This is Orson Welles
This is Orson Welles is a 1992 book by Orson Welles and Peter Bogdanovich that comprises conversations between the two filmmakers recorded over several years, beginning in 1969. The wide-ranging volume encompasses Welless life and his own stage, the interview book was transcribed by Bogdanovich after Welless death, at the request of Welless longtime companion and professional collaborator, Oja Kodar. Welles considered the book his autobiography, the memo was used to create a directors cut of the film released in 1998. The 1992 audiobook version of This is Orson Welles was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word or Non-Musical Album, in 1961 Peter Bogdanovich organized a retrospective of Orson Welless films, the first in the United States, for the Museum of Modern Art. Welles was not able to attend — he was in Europe, preparing a film —, in 1968 Welles phoned Bogdanovich to invite him for coffee at the Beverly Hills Hotel. Over the space of two hours the two found themselves completely at ease with each other.
Isnt it too bad, Welles said, that you cant do a little book like this about me. They decided to do a book of interviews together, of course it was Welles who suggested the shape of the book, as we called it — we never did arrive at a title we both liked, Bogdanovich wrote. Recorded at intervals in the United States and Europe, Welles felt they should be more loosely organized, like their conversations. Bogdanovich transcribed the tapes, organized the interviews into a chapter. Months later, Bogdanovich would get the back from Welles, revised. Some chapters were revised two or three times in this manner, in 1974, Orson Welles cast Bogdanovich in the role of Brooks Otterlake, a successful director, in the unreleased film The Other Side of the Wind. Welles filmed partly in Bogdanovichs Bel Air home, where Welles and actress Oja Kodar lived off, work on the book continued intermittently through 1975, in the 1970s the two directors drifted apart a bit, Bogdanovich wrote. For a time, the book was put on hold by Welles when he received an offer of $250,000 to write his memoirs.
He had no choice but to agree, Bogdanovich wrote, Bogdanovich wrote, the book was literally lost for five years, Orson never did write his memoirs. Eventually, when he asked what had become of our book, during one phone conversation he had said he hoped I wouldnt just publish the book after he was dead — implying that I knew where it was and was just hanging on to it. Orson called me as soon as he got it —he was very touched, he said and he went on to explain that there wasnt much he could leave to Oja, and if anything happened to him, he was planning to will the book to her. After Welles died in October 1985, Oja Kodar asked Bogdanovich to help prepare the book for publication and he transcribed the materials, resulting in 1,400 pages that were edited by Jonathan Rosenbaum into the 300 pages of interviews in the book
Arthur Evelyn St. John Waugh was an English writer of novels and travel books. He was a prolific journalist and reviewer of books and his most famous works include the early satires Decline and Fall and A Handful of Dust, the novel Brideshead Revisited and the Second World War trilogy Sword of Honour. Waugh is recognised as one of the great prose stylists of the English language in the 20th century, the son of a publisher, Waugh was educated at Lancing College and at Hertford College and briefly worked as a schoolmaster before he became a full-time writer. As a young man, he acquired many fashionable and aristocratic friends, in the 1930s, he travelled extensively, often as a special newspaper correspondent in which capacity he reported from Abyssinia at the time of the 1935 Italian invasion. He served in the British armed forces throughout the Second World War, first in the Royal Marines and he was a perceptive writer who used the experiences and the wide range of people he encountered in his works of fiction, generally to humorous effect.
Waughs detachment was such that he fictionalised his own mental breakdown, after the failure of his first marriage, Waugh converted to Catholicism in 1930. That blow to his religious traditionalism, his dislike for the welfare state culture of the world and the decline of his health, darkened his final years. To the public, Waugh displayed a mask of indifference, after his death in 1966, he acquired a following of new readers through the film and television versions of his works, such as the television serial Brideshead Revisited. Arthur Evelyn St. John Waugh was born on 28 October 1903 to Arthur Waugh and Catherine Charlotte Raban, into a family with English, Welsh and Huguenot origins. His grandson Alexander Waugh was a medical practitioner, who bullied his wife and children. The elder of his two sons, born in 1866, was Arthur Waugh, after attending Sherborne School and New College, Arthur Waugh began a career in publishing and as a literary critic. In 1902 he became managing director of Chapman and Hall, publishers of the works of Charles Dickens and he had married Catherine Raban in 1893, their first son Alexander Raban Waugh was born on 8 July 1898.
Alec Waugh became a novelist of note, on 7 January 1904 the boy was christened Arthur Evelyn St John Waugh but was known in the family and in the wider world as Evelyn. In September 1910, Evelyn began as a day pupil at Heath Mount preparatory school, by then, he was a lively boy of many interests, who already had written and completed The Curse of the Horse Race, his first story. Waugh spent six relatively contented years at Heath Mount, on his own assertion he was quite a little boy. Physically pugnacious, Evelyn was inclined to bully weaker boys, among his victims was the future society photographer Cecil Beaton, outside school, he and other neighbourhood children performed plays, usually written by Waugh. Family holidays usually were spent with the Waugh aunts, at Midsomer Norton, in a house lit with oil lamps, during his last year at Heath Mount, Waugh established and edited The Cynic school magazine. The public sensation caused by Alecs novel so offended the school that it impossible for Evelyn to go there
Almira Sessions was an American character actress of stage and television. Born in Washington, D. C. her career took her all the acting mediums of the 20th century, spanning eight decades. She worked into her 80s, finally retiring shortly before her death in 1974 in Los Angeles, Sessions was born into a very well-known family in Washington D. C. on September 16,1888. Her early career was spent performing in cabarets before she moved to New York City, during the 1930s she would appear in many stage productions, including several Broadway productions. While appearing on the stage in New York during the 1930s, while this marked her debut in films, it was not the true beginning to her career in film. Wayward was filmed in New York at the Paramount Publix studios, Sessions would not begin to appear regularly in films until eight years later, in 1940, with her appearance in Norman Taurogs Little Nellie Kelly, starring Judy Garland. Over the course of the remainder of her career, she would make appearances in over 500 films, the 1950s would see Sessions enter the new medium of television.
Beginning with The Adventures of Kit Carson, she had guest appearances in dozens of shows during the decade. Some of the shows she appeared in were, Adventures of Superman, The Adventures of Ozzie & Harriet, Hopalong Cassidy, The Adventures of Rin Tin Tin, sessionss career slowed down in the 1960s, but she continued to appear both in films and on television. Her television credits during the 1960s included, The Donna Reed Show, The Munsters, F Troop, The Andy Griffith Show, while her credits in the 1970s were limited as her career wound down, the films and television shows in which she appeared well known. Her lone film credit was in the horror film Willard, and her television credits included guest appearances on Marcus Welby, M. D. Night Gallery. Sessions died on August 3,1974, in Los Angeles and she is interred in Hollywood Forever Cemetery. Almira Sessions at the Internet Broadway Database Almira Sessions at the Internet Movie Database Almira Sessions at the TCM Movie Database
It's a Wonderful Life
The film is now among the most popular in American cinema and because of numerous television showings in the 1980s has become traditional viewing during the Christmas season. Clarence shows George all the lives he has touched and how different life in his community of Bedford Falls would be had he never been born. Despite initially performing poorly financially because of production costs and stiff competition at the time of its release. Theatrically, the films break-even point was $6.3 million, approximately twice the production cost, an appraisal in 2006 reported, Although it was not the complete box office failure that today everyone believes. Its a Wonderful Life is one of the most acclaimed films ever made, Capra revealed that the film was his personal favorite among those he directed, adding that he screened it for his family every Christmas season. On Christmas Eve 1945, in Bedford Falls, New York, prayers for him reach Heaven, where Clarence Odbody, Angel 2nd Class, is assigned to save George in order to earn his angel wings.
To prepare, Clarence is shown flashbacks of Georges life, the first is in 1919, when 12-year-old George saves his younger brother Harry, who falls through the ice on a frozen pond, from drowning, George loses his hearing in one ear as a result. On Harrys graduation night in 1928, George talks to Mary Hatch and they are interrupted by news of his fathers death. George postpones his plans in order to sort out the family business, Bailey Brothers Building and Loan, a longtime competitor to Henry F. Potter, the local banker. Potter wishes to dissolve the Building and Loan to take over its business, George convinces the board of directors to vote against Potter. They agree, on condition that George runs the business, along with his absent-minded uncle Billy, on their way to their honeymoon, they witness a run on the bank and use their honeymoon savings to lend financial support at the Building and Loan until the bank reopens. Potter, frustrated at losing control of the market, attempts to lure George into becoming his assistant, George is momentarily tempted.
During World War II, George is ineligible for service because of his bad ear, Harry becomes a Navy pilot and shoots down a kamikaze plane that would have bombed an amphibious transport, he is awarded the Medal of Honor. On Christmas Eve morning 1945, the town prepares a welcome for Harry. Uncle Billy goes to Potters bank to deposit $8,000 for the Building, upon seeing the money, Potter realizes the potential scandal could lead to the Building and Loans downfall. Potter hides the money, knowing its loss will cause severe problems for the Building. When Uncle Billy cannot find the money, he and George frantically search for it, when the bank examiner arrives to review their records, George berates his uncle for endangering the Building and Loan, goes home and takes out his frustration on his family. He apologizes to his wife and children, George desperately appeals to Potter for a loan
Janus Films is a film distribution company. Ingmar Bergmans The Seventh Seal was the responsible for the companys initial growth. Janus has a relationship with the Criterion Collection regarding the release of its films on DVD and is still an active theatrical distributor. The companys name and logo come from Janus, the two-faced Roman god, Janus Films was founded in 1956 by Bryant Haliday and Cyrus Harvey, Jr. in the historic Brattle Theater, a Harvard Square landmark in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Prior to the conception of Janus and Harvey began screening foreign and American films at the Brattle and proceeded to regularly fill the 300-seat venue. Having purchased the theater, together with Harvey, converted the Brattle into a movie house for the showing of art films. Perceiving potential in the business and Harvey moved into the New York City market. Janus Films was subsequently launched in March 1956 and the Playhouse was used as the location for exhibiting Janus-distributed films. Janus was acquired by Saul J.
Turell and William J. Becker and Peter Becker, who own The Criterion Collection, are still involved in the business, with Turell serving as company director in 2006. The package was called Essential Art House,50 Years of Janus Films, scott chose the set as his DVD pick when he co-hosted At the Movies with Ebert & Roeper. As part of its 44th Festival in 2006, the New York Film Festival presented a series called 50 Years of Janus Films, in 2009, Janus Films released Revanche, its first first-run theatrical release in 30 years. Then, in 2010, Janus acquired domestic theatrical and home video rights to the Charlie Chaplin library under license from the Chaplin estate, the Criterion division handles the Chaplin library for re-issue on DVD and Blu-ray, in addition to theatrical release. Janus Films Homepage Janus Films, the Face of Art and Foreign Film
In cultures that practice marital monogamy, bigamy is the act of entering into a marriage with one person while still legally married to another. Bigamy is a crime in most western countries, and when it occurs in context often neither the first nor second spouse is aware of the other. In countries that have laws, consent from a prior spouse makes no difference to the legality of the second marriage. In 393, the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius I issued an edict to extend the ban on polygamy to Jewish communities. In 1000, Rabbi Gershom ben Judah ruled polygamy inadmissible within Ashkenazi Jewish communities, as a consequence, nominal Christian male bigamists were subjected to unprecedented harsh punishments, such as execution, galley servitude and prolonged imprisonment. McDougall argues that female bigamists were not as harshly punished due to womens perceived absence of moral agency, in ancient China, bigamy was a punishable offence, however and mistresses were tolerated as long as they were not acquired through an official marriage. A man, at any time, could only be married to one woman.
Issue with the wife enjoyed preference in inheritance and social status, most western countries do not recognize polygamous marriages, and consider bigamy a crime. Several countries prohibit people from living a polygamous lifestyle and this is the case in some states of the United States where the criminalization of a polygamous lifestyle originated as anti-Mormon laws, although they are rarely enforced. In diplomatic law, consular spouses from polygamous countries are exempt from a general prohibition on polygamy in host countries. In some such countries, only one spouse of a polygamous diplomat may be accredited, Illegal under the Criminal Code, sect 290. Up to 2 years of imprisonment, and up to 3 years for bigamy with soldiers, Legal if first wife consents Eritrea, Illegal. All the 27 countries of the European Union, iceland, Illegal according to the Icelandic Act on Marriage No. Up to 7 years of imprisonment, Republic of Ireland, Bigamy is a statutory offence. It is committed by a person who, being married to another person, the offence is created by section 57 of the Offences against the Person Act 1861.
This section replaces section 26 of the Act 10 Geo,4 c.34 for the Republic of Ireland. Iran, Legal with consent of first wife, rarely practiced, Legal only for Muslims but very rarely practiced. Up to ten years of imprisonment for others except in the state of Goa for Hindus due to its own civil code, considered from each tribe, theres legal and another said illegal
Sir Charles Spencer Charlie Chaplin, KBE was an English comic actor and composer who rose to fame during the era of silent film. Chaplin became an icon through his screen persona the Tramp and is considered one of the most important figures in the history of the film industry. His career spanned more than 75 years, from childhood in the Victorian era until a year before his death in 1977, Chaplins childhood in London was one of poverty and hardship. As his father was absent and his mother struggled financially, he was sent to a workhouse twice before the age of nine, when he was 14, his mother was committed to a mental asylum. Chaplin began performing at an age, touring music halls and working as a stage actor. At 19 he was signed to the prestigious Fred Karno company, Chaplin was scouted for the film industry, and began appearing in 1914 for Keystone Studios. He soon developed the Tramp persona and formed a fan base. Chaplin directed his own films from a stage, and continued to hone his craft as he moved to the Essanay, Mutual.
By 1918, he was one of the best known figures in the world, in 1919, Chaplin co-founded the distribution company United Artists, which gave him complete control over his films. His first feature-length was The Kid, followed by A Woman of Paris, The Gold Rush and he refused to move to sound films in the 1930s, instead producing City Lights and Modern Times without dialogue. Chaplin became increasingly political, and his film, The Great Dictator. The 1940s were a decade marked with controversy for Chaplin, and he was accused of communist sympathies, while his involvement in a paternity suit and marriages to much younger women caused scandal. An FBI investigation was opened, and Chaplin was forced to leave the United States and he abandoned the Tramp in his films, which include Monsieur Verdoux, Limelight, A King in New York, and A Countess from Hong Kong. Chaplin wrote, produced, starred in and he was a perfectionist, and his financial independence enabled him to spend years on the development and production of a picture.
His films are characterised by slapstick combined with pathos, typified in the Tramps struggles against adversity, many contain social and political themes, as well as autobiographical elements. In 1972, as part of an appreciation for his work. He continues to be held in regard, with The Gold Rush, City Lights, Modern Times. Charles Spencer Chaplin was born on 16 April 1889 to Hannah Chaplin, there is no official record of his birth, although Chaplin believed he was born at East Street, Walworth, in South London
A Matter of Life and Death (film)
A Matter of Life and Death is a 1946 British fantasy-romance film written and directed by Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger, and set in England during the Second World War. The film stars David Niven, Roger Livesey, Raymond Massey, Kim Hunter, the film was originally released in the United States under the title Stairway to Heaven, which derived from the films most prominent special effect, a broad escalator linking Earth to the afterlife. The decision to film the scenes of the Other World in black and this reversed the effect in The Wizard of Oz. Photographic dissolves between Technicolor Dye-Monochrome and Three-Strip Technicolor are used several times during the film, in 1999, A Matter of Life and Death placed 20th on the British Film Institutes list of Best 100 British films. In 2004, a poll by the magazine Total Film of 25 film critics named A Matter of Life and Death the second greatest British film ever made, behind Get Carter. On 2 May 1945, Squadron leader Peter Carter is a Royal Air Force pilot trying to fly a badly damaged and he has ordered his crew to bail out, without revealing that his own parachute has been shot up.
He manages to contact June, an American radio operator based in England, Peter should have died at that point, but Conductor 71, the guide sent to escort him to the Other World, misses him in the thick fog over the English Channel. The airman wakes up on a beach near Junes base, at first, he assumes he is in the afterlife but, when a de Havilland Mosquito flies low overhead, discovers, to his bewilderment, that he is still alive. Peter meets June cycling back to her quarters after her night shift, Conductor 71 stops time to explain the situation, urging Peter to accept his death and accompany him to the Other World, but Peter demands an appeal. While Conductor 71 consults his superiors, Peter continues to live his life, Conductor 71 returns and informs him that he has been granted his appeal and has three days to prepare his case. He can choose a defence counsel from among all the people who have ever died, Reeves is killed in a motorcycle accident while trying to find the ambulance that is to take Peter to the hospital, which allows him to act as Peters counsel.
The matter comes to a parallel with Peters brain surgery—before a celestial court. The prosecutor is American Abraham Farlan, who hates the British for making him the first casualty of the American Revolutionary War, Reeves challenges the composition of the jury, which is made up of representatives who are prejudiced against the British. In fairness, the jury is replaced by a mixture of modern Americans whose origins are as varied as those they replace. Reeves and Farlan both cite examples from British and world history to support their positions, in the end, Reeves has June take the stand and proves that she genuinely loves Peter by telling her that the only way to save his life is to take his place. She steps onto the stairway to the Other World without hesitation and is carried away, the stairway comes to an abrupt halt and June rushes back to Peters open arms. Nothing is stronger than the law in the universe, but on Earth, the jury rules in Peters favour. The Judge shows Reeves and Farlan the new lifespan granted to the defendant, Reeves calls it very generous, the two engage in supportive banter with one another, and against the stern Chief Recorder, who protests against the breach of law
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
A guillotine is an apparatus designed for efficiently carrying out executions by beheading. The device consists of a tall, upright frame in which a weighted and angled blade is raised to the top, the condemned person is secured with stocks at the bottom of the frame, positioning the neck directly below the blade. The blade is released, to fall swiftly and forcefully decapitating the victim with a single pass so that the head falls into a basket below. The name dates from period, but similar devices had been used elsewhere in Europe over several centuries. The guillotine continued to be used long after the revolution and remained Frances standard method of execution until the abolition of capital punishment in 1981. The last person to be executed in France was Hamida Djandoubi, the use of beheading machines in Europe long predates such use in the French revolution in 1792. An early example of the principle is found in the High History of the Holy Grail, although the device is imaginary, its function is clear.
The text says, Within these three openings are the set for them. And behold what I would do to them if their three heads were therein, even thus will I cut off their heads when they shall set them into those three openings thinking to adore the hallows that are beyond. The Halifax Gibbet was a structure of two wooden uprights, capped by a horizontal beam, of a total height of 4.5 metres. The blade was an axe head weighing 3.5 kg, attached to the bottom of a wooden block that slid up. This device was mounted on a square platform 1.25 metres high. It is not known when the Halifax Gibbet was first used, the first recorded execution in Halifax dates from 1280, the machine remained in use until Oliver Cromwell forbade capital punishment for petty theft. It was used for the last time, for the execution of two criminals on a day, on 30 April 1650. Holinsheds Chronicles of 1577 included a picture of The execution of Murcod Ballagh near to Merton in Ireland 1307 showing a similar execution machine, the Maiden was constructed in 1564 for the Provost and Magistrates of Edinburgh, and was in use from April 1565 to 1710.
One of those executed was James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, in 1581, Schmidt recommended using an angled blade as opposed to a round one. On 10 October 1789, physician Joseph-Ignace Guillotin proposed to the National Assembly that capital punishment always take the form of decapitation by means of a simple mechanism, sensing the growing discontent, Louis XVI banned the use of the breaking wheel. A committee was formed under Antoine Louis, physician to the King, Guillotin was on the committee