Montane ecosystems

Montane ecosystems refers to any ecosystem found in mountains. These ecosystems are affected by climate, which gets colder as elevation increases, they are stratified according to elevation. Dense forests are common at moderate elevations. However, as the elevation increases, the climate becomes harsher, the plant community transitions to grasslands or tundra; as elevation increases, the climate becomes cooler, due to a decrease in atmospheric pressure and the adiabatic cooling of airmasses. The change in climate by moving up 100 meters on a mountain is equivalent to moving 80 kilometers towards the nearest pole; the characteristic flora and fauna in the mountains tend to depend on elevation, because of the change in climate. This dependency causes life zones to form: bands of similar ecosystems at similar altitude. One of the typical life zones on mountains is the montane forest: at moderate elevations, the rainfall and temperate climate encourages dense forests to grow. Holdridge defines the climate of montane forest as having a biotemperature of between 6 and 12 °C, where biotemperature is the mean temperature considering temperatures below 0 °C to be 0 °C.

Above the elevation of the montane forest, the trees thin out in the subalpine zone, become twisted krummholz, fail to grow. Therefore, montane forests contain trees with twisted trunks; this phenomenon is observed due to the increase in the wind strength with the elevation. The elevation where trees fail to grow is called the tree line; the biotemperature of the subalpine zone is between 3 and 6 °C. Above the tree line the ecosystem is called the alpine zone or alpine tundra, dominated by grasses and low-growing shrubs; the biotemperature of the alpine zone is between 1.5 and 3 °C. Many different plant species live in the alpine environment, including perennial grasses, forbs, cushion plants and lichens. Alpine plants must adapt to the harsh conditions of the alpine environment, which include low temperatures, ultraviolet radiation, a short growing season. Alpine plants display adaptations such as rosette structures, waxy surfaces, hairy leaves; because of the common characteristics of these zones, the World Wildlife Fund groups a set of related ecoregions into the "montane grassland and shrubland" biome.

Climates with biotemperatures below 1.5 °C tend to consist purely of ice. Montane forests occur between the subalpine zone; the elevation at which one habitat changes to another varies across the globe by latitude. The upper limit of montane forests, the tree line, is marked by a change to hardier species that occur in less dense stands. For example, in the Sierra Nevada of California, the montane forest has dense stands of lodgepole pine and red fir, while the Sierra Nevada subalpine zone contains sparse stands of whitebark pine; the lower bound of the montane zone may be a "lower timberline" that separates the montane forest from drier steppe or desert region. Montane forests differ from lowland forests in the same area; the climate of montane forests is colder than lowland climate at the same latitude, so the montane forests have species typical of higher-latitude lowland forests. Humans can disturb montane forests through agriculture. On isolated mountains, montane forests surrounded by treeless dry regions are typical "sky island" ecosystems.

Montane forests in temperate climate are one of temperate coniferous forest or temperate broadleaf and mixed forest, forest types that are well known from Europe and central North America. The trees are, however not identical to those found further north: geology and climate causes different related species to occur in montane forests. Montane forests outside Europe tend to be more species-rich, because the major mountain chains of Europe are oriented east-west. Montane forests in temperate climate occur in Europe, in North America, south-western South America, New Zealand and the Himalayas. Montane forests in Mediterranean climate are warm and dry except in winter, when they are wet and mild; these forests are mixed conifer and broadleaf forests, with only a few conifer species. Pine and Juniper are typical trees found in Mediterranean montane forests; the broadleaf trees show more variety and are evergreen, e.g. evergreen Oak. This type of forest is found in the Mediterranean Basin, North Africa and the southwestern US, Iran and Afghanistan.

In the tropics, montane forests can consist of broadleaf forest in addition to coniferous forest. One example of a tropical montane forest is a cloud forest, which gains its moisture from clouds and fog. Cloud forests exhibit an abundance of mosses covering the ground and vegetation, in which case they are referred to as mossy forests. Mossy forests develop on the saddles of mountains, where moisture introduced by settling clouds is more retained. Depending on latitude, the lower limit of montane rainforests on large mountains is between 1,500 and 2,500 metres while the upper limit is from 2,400 to 3,300 metres; the subalpine zone is the biotic zone below the tree line around the world. In tropical regions of Southeast Asia the tree line may be above 4,000 m, whereas in Scotland it may be as low as 450 m. Species that occur in this zone depend on the location of the zone on the Earth, for example, Pinus mugo in Europe, snow gum in Australia, or subalpine larch, mountain hemlock and subal

Chen Yin (6th century)

Chen Yin, courtesy name Chengye, was a crown prince of the Chinese dynasty Chen Dynasty. Chen Yin was the first son of his father Chen Shubao, crown prince under Chen Yin's grandfather Emperor Xuan at the time of Chen Yin's birth. Chen Yin's mother Consort Sun died in childbirth, Chen Shubao's wife Crown Princess Shen Wuhua, mournful of her death, took Chen Yin and raised him as her own son; as Chen Shubao was 20 at the time of Chen Yin's birth—a late age to have a son in those times—Emperor Xuan had Chen Shubao designate Chen Yin as his heir though Chen Yin was not born of Crown Princess Shen, further awarded a bowl of wine to each father in the realm. In 578, he was created the Duke of Yongkang. In 582, Emperor Xuan died, Chen Shubao, after surviving a coup attempt, became emperor, he created Chen Yin crown prince. Chen Shubao selected the daughter of the general Xiao Mohe to be Chen Yin's crown princess. Chen Yin was said to be intelligent and studious, but often making mistakes; when his chief of staff Yuan Xian urged him to change his ways, he would not accept Yuan's suggestion.

Meanwhile, Empress Shen was not favored by Chen Shubao, whose favorite concubines were Consort Zhang Lihua and Consort Kong. As Empress Shen and Chen Yin exchanged messengers, Chen Shubao suspected that Chen Yin despised him for not favoring Empress Shen. Consorts Zhang and Kong, assisted by the high-level official Kong Fan, began to make accusations against Chen Yin before Chen Shubao. In 588, Chen Shubao thus decided to depose Chen Yin and make Consort Zhang's son Chen Yuan the Prince of Shi'an crown prince, despite Yuan's opposition. In summer 588, he deposed Chen Yin and demoted him to the title of Prince of Wuxing, creating Chen Yuan crown prince instead. Chen Shubao considered deposing Empress Shen as well and replacing her with Consort Zhang, but as rival Sui Dynasty captured the Chen capital Jiankang in 589, ending Chen and unifying China, that did not occur. Chen Shubao was taken to the Sui capital Chang'an and treated as an honored guest of Emperor Wen of Sui, Chen Yin followed his father to Chang'an.

He died there. Unlike many of his brothers, there was no record that he served as an official to Sui, so he died early. Book of Chen, vol. 28. History of the Southern Dynasties, vol. 65. Zizhi Tongjian, vols. 175, 176

Kintetsu Nara Station

Kintetsu Nara Station is a railway station on the Nara Line in Nara, operated by the private railway operator Kintetsu Railway. The station is the terminal station on the Nara Line. Kintetsu operates through expresses and limited expresses from Kyoto Station and Ōsaka Namba Station in Osaka. Passengers taking non through trains from Kyoto on the Kyoto Line have to change trains at Yamato-Saidaiji Station to get to Kintetsu Nara; the station consists of four platforms with four tracks on the second basement level. The station opened on 30 April 1914 named Nara Station, it was renamed Daiki Nara Station in August 1928, Kankyu Nara Station on 15 March 1941, Kinki Nippon Nara on 1 June 1944, before becoming Kintetsu Nara Station on 1 March 1970. In 2010, the station was used by an average of 67,761 passengers daily; the station is located next to Nara Park. Outside the station, passengers can connect to buses and taxis. Nara Station on the JR West Lines is located 15 minutes to the southwest. Kintetsu station information