle of the National Park was preferred. A local diversion for light vehicles follows the limestone gorge of Winnats Pass; this is one of the most extreme cases of geological problems affecting main transport systems in Britain, comparable with the railway at Dawlish. Current mean; the debris flow poses no threat to any inhabited buildings. The 2000 study suggests that deep drainage may be the most effective means of stabilising the flow, though this may not stop movement.
The summit of Mam Tor is encircled by early Iron Age univallate hill fort. Radiocarbon analysis suggests occupation from around 1200 BC; the earliest remaining features are two Bronze Age burial mounds, one just below the summit and the other on the summit itself, though now buried under the paving. At a stage over a hundred small platforms were levelled into the hill near the summit, allowing inhabited timber huts to be constructed; the hill fort and burial mounds are a Scheduled Ancient Monument. Breast-shaped hill List of hill forts in England Moel Famau Shining Tor Coombs, D. G.. H. "Excavation of the hillfort of Mam Tor, Derbyshire", Derbyshire Archaeological Journal, 99: 7–51 Mam Tor Landslide British Geological Survey Walk up Mam Tor Description of the walk up from Castleton
The Longdendale Chain is a sequence of six reservoirs on the River Etherow in the Longdendale Valley, in northern Derbyshire. They were constructed between 1848 and 1884 to a design by John Frederick Bateman to supply the growing population of Manchester and Salford with fresh water; the top three reservoirs and Arnfield are for drinking water, the lower reservoirs are used as compensation reservoirs to maintain the downstream flow of the river. There was a seventh – Hollingworth Reservoir –, abandoned in 1990, has become part of the Swallows Wood nature reserve. Water flowed by gravity through the Mottram Tunnel to the Godley covered reservoir where it drops to the service reservoirs at Denton, Audenshaw and Prestwich; the reservoirs are listed from upstream to downstream i.e. from east to west: Woodhead Reservoir Torside Reservoir Rhodeswood Reservoir Valehouse Reservoir Bottoms Reservoir Arnfield Reservoir List of dams and reservoirs in United Kingdom Quayle, Tom. Manchester's water: the reservoirs in the hills.
Stroud: Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-3198-6. Mansergh, James; the Thirlmere water scheme of the Manchester Corporation: with a few remarks on the Longdendale Works, water-supply generally. London: Spon. - popularising lecture, with copious plans & elevations
Church of St Mary and All Saints, Chesterfield
Chesterfield Parish Church is an Anglican church dedicated to Saint Mary and All Saints, located in the town of Chesterfield in Derbyshire, England. Predominantly dating back to the 14th century, the church is a Grade I listed building and is most known for its twisted and leaning spire, an architectural phenomenon which has led to the church being given the common byname of the Crooked Spire; the largest church in Derbyshire, it lies within the Diocese of Derby, in which it forms part of the Archdeaconry of Chesterfield. The church is medieval with Early English, Decorated Gothic and Perpendicular Gothic features built of ashlar, it comprises a nave, aisles and south transepts and the chancel, surrounded by four guild chapels. The north transept was rebuilt in 1769 and George Gilbert Scott carried out a restoration in 1843, when a new ceiling was installed and a new east window inserted with stained glass by William Wailes of Newcastle. A new font was donated by Samuel Johnson of Somersal Hall.
The church reopened on 9 May 1843. On 11 March 1861 the church spire was struck by lightning, which snapped the gas lighting pipes in the tower, starting a fire in a beam next to the wooden roof of the chancel; the fire smouldered for three and a half hours until it was discovered by the Sexton on his nightly round to ring the midnight bell. A further restoration was begun in 1896 by Temple Lushington Moore. Moore designed the High Altar reredos, installed in 1898. A fire on 22 December 1961 destroyed many of the interior fittings, including the Snetzler organ. Surviving elements include the south transept screen from c. 1500, the Norman font and a Jacobean pulpit. The spire was added in the 14th-century tower in about 1362.it is 228 feet high. It is both twisted and leaning, twisting 45 degrees and leaning 9 ft 6 in from its true centre; the leaning characteristic was suspected to be the result of the absence of skilled craftsmen, insufficient cross bracing, the use of unseasoned timber. It is now believed.
The lead causes this twisting phenomenon, because when the sun shines during the day the south side of the tower heats up, causing the lead there to expand at a greater rate than that of the north side of the tower, resulting in unequal expansion and contraction. This was compounded by the weight of the lead which the spire's bracing was not designed to bear, it was common practice to use unseasoned timber at the time the spire was built as when the wood was seasoned it was too hard to work with, so as unseasoned wood was used they would have made adjustments as it was seasoning in place. In common folklore, there are numerous explanations as to. One well-established legend goes that a virgin once married in the church, the church was so surprised that the spire turned around to look at the bride, continues that if another virgin marries in the church, the spire will return to true again. Several local legends hold. In one tale, a Bolsover blacksmith mis-shod the Devil, who leapt over the spire in pain, knocking it out of shape.
A similar story has the Devil causing mischief in Chesterfield, seating himself on the spire and wrapping his tail around it. The people of the town rang the church bells and the Devil, frightened by the clamour, tried to jump away with his tail still wound about the spire, causing it to twist. A similar tale argues that the Devil was flying from Nottingham to Sheffield and stopped on top of the spire, he did a violent sneeze that caused the spire to twist. The tower upon which the spire sits contains ten bells; these bells were cast in 1947 by the Whitechapel Bell Foundry in London. The heaviest weighs 1,270 kg; the place in which the bells are situated once held the builders' windlass, one of the few examples of a medieval crane in existence and is the only example of one that has survived from a parish church. The windlass is now on display at Art Gallery, it is this twisted spire that gives the town's football club, Chesterfield F. C. their nickname,'the Spireites'. A depiction of the spire features on the club's crest.
The spire is open to the public most Saturdays in the winter, most days in the summer and can be climbed partway up. The views from the top of the tower on a clear day stretch for miles; the spire, used as a symbol of Chesterfield, can be seen from the surrounding hill poking out of a sea of mist, on a winter morning. The vast majority of the original John Snetzler organ was destroyed by fire in 1961, it was replaced in 1963 by a redundant T. C. Lewis organ from Glasgow; this is a large four-manual pipe organ with 65 stops. A specification of the organ can be found on the National Pipe Organ Register. Media related to Church of St Mary and All Saints, Chesterfield at Wikimedia Commons Parish Church of St Mary and All Saints Derbyshire churches — Church of Our Lady and All Saints at Chesterfield
Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. A substantial portion of the Peak District National Park lies within Derbyshire, containing the southern extremity of the Pennine range of hills which extend into the north of the county; the county contains part of the National Forest, borders on Greater Manchester to the northwest, West Yorkshire to the north, South Yorkshire to the northeast, Nottinghamshire to the east, Leicestershire to the southeast, Staffordshire to the west and southwest and Cheshire to the west. Kinder Scout, at 636 metres, is the highest point in the county, whilst Trent Meadows, where the River Trent leaves Derbyshire, is its lowest point at 27 metres.:1 The River Derwent is the county's longest river at 66 miles, runs north to south through the county. In 2003 the Ordnance Survey placed Church Flatts Farm at Coton in the Elms as the furthest point from the sea in Great Britain; the city of Derby is a unitary authority area, but remains part of the ceremonial county of Derbyshire.
The non-metropolitan county contains 30 towns with between 100,000 inhabitants. There is a large amount of sparsely populated agricultural upland: 75% of the population live in 25% of the area; the area, now Derbyshire was first visited briefly, by humans 200,000 years ago during the Aveley interglacial as evidenced by a Middle Paleolithic Acheulean hand axe found near Hopton. Further occupation came with the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age when Mesolithic hunter gatherers roamed the hilly tundra. Evidence of these nomadic tribes has been found in limestone caves located on the Nottinghamshire border. Deposits left in the caves date the occupancy at around 12,000 to 7,000 BCE. Burial mounds of Neolithic settlers are situated throughout the county; these chambered tombs were designed for collective burial and are located in the central Derbyshire region. There are tombs at Minninglow and Five Wells that date back to between 2000 and 2500 BCE. Three miles west of Youlgreave lies the Neolithic henge monument of Arbor Low, dated to 2500 BCE.
It is not until the Bronze Age that real signs of agriculture and settlement are found in the county. In the moors of the Peak District signs of clearance, arable fields and hut circles were discovered after archaeological investigation; however this area and another settlement at Swarkestone are all. During the Roman invasion the invaders were attracted to Derbyshire because of the lead ore in the limestone hills of the area, they settled throughout the county with forts built near Glossop. They settled around Buxton, famed for its warm springs, set up a fort near modern-day Derby in an area now known as Little Chester. Several kings of Mercia are buried in the Repton area. Following the Norman Conquest, much of the county was subject to the forest laws. To the northwest was the Forest of High Peak under the custodianship of William Peverel and his descendants; the rest of the county was bestowed upon a part of it becoming Duffield Frith. In time the whole area was given to the Duchy of Lancaster.
Meanwhile, the Forest of East Derbyshire covered the whole county to the east of the River Derwent from the reign of Henry II to that of Edward I. Most of Derbyshire consists of rolling hills and uplands, with the southern Pennines extending from the north of Derby throughout the Peak District and into the north of the county, reaching a high point at Kinder Scout; the south and east of the county are lower around the valley of the River Trent, the Coal Measures, the areas of clay and sandstones between the Peak District and the south west of the county. The main rivers in the county are the River Derwent and the River Dove which both join the River Trent in the south; the River Derwent rises in the moorland of Bleaklow and flows throughout the Peak District and county for the majority of its course, while the River Dove rises in Axe Edge Moor and forms a boundary between Derbyshire and Staffordshire for most of its length. The varied landscapes within Derbyshire have been formed as a consequence of the underlying geology, but by the way the land has been managed and shaped by human activity.
The county contains 11 discrete landscape types, known as National Character Areas, which have been described in detail by Natural England and further refined and described by Derbyshire County Council and the Peak District National Park. The 11 National Character Areas found within Derbyshire are: Dark Peak White Peak South West Peak Derbyshire Peak Fringe & Lower Derwent Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire & Yorkshire Coalfield Southern Magnesian Limestone Needwood & South Derbyshire Claylands Trent Valley Washlands Melbourne Parklands Leicestershire & South Derbyshire Coalfield Mease/Sence Lowlands From a geological perspective, Derbyshire's solid geology can be split into two different halves; the oldest rocks occur in the northern, more upland half of the county, are of Carboniferous age, comprising limestones, gritstones and shales. In its north-east corner to the east of Bolsover there are Magnesian Limestone rocks of Permian age. In contrast, the southern and more lowland half of Derbyshire contains much softer rocks mudstones and sandstones of Permo-Triassic age, which create gentler, more rolling landscapes with few rock outcrops.
Across both regions can be found drift deposits of Quaternary age – terrace and river gravel deposits and boulder clays. Landslip features are found on unstable layers of sandstones and shales, with Mam Tor and Alport Castles being the most well-known. Cemented screes and tufa deposits occur rarely in the limestone dales and