Monte Cassino is a rocky hill about 130 kilometres southeast of Rome, in the Latin Valley, Italy, 2 kilometres to the west of the town of Cassino and 520 m altitude. Site of the Roman town of Casinum, it is best known for its abbey, the first house of the Benedictine Order, having been established by Benedict of Nursia himself around 529, it was for the community of Monte Cassino. The first monastery on Monte Cassino was abandoned. Of the first monastery nothing is known; the second monastery was established by Petronax of Brescia around 718, at the suggestion of Pope Gregory II and with the support of the Lombard Duke Romuald II of Benevento. It was directly subject to the pope and many monasteries in Italy were under its authority. In 883 the monastery was abandoned again; the community of monks resided first at Teano and from 914 at Capua before the monastery was rebuilt in 949. During the period of exile, the Cluniac Reforms were introduced into the community; the 11th and 12th centuries were the abbey's golden age.
It acquired a large secular territory around Monte Cassino, the so-called Terra Sancti Benedicti, which it fortified with castles. It maintained good relations with the Eastern Church receiving patronage from Byzantine emperors, it encouraged fine art and craftsmanship by employing Byzantine and Saracen artisans. In 1057, Pope Victor II recognised the abbot of Monte Cassino as having precedence over all other abbots. Many monks rose to become bishops and cardinals, three popes were drawn from the abbey: Stephen IX, Victor III and Gelasius II. During this period the monastery's chronicle was written by two of its own, Cardinal Leo of Ostia and Peter the Deacon. By the 13th century, the monastery's decline had set in. In 1239, the Emperor Frederick II garrisoned troops in it during his war with the Papacy. In 1322, Pope John XXII elevated the abbey into a bishopric but this was suppressed in 1367; the buildings were destroyed by an earthquake in 1349, in 1369 Pope Urban V demanded a contribution from all Benedictine monasteries to fund the rebuilding.
In 1454 the abbey was placed in commendam and in 1504 was made subject to the Abbey of Santa Giustina in Padua. In 1799, Monte Cassino was sacked again by French troops during the French Revolutionary Wars; the abbey was dissolved by the Italian government in 1866. The building became a national monument with the monks as custodians of its treasures. In 1944 during World War II it was the site of the Battle of Monte Cassino and the building was destroyed by Allied bombing, it was rebuilt after the war. After the reforms of the Second Vatican Council the monastery was one of the few remaining territorial abbeys within the Catholic Church. On 23 October 2014, Pope Francis applied the norms of the motu proprio Ecclesia Catholica of Paul VI to the abbey, removing from its jurisdiction all 53 parishes and reducing its spiritual jurisdiction to the abbey itself—while retaining its status as a territorial abbey; the former territory of the Abbey, except the land on which the abbey church and monastery sit, was transferred to the diocese of Sora-Cassino-Aquino-Pontecorvo.
The history of Monte Cassino is linked to the nearby town of Cassino, first settled in the fifth century B. C. by the Volsci people who held much of central and southern Italy. It was the Volsci; the Volsci in the area were defeated by the Romans in 312 B. C; the Romans built a temple to Apollo at the citadel. Modern excavations have found no remains of the temple, but ruins of an amphitheatre, a theatre, a mausoleum indicate the lasting presence the Romans had there. Generations after the Roman Empire adopted Christianity the town became the seat of a bishopric in the fifth century A. D. Lacking strong defences the area was subject to barbarian attack and became abandoned and neglected with only a few struggling inhabitants holding out. According to Gregory the Great's biography of Benedict, Life of Saint Benedict of Nursia, the monastery was constructed on an older pagan site, a temple of Apollo that crowned the hill; the biography records that the area was still pagan at the time. He reused the temple, dedicating it to Saint Martin, built another chapel on the site of the altar dedicated to Saint John the Baptist.
Pope Gregory I's account of Benedict's seizure of Monte Cassino: "Now the citadel called Casinum is located on the side of a high mountain. The mountain shelters this citadel on a broad bench, it rises three miles above it as if its peak tended toward heaven. There was an ancient temple there in which Apollo used to be worshipped according to the old pagan rite by the foolish local farmers. Around it had grown up a grove dedicated to demon worship, where at that time a wild crowd still devoted themselves to unholy sacrifices; when the man of God arrived, he smashed the idol, overturned the altar and cut down the grove of trees. He built a chapel dedicated to St. Martin in the temple of Apollo and another to St. John where the altar of Apollo had stood, and he summoned the people of the district to the faith by his unceasing preaching." Pope Gregory I's biography of Benedict claims. In one story, Satan invisibly sits on a rock making it too heavy to remove until Benedict drives him off. In another story, Satan taunts Benedict and collapses a wall on a young monk, who is
The 1892–93 FA Cup was the 22nd staging of the world's oldest football cup competition, the Football Association Challenge Cup known as the FA Cup. Wolverhampton Wanderers won the competition, beating Everton 1–0 in the final at Fallowfield Stadium for the only time, with Wembley Stadium still 30 years away from being built. Wolves continued the recent Midlands dominance of the FA Cup, after the success of West Brom, Aston Villa and Nottingham Forest the previous season. Matches were scheduled to be played at the stadium of the team named first on the date specified for each round, always a Saturday; some matches, might be rescheduled for other days if there were clashes with games for other competitions or the weather was inclement. If scores were level after 90 minutes had been played, a replay would take place at the stadium of the second-named team the same week. If the replayed match was drawn further replays would be held. If scores were level after 90 minutes had been played in a replay, a 30-minute period of extra time would be played.
The Final was played on 25 March 1893 at Fallowfield Stadium. The final was contested by Wolverhampton Everton. Wolves won 1-0, with a single goal from Harry Allen. GeneralThe FA Cup Archive at TheFA.com English FA Cup 1892/93 at SoccerbaseSpecific
Brian Worley is an American reality television host, event planner, wedding designer. Worley is the co-owner of Your BASH! Event Production where he has produced numerous events within the entertainment industry. Worley was born in Baton Rouge, Louisiana before he moved to Denver, Colorado at age 2 and Austin, Texas at age 12, where he and his younger sister were raised. While in high school, Worley worked as camp counselor for Lost Creek Country Club. By spring of 1992, Worley had gained work experience from 3 different jobs including a sales associate position with The Gap, a tour guide position with Disney World’s Great Movie Ride, where he played the role of Sleeping Beauty's Prince Phillip and Disney’s character Goofy. Worley graduated cum laude from the University of North Texas with a degree in Radio and Film. Worley launched his first business in fashion with B Worley Designs, a clothing design company that expanded its business to stores throughout Texas. Although thriving as a new clothing company at the time, he pursued his true passion in wedding and event planning.
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