Lexington is a city in Dawson County, United States. The population was 10,230 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Dawson County. Lexington is located on the Platte River, southeast of North Platte, it sits along the route of U. S. Route 30 and the Union Pacific Railroad. In the 1860s it was the location of a stop along the Pony Express. Lexington began as a frontier trading post in 1860; the post was destroyed. Fort Plum Creek was established near its ruins in 1864. Lexington was founded in 1871, it was called Plum Creek. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.51 square miles, of which, 4.50 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. Lexington is the principal city of the Lexington, Nebraska Micropolitan Statistical Area, which consists of Dawson and Gosper counties; as of the census of 2010, there were 10,230 people, 3,180 households, 2,320 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,273.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,403 housing units at an average density of 756.2 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 57.9% White, 6.6% African American, 1.2% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 29.7% from other races, 3.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 60.4% of the population. There were 3,180 households of which 45.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 27.0% were non-families. 22.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.17 and the average family size was 3.70. The median age in the city was 29.4 years. 32.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.7% male and 48.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 10,011 people, 3,095 households, 2,237 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,401.7 people per square mile.
There were 3,322 housing units at an average density of 1,128.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 64.20% White, 0.44% African American, 1.17% Native American, 1.10% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 30.78% from other races, 2.30% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 51.15% of the population. There were 3,095 households out of which 43.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.0% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.7% were non-families. 21.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.14 and the average family size was 3.65. In the city, the population was spread out with 32.6% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 16.1% from 45 to 64, 10.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 108.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.6 males.
As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $38,098, the median income for a family was $43,571. Males had a median income of $25,207 versus $20,857 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,148. About 10.7% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.1% of those under age 18 and 11.5% of those age 65 or over. In 1990, Iowa Beef Packers built a large beef packing plant in Lexington, has over 2700 employees. In 2001, this facility was sold to Tyson; the Heartland Museum of Military Vehicles is located in Lexington adjacent to I-80. The Dawson County Historical Society is a museum with the art pieces made by locals and objects such as cars and household objects from former times that were owned by locals. RadioKRVN and KRVN-FM are in Lexington, owned by the Nebraska Rural Radio Association; the radio network is owned and operated by a cooperative of farmers and ranchers, founded in 1948 and started KRVN in 1951. NewspaperLexington is served by the biweekly Lexington Clipper-Herald.
Bill Barrett - U. S. Congressman Aage Brix - competitor in soccer at the 1924 Olympics Monte Kiffin - football coach Donald Roe Ross - United States federal court judge and mayor of Lexington, Nebraska Wee Willie Smith - football player Mick Tingelhoff - football player John Wightman - lawyer, Nebraska state legislator, mayor of Lexington, Nebraska City of Lexington White Flight in Rural America: The Case Study of Lexington, Nebraska
Tampa Bay Buccaneers
The Tampa Bay Buccaneers are a professional American football franchise based in Tampa, Florida. The Buccaneers compete in the National Football League as a member team of the National Football Conference South division. Along with the Seattle Seahawks, the team joined the NFL in 1976 as an expansion team; the Bucs played their first season in the American Football Conference West division as part of the 1976 expansion plan, whereby each new franchise would play every other franchise over the first two years. After the season, the club switched conferences with the Seahawks and became a member of the NFC Central division. During the 2002 league realignment, the Bucs joined three former NFC West teams to form the NFC South; the club is owned by the Glazer family, plays its home games at Raymond James Stadium in Tampa. The Buccaneers are the first post-merger expansion team to win a division title, win a playoff game, to host and play in a conference championship game, they are the first team since the merger to complete a winning season when starting 10 or more rookies, which happened in the 2010 season.
In 1976 and 1977, the Buccaneers lost their first 26 games. They would not win their first game in franchise history until Week 13, of 14, in 1977. After a brief winning era in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the team suffered through 14 consecutive losing seasons. For a 10-year period, they were consistent playoff contenders and won Super Bowl XXXVII at the end of the 2002 season, but have not yet returned to the Super Bowl; as of the end of 2018 NFL season, the Buccaneers have played 43 seasons and compiled an overall record of 266–424–1, with a regular-season record of 255–404–1 and a playoff record of 6–9. The name "Tampa Bay" is used to describe a geographic metropolitan area which encompasses the cities around the body of water known as Tampa Bay, including Tampa, St. Petersburg, Clearwater and Sarasota. Unlike in the case of Green Bay, there is no municipality known as "Tampa Bay"; the "Tampa Bay" in the names of local professional sports franchises, such as the Buccaneers, Rays and the former Storm and Mutiny, denotes that they represent the entire region, not just Tampa.
The Tampa Bay expansion franchise was awarded to Tom McCloskey, a construction company owner from Philadelphia. McCloskey soon entered a financial dispute with the NFL, so the league found a replacement in Hugh Culverhouse, a wealthy tax attorney from Jacksonville. Culverhouse's handshake deal to purchase the Los Angeles Rams from the estate of Dan Reeves was thwarted by Robert Irsay's purchase of the team, which he traded to Carroll Rosenbloom in exchange for the Baltimore Colts, a complete trade of teams between two owners. Culverhouse filed antitrust lawsuits in which he accused the NFL of conspiracy for preventing his purchase of the Rams, as part of his settlement with the league, he was given priority when the NFL expanded soon thereafter. A name-the-team contest resulted in the nickname "Buccaneers", a reference to José Gaspar, the mythical Florida pirate, the inspiration for Tampa's Gasparilla Pirate Festival; the team name was opposed by St. Petersburg businessmen on the grounds that it emphasized Tampa at the expense of other Bay Area cities, until NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle himself met with them to encourage their support.
Their uniforms and "Bucco Bruce" winking pirate logo were designed by Tampa Tribune artist Lamar Sparkman using colors drawn from the state's four major college teams at the time: orange from the universities of Miami and Florida, red from Florida State and the University of Tampa. They were one of the few teams to wear white home uniforms, forcing opponents to wear their warmer dark uniforms in Tampa's afternoon heat; the team's first home was Tampa Stadium, built in 1967 to attract an NFL franchise and was expanded in 1974 to seat just over 72,500 fans. John McKay, a college coach who had led the University of Southern California Trojans to four national championships in the 1960s and 1970s, was named the Buccaneers' first head coach in early 1976; the Bucs soon traded for Steve Spurrier, who had won a Heisman Trophy at the University of Florida in 1966, to be their starting quarterback for their expansion season. The Buccaneers joined the NFL as members of the AFC West in 1976; the following year, they were moved to the NFC Central, while the other 1976 expansion team, the Seattle Seahawks, switched conferences with Tampa Bay and joined the AFC West.
This realignment was dictated by the league as part of the 1976 expansion plan, so that both teams could play each other twice and every other NFL franchise once during their first two seasons. Instead of a traditional schedule of playing each division opponent twice, the Buccaneers played every conference team once, plus the Seahawks. Tampa Bay did not win their first game until the 13th week of their second season, starting with a record of 0–26; until the Detroit Lions in 2008, the 1976 Bucs were the only Super Bowl-era team to go winless in a whole season. Their losing streak caused them to become the butt of late-night television comedians' jokes, their first win came on the road against the New Orleans Saints. The Saints' head coach, Hank Stram, was fired after losing to the Buccaneers. Tampa Bay needed one more week to get their second victory, a home win over the St. Louis Cardinals in the 1977 season finale; the Cardinals fired their coach, Don Coryell, shortly
Anthony Kevin Dungy is a former professional American football player and coach in the National Football League. Dungy was head coach of the Tampa Bay Buccaneers from 1996 to 2001, head coach of the Indianapolis Colts from 2002 to 2008. Dungy became the first black head coach to win the Super Bowl when his Colts defeated the Chicago Bears in Super Bowl XLI. Dungy set a new NFL record for consecutive playoff appearances by a head coach in 2008 after securing his tenth straight playoff appearance with a win against the Jacksonville Jaguars. Dungy announced his retirement as coach of the Indianapolis Colts on January 12, 2009 following the Colts' loss in the playoffs; the Colts qualified for the playoffs in every season they were coached by Dungy. Since retirement, Dungy has served as an analyst on NBC's Football Night in America, he is the national spokesman for the fatherhood program All Pro Dad. Dungy was elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame on February 6, 2016. Tony Dungy was born in Michigan.
His parents were Wilbur Dungy, a science professor at Jackson College, Cleomae Dungy, who taught Shakespeare at Jackson High School in Michigan. Wilbur served as a pilot during World War II with the famed Tuskegee Airmen. Tony Dungy attended Parkside High School, he played quarterback in college for the University of Minnesota. After college, Dungy went undrafted in 1977 and was signed as a free agent by the Pittsburgh Steelers of the National Football League as a safety, he played as a defensive reserve and special teams player for the Steelers in 1977 and the Super Bowl champion 1978 season, leading the team in interceptions in the latter campaign. In 1979, Dungy was traded to the San Francisco 49ers finished his career a year in the training camp of the New York Giants in 1980. Dungy is the most recent NFL player to throw an interception in the same game. Dungy was the emergency quarterback for the Pittsburgh Steelers in a 1977 game against the Houston Oilers when both Terry Bradshaw and Mike Kruczek went down with injuries on October 9, 1977.
He played safety on defense. Dungy has one Super Bowl title as a player, as he was a member of the Steelers when they won Super Bowl XIII. Following his NFL experience as a player, Dungy was invited to become an assistant coach for his alma mater, the University of Minnesota in 1980. After one season in charge of defensive backs, he was asked to return to the NFL, this time as a coach, he was hired as an assistant by Steelers head coach Chuck Noll, his former head coach from his playing days with the team, in 1981. His work under Noll put Dungy in the Sid Gillman coaching tree. In 1982, he was named defensive backfield coach, was promoted in 1984 to defensive coordinator. Following a 5–11 season in 1988, Steelers owner Dan Rooney forced Noll to make changes to his coaching staff, which included demoting Dungy back to defensive backs coach. Rather than take the demotion, he left the Steelers in 1989 for the same position he was being demoted to, but with the Kansas City Chiefs instead, he took over the defensive coordinator position for the Minnesota Vikings under Dennis Green in 1992.
While at Minnesota, Dungy's defense was ranked first in the NFL. Dungy became an NFL head coach when he was hired by Rich McKay to reform the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, a team well known for its lack of success, on January 22, 1996. Dungy installed his version of the Cover 2 defense with defensive coordinator Monte Kiffin with a few new wrinkles; the result was the now-famous Tampa 2, though Dungy admitted it was based on concepts he had picked up from his days in Pittsburgh. Despite finishing with a 6–10 record in 1996, the Buccaneers finished strong and showed signs of developing into a winning team. After a home win versus the Raiders, the Buccaneers fell to a quick 14–0 hole to the Chargers in San Diego. Instead of folding, the team fought to their first win on the West Coast in 15 years. Many Bucs fans believe that this was where the long-beleaguered franchise turned the corner, it turned out to be the only losing season. In 1997, the Buccaneers started 5–0, their best start since 1979, they finished second in the NFC Central division, Tampa Bay's first winning season since 1982.
In the last game played at Tampa Stadium, the Bucs defeated the Detroit Lions for only their second playoff win in franchise history. They lost the next game to the defending champion Green Bay Packers. While the Bucs missed the playoffs in 1998, they rebounded in 1999 to win their first division title since 1979, only to lose to the St. Louis Rams in the NFC Championship Game, they went on to reach the playoffs again in 2000 and 2001, only to be defeated in the wild card round each time by the Philadelphia Eagles. The Bucs were hobbled by constant changes to the offensive coordinator position. Dungy was fired on January 2002 due to the club's repeated losses in the playoffs. Additionally, owner Malcolm Glazer felt. Dungy thus became the first coach in Bucs history to leave the team with a winning record; the following season, the Buccaneers won Super Bowl XXXVII, their first appearance in the championship game. Though Dungy was fired the prior season and replaced with Jon Gruden, Dungy has been credited for constructing the team.
On January 22, 2002, Dungy was hired as head coach of the Indianapolis Colts, a team that at the time was potent offensively, but weak defensively. He installed his "Tampa 2" defense and continued to retool the Colts' defense to his liking during his tenure. After joining the Colts, Dungy lef
The Jacksonville Jaguars are a professional football franchise based in Jacksonville, Florida. The Jaguars compete in the National Football League as a member club of the American Football Conference South division; the team plays its home games at TIAA Bank Field. The Jaguars and the Carolina Panthers joined the NFL as expansion teams for the 1995 season. Since their inception, the Jaguars have won division championships in 1998 and 1999 and 2017 and have qualified for the playoffs seven times, most in 2017 after a ten-season playoff drought. From their inception until 2011, the Jacksonville Jaguars' majority owner was Wayne Weaver; the team was purchased by Pakistani-born businessman Shahid Khan for an estimated $770 million. In 2015, Forbes estimated the team value at $1.48 billion. In 1989, the prospective ownership group Touchdown Jacksonville! was organized. The group included future Florida Governor Jeb Bush and Jacksonville developer Tom Petway, came to be led by shoe magnate Wayne Weaver, founder of Nine West.
In 1991, the NFL announced plans to add two expansion teams in 1994, its first expansion since the 1976 addition of the Seattle Seahawks and the Tampa Bay Buccaneers. Touchdown Jacksonville! announced its bid for a team, Jacksonville was chosen as one of five finalists, along with Charlotte, St. Louis and Memphis. Jacksonville was considered the least expansion candidate for several reasons; the Jacksonville metropolitan area and television market were smaller than those of nearly every team in the league. Jacksonville was the 54th largest television market, only Green Bay had a smaller TV market Although Jacksonville was the 15th largest city in the nation at the time, it has always been a medium-sized market because the surrounding suburbs and rural areas are far smaller than the city itself. There were 635,000 people in Jacksonville proper according to the 1990 census, but only 900,000 people in the metropolitan area. Additionally, the Gator Bowl was outdated, the ownership group struggled to negotiate a lease with the city.
The troubled negotiations over the Gator Bowl lease led the ownership group to withdraw from the NFL expansion bidding in July 1993. Charlotte was awarded the first franchise – the Carolina Panthers – in October 1993; the naming of the second expansion city was delayed a month. Most pundits speculated. At the time, St. Louis was considered the favorite for the second franchise, with Baltimore's three bids considered strong. However, in a surprising move, the NFL owners voted 26–2 in favor of awarding the 30th franchise to Jacksonville. After the Gator Bowl game on December 31, 1993, the old stadium was demolished and replaced with a reinforced concrete superstructure. All that remained of the old stadium was the west upper concourse and a portion of the ramping system. To accommodate construction, the 1994 and 1995 games of "The World's Largest Outdoor Cocktail Party" were split between the home fields of Florida and Georgia, the 1994 Gator Bowl was played at Ben Hill Griffin Stadium in Gainesville.
In January 1994 Wayne Weaver chose Tom Coughlin as the first-ever head coach of the Jaguars. Coughlin had worked in the NFL as a position coach, but he had been neither a head coach nor a coordinator in the NFL; the Jaguars' hiring of Coughlin contrasted with the hiring moves made by their fellow expansion team. The same month that Weaver hired Coughlin as his head coach, Carolina Panthers owner Jerry Richardson went a more conventional route and hired former Buffalo Bills general manager Bill Polian as the Panthers' first GM; as it emerged that Weaver had no intention of hiring a general manager, it became apparent that Coughlin would have most of the authority regarding hiring decisions. Coughlin spent his year as "head coach without a team" preparing for the personnel moves that would come from the expansion draft, free agency, the rookie draft in the spring of 1995. Along with the Carolina Panthers, the Jacksonville Jaguars entered the NFL as the first expansion teams in 20 years. Both teams participated in the 1995 NFL expansion draft, with the Jaguars taking Steve Beuerlein with the first pick.
Beuerlein lost his starting job to former Green Bay Packers backup Mark Brunell. The Jaguars finished their inaugural season with a record of 4–12. Both the Jaguars and the Panthers broke the previous record for most wins by an expansion team set by the Cincinnati Bengals in 1968; the inaugural season featured many of the players who would lead Jacksonville into the playoffs in the team's next four seasons, including quarterback Mark Brunell, offensive lineman Tony Boselli running back James Stewart, wide receiver Jimmy Smith. The team played its first regular season game at home in front of a crowd of 72,363 on September 3, 1995, a 10–3 loss against the Houston Oilers; the team picked up its first win in Week 4 as the Jaguars defeated the Oilers 17–16 on October 1 in Houston. The next week against the Pittsburgh Steelers, the Jaguars earned their first home win by defeating the eventual AFC Champions 20–16; the team's other two wins came in a season sweep of the Cleveland Browns including a Week 17 24–21 victory sealed by a Mike Hollis 34-yard field goal in the Browns' f
Green Bay Packers
The Green Bay Packers are a professional American football team based in Green Bay, Wisconsin. The Packers compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's National Football Conference North division, it is the third-oldest franchise in the NFL, dating back to 1919, is the only non-profit, community-owned major league professional sports team based in the United States. Home games have been played at Lambeau Field since 1957; the Packers are the last of the "small town teams" which were common in the NFL during the league's early days of the 1920s and'30s. Founded in 1919 by Earl "Curly" Lambeau and George Whitney Calhoun, the franchise traces its lineage to other semi-professional teams in Green Bay dating back to 1896. Between 1919 and 1920, the Packers competed against other semi-pro clubs from around Wisconsin and the Midwest, before joining the American Professional Football Association, the forerunner of today's NFL, in 1921. Although Green Bay is by far the smallest major league professional sports market in North America, Forbes ranked the Packers as the world's 26th most valuable sports franchise in 2016, with a value of $2.35 billion.
The Packers have won 13 league championships, the most in NFL history, with nine pre–Super Bowl NFL titles and four Super Bowl victories. The Packers won the first two Super Bowls in 1967 and 1968 and were the only NFL team to defeat the American Football League prior to the AFL–NFL merger; the Vince Lombardi Trophy is named after the Packers' coach of the same name, who guided them to their first two Super Bowls. Their two subsequent Super Bowl wins came in 1996 and 2010; the Packers are long-standing adversaries of the Chicago Bears, Minnesota Vikings, Detroit Lions, who today comprise the NFL's NFC North division, were members of the NFC Central Division. They have played over 100 games against each of those teams through history, have a winning overall record against all of them, a distinction only shared with the Kansas City Chiefs and Dallas Cowboys; the Bears–Packers rivalry is one of the oldest in NFL history, dating back to 1921. The Green Bay Packers were founded on August 11, 1919 by former high-school football rivals Earl "Curly" Lambeau and George Whitney Calhoun.
Lambeau solicited funds for uniforms from his employer, the Indian Packing Company. He was given $500 for uniforms and equipment, on the condition that the team be named for its sponsor; the Green Bay Packers have played in their original city longer than any other team in the NFL. On August 27, 1921, the Packers were granted a franchise in the new national pro football league, formed the previous year. Financial troubles plagued the team and the franchise was forfeited within the year before Lambeau found new financial backers and regained the franchise the next year; these backers, known as "The Hungry Five", formed the Green Bay Football Corporation. After a near-miss in 1927, Lambeau's squad claimed the Packers' first NFL title in 1929 with an undefeated 12–0–1 campaign, behind a stifling defense which registered eight shutouts. Green Bay would repeat as league champions in 1930 and 1931, bettering teams from New York and throughout the league, with all-time greats and future Hall of Famers Mike Michalske, Johnny McNally, Cal Hubbard and Green Bay native Arnie Herber.
Among the many impressive accomplishments of these years was the Packers' streak of 29 consecutive home games without defeat, an NFL record which still stands. The arrival of end Don Hutson from Alabama in 1935 gave Lambeau and the Packers the most-feared and dynamic offensive weapon in the game. Credited with inventing pass patterns, Hutson would lead the league in receptions eight seasons and spur the Packers to NFL championships in 1936, 1939 and 1944. An iron man, Hutson played both ways, leading the league in interceptions as a safety in 1940. Hutson claimed 18 NFL records. In 1951, his number 14 was the first to be retired by the Packers, he was inducted as a charter member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1963. After Hutson's retirement, Lambeau could not stop the Packers' slide, he purchased a large lodge near Green Bay for team families to live. Rockwood Lodge was the home of the 1946–49 Packers; the 1947 and 1948 seasons produced a record of 12–10–1, 1949 was worse at 3–9. The lodge burned down on January 24, 1950, insurance money paid for many of the Packers' debts.
Curly Lambeau departed after the 1949 season. Gene Ronzani and Lisle Blackbourn could not coach the Packers back to their former magic as a new stadium was unveiled in 1957; the losing would descend to the disastrous 1958 campaign under coach Ray "Scooter" McLean, whose lone 1–10–1 year at the helm is the worst in Packers history. Former New York Giants assistant Vince Lombardi was hired as Packers head coach and general manager on February 2, 1959. Few suspected the hiring represented the beginning of a immediate turnaround. Under Lombardi, the Packers would become the team of the 1960s, winning five World Championships over a seven-year span, including victories in the first two Super Bowls. During the Lombardi era, the stars of the Packers' offense included Bart Starr, Jim Taylor, Carroll Dale, Paul Hornung, Forrest Gregg, Jerry Kramer; the defense included Willie Davis, Henry Jordan, Willie Wood, Ray Nitschke, Dave Robinson, Herb Adderley. The Packers' first regular season game under Lombardi was on September 27, 1959, a 9–6 victory over the Chicago Bears in Green Bay.
After winning their first three, the Packers lost the next five before finishing strong by sweeping their final four. The 7–5 record represented the Packers' first winning season since 1947, enough to earn rookie
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves; the offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, otherwise they turn over the football to the defense. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal; the team with the most points at the end of a game wins. American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football; the first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams and Princeton, under rules based on the association football rules of the time.
During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, the concept of downs; the sport is related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are present in Canadian football. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States; the most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually all of them men, with a few exceptions. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.
In the United States, American Football is called "football". The terms "gridiron" or "American football" are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia. American football evolved from the sports of rugby football. Rugby football, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, 1869, between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams; the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, with the ultimate goal being to advance it into the opponent's goal. Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for several years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school.
Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19, 1873 to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified. Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. After playing McGill University using both Canadian and American rules, the Harvard players preferred the Canadian style having only 11 men on the field, running the ball without having to be chased by an opponent, the forward pass and using an oblong instead of a round ball. An 1875 Harvard–Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes; these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos." Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to intercollegiate play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879.
Yale player Walter Camp, now regarded as the "Father of American Football", secured rule changes in 1880 that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum. The introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt. However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records; each team held the ball. This "block game" proved unpopular with the spectators and fans of both teams. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, a reversion to the scrum was considered. However, Camp proposed a rule in 1882 that limited each team to three downs, or tackles, to adva
Arkansas Razorbacks football
The Arkansas Razorbacks football program represents the University of Arkansas, located in Fayetteville, Arkansas, in the sport of American football. The Razorbacks compete in the Football Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the Western Division of the Southeastern Conference; the program has 1 claimed national championship awarded by the Football Writers Association of America and Helms Athletic Foundation in 1964, 1 unclaimed national championship awarded by the Foundation for the Analysis of Competitions and Tournaments in 1977, 13 conference championships, 45 All-Americans, an all-time record of 701–475–40. The Razorbacks are the 23rd-ranked team in college football history by total number of wins. Home games are played at locations on or near the two largest campuses of the University of Arkansas System: Donald W. Reynolds Razorback Stadium in Fayetteville, War Memorial Stadium in Little Rock; the first University of Arkansas football team was formed in 1894 and coached by John Futrall, a Latin professor at the University.
That team played three games: two against one against Texas. Before the 1909 season, the teams were called the Arkansas Cardinals and a bird was the school's mascot; the name and mascot changed following the 1909 season when the football team, coached by Hugo Bezdek, finished 7–0. The Cardinals became the Razorbacks after Arkansas defeated LSU 7-0 and coach Bezdek told them they were "as tough" as a band of fighting Razorbacks; the Wooo Pig Sooie or calling the Hogs became a tradition and the official school cheer in the 1920s when farmers rushing out to meet the bus returning from an away game called the hogs as a greeting. Arkansas prevailed over powerhouses Oklahoma, LSU and Washington of St. Louis in 1909, was declared unofficial champions of the South and Southwest, it was with the help of Steve Creekmore. Creekmore became the first Razorback star, a quarterback from Van Buren who played only intramurals. Bezdek used Creekmore to install a early edition of the hurry-up offense, as the team never huddled and chased the ball after every play.
Creekmore was known for "fast and slippery running and passing" and could return punts and tackle well. There are differing stories about the origins of the'Razorbacks' mascot, however; the Texarkana Arkansas High School mascot and athletic emblem is the Razorback with red and white serving as the school colors. The Razorback mascot was selected in 1910 to replace the Cardinal as the University of Arkansas mascot. In exchange for its use, the university provided used athletic gear to Texarkana Arkansas High. With the new name and mascot, the Hogs defeated LSU 51–0 and gave Texas A&M their only loss in 1910, but fell short of another perfect season, losing 5–0 to Kansas State. In 1913, Arkansas quarterback J. L. Carter and the Razorbacks lost to Ole Miss, took a fateful train to Arkadelphia to play Ouachita Baptist. While Carter was eating, he was invited to a meeting of Ouachita boosters, he transferred and defeated Arkansas 15–9 in 1914. The Hogs would be contacted by L. Theo Bellmont in 1913 in his attempt to create an intercollegiate conference to regulate use of ringers.
Hugo Bezdek, since replaced by E. T. Pickering, had recommended that the Hogs join a conference before he left to coach at Oregon; the Razorbacks joined the Southwest Conference as charter members in 1915. The conference included teams from Texas and Oklahoma. Southwestern would join, but leave the following year; the 1916, 1917, 1919 teams were led at quarterback by "Arkansas' greatest athlete" Gene Davidson. The Razorbacks didn't have a winning conference record until 1920, didn't win the conference championship until 1936. Arkansas had the best record during the 1933 season, but had to forfeit the SWC Championship because Ulysses "Heine" Schleuter, who had no eligibility remaining, played on the team. Schleuter had told coach Fred Thomsen that he was eligible, but he was recognized by an SMU player during the game as a former Cornhusker; the Hogs did accept an invitation to the 1934 Dixie Classic, a precursor to today's Cotton Bowl Classic. Arkansas became rivals with Ole Miss due to proximity.
Although not SWC members, Ole Miss played Arkansas intermittently until a yearly series began from 1952–1961. During the 1938 season, the Razorbacks replaced their 300-seat stadium known as The Hill with Bailey Stadium, named after Arkansas governor Carl Bailey, it was known as University Stadium for one game before being changed to honor the governor. This stadium still exists today, although renovated, as Donald W. Reynolds Razorback Stadium, the current home of the Razorbacks. Arkansas won the conference championship in 1946, earning a bid in the 1947 Cotton Bowl Classic with LSU; the game would become known as the Ice Bowl. The two rivals battled to a scoreless tie, with Razorback great Clyde Scott tackling an LSU Tiger at the one yard-line to preserve the tie on the second-to-last play of the game. LSU would fail to complete the field goal attempt on the next play; the Razorbacks defeated Mary the next year in the 1948 Dixie Bowl. In 1954, the Ole Miss rivalry would catch fire; the Hogs played the Rebels in War Memorial Stadium on October 23, 1954.
The Rebels were ranked #5 by the AP Poll entering the game, Arkansas was picked to finish last in the SWC. The contest would be decided by a 66-yard halfback pass from tailback Buddy Bob Benson to blocking back Preston Carpenter, the only score of the game; this is re