Memorial Day is a federal holiday in the United States for remembering and honoring persons who have died while serving in the United States Armed Forces. The holiday, observed every year on the last Monday of May, was most held on May 28, 2018. Memorial Day was observed on May 30 from 1868 to 1970. Memorial Day is considered the unofficial start of the summer vacation season in the United States, while Labor Day marks its end on the first Monday of September. In Canada, Victoria Day is a public holiday observed on a Monday one week before Memorial Day and indicates the start of summer. Many people visit cemeteries and memorials on Memorial Day to honor those who died in military service. Many volunteers place an American flag on each grave in national cemeteries. Two other days celebrate those who serve or have served in the U. S. military: Veterans Day, which celebrates the service of all U. S. military veterans. S. remembrance celebrated earlier in May honoring those serving in the U. S. military.
The history of Memorial Day in the United States is so controversial that it constitutes an area of research. At Columbus State University there is a Center for Memorial Day Research. It, together with the University of Mississippi's Center for Civil War Research, are excellent starting points for investigating the topic; the practice of decorating soldiers' graves with flowers is an ancient custom. Soldiers' graves were decorated in the U. S. before and during the American Civil War. Some believe that an annual cemetery decoration practice began before the American Civil War and thus may reflect the real origin of the "memorial day" idea. Annual Decoration Days for particular cemeteries are still held on a Sunday in late spring or early summer in some rural areas of the American South, notably in the mountain areas. In cases involving a family graveyard where remote ancestors, as well as those who died more are buried, this may take on the character of an extended family reunion to which some people travel hundreds of miles.
People gather, put flowers on graves, renew contacts with relatives and others. There is a religious service and a picnic-like "dinner on the grounds", the traditional term for a potluck meal at a church. On June 3, 1861, Virginia, was the location of the first Civil War soldier's grave to be decorated, according to a Richmond Times-Dispatch newspaper article in 1906. In 1862, women in Savannah, Georgia decorated Confederate soldiers' graves according to the Savannah Republican; the 1863 cemetery dedication at Gettysburg, was a ceremony of commemoration at the graves of dead soldiers. Some have therefore claimed. On July 4, 1864, ladies decorated soldiers' graves according to local historians in Boalsburg, yet the principal grave they claim to have decorated was of a man, not dead yet. Nonetheless, Boalsburg promotes itself as the birthplace of Memorial Day. In April 1865, following President Abraham Lincoln's assassination, commemorations were widespread; the more than 600,000 soldiers of both sides who died in the Civil War meant that burial and memorialization took on new cultural significance.
Under the leadership of women during the war, an formal practice of decorating graves had taken shape. In 1865, the federal government began creating national military cemeteries for the Union war dead. On May 1, 1865, in Charleston, South Carolina freed African-Americans held a parade of 10,000 people to honor 257 dead Union Soldiers, whose remains they had reburied from a mass grave in a Confederate prison camp. Historian David W. Blight cites contemporary news reports of this incident in the Charleston Daily Courier and the New-York Tribune. Although Blight claimed that "African Americans invented Memorial Day in Charleston, South Carolina", in 2012, Blight stated that he "has no evidence" that the event in Charleston inspired the establishment of Memorial Day across the country. Accordingly, investigators for Time Magazine, LiveScience, RealClearLife and Snopes have called this conclusion into question. In 1868, copying the Southern annual observance of the previous three years, General John A. Logan of the Grand Army of the Republic, an organization of Union veterans founded in Decatur, established Decoration Day as a time for the nation to decorate the graves of the Union war dead with flowers.
By the 20th century, various Union and Confederate memorial traditions, celebrated on different days and Memorial Day extended to honor all Americans who died while in the military service. On May 26, 1966, President Lyndon B. Johnson designated an "official" birthplace of the holiday by signing the presidential proclamation naming Waterloo, New York, as the holder of the title; this action followed House Concurrent Resolution 587, in which the 89th Congress had recognized that the patriotic tradition of observing Memorial Day had begun one hundred years prior in Waterloo, New York. The village credits druggist Henry C. Welles and county clerk John B. Murray as the founders of the holiday. Scholars have determined. Snopes and Live Science discredit the Waterloo account. On May 5, 1868, General John A. Logan issued a proclamation calling for "Decoration Day" to be observed annually and nationwide. With his proclamation, Logan adopted the Memorial Day practice that had begun in the Southern states three years earlier.
The first Northern Memorial Day was observed on May 30, 1868. One author claims that the date wa
Ford Transit Bus
The Ford Transit Bus was a medium-duty transit bus produced by Ford from 1936 to 1947. The engine was placed at the front, but a rear-engine version replaced the original design in 1939. Ford constructed the chassis, which were fitted with bodies constructed by the Union City Body Company of Union City, Indiana. Canadian versions were built from chassis fabricated in Windsor and bodies produced by Brantford Coach & Body, from 1941 to 1943; the first Transit Bus was a prototype that Ford loaned to Detroit Street Railways, of Detroit, Michigan, in June 1936. After DSR placed an order for 500, Ford began series production, deliveries began on November 27, 1936; the front-engine or forward-control, design used a 157-inch chassis, Ford model 70, had a 141-inch wheelbase. An 85 hp, 221-cubic-inch Ford "flathead" V-8 engine was used. Under a new model-numbering scheme, the 70 chassis was renumbered 81-B in the 1938 model year and 91-B in 1939. Around 1,000 of the original Transit Bus model were built under the standard production arrangement, with bodies built by Union City.
However, some customers preferred to use bodies built by other companies, it is estimated that around 200 buses were built under this arrangement. Speaking, these were not "Transit Buses", but used the same Ford chassis – model 70, 81-B or 91-B, depending on model year – that Ford was using for its Transit Bus model. Of the 1,000–1,200 front-engine Transit Buses built, DSR alone was the purchaser of 750. In early 1939, Ford redesigned the Transit Bus as a rear-engine model, to improve performance through better weight distribution. At the same time, the redesign used a new, larger V-8 engine: 239-cubic-inch model. A prototype bus was built in February 1939, series production began in October 1939; the rear-engine model had a longer wheelbase, 148.5 inches. The standard, two-door version had 27 passenger seats; the bodies continued to be supplied by the Union City Body Company. Other manufacturers were no longer building bodies for Ford Transit Buses by this time, only Union City. 12,500 rear-engine Ford Transits were built during their eight-year production run, from 1939 to 1947.
Along with Detroit, major customers were the Capital Transit Company of Washington D. C.. The Public Service Interstate Transportation Company of New Jersey had the largest fleet, with a total of 586 new and seven secondhand units. After World War II, the Transit Bus was rebranded as the Universal Bus in Ford's marketing, but remained known as the Transit Bus. Postwar demand was high, 4,800 buses were sold during 1946 and 1947. However, production ended in September 1947. Changes in Ford's production and distribution arrangements fostered the designing of a replacement model, designated the 8MB, the prototype chassis for, built in September 1947. List of buses Media related to Ford Transit Bus at Wikimedia Commons Internet Movie Cars Database: 1939 Ford Transit
Metrolink is a commuter rail system in Southern California consisting of seven lines and 62 stations operating on 534 miles of rail network. The system operates in Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, Ventura counties, as well as to Oceanside in San Diego County, it connects with the Los Angeles County Metro Rail and Metro Busway system, the San Diego Coaster commuter rail and Sprinter light rail services, with Amtrak's Pacific Surfliner, Coast Starlight, Southwest Chief, Sunset Limited intercity rail services. The system, founded in 1991 as the Southern California Regional Rail Authority and adopting "Metrolink" as its moniker, started operation in 1992. Average weekday ridership was 39,838 as of 2017. In addition to suburban communities and cities, Metrolink serves several points of interest such as Downtown Los Angeles, Hollywood Burbank Airport, California State University, Los Angeles, Angel Stadium of Anaheim, the San Clemente Pier. Special service has been extended to the Pomona Fairplex, the Ventura County Fairgrounds, the Auto Club Speedway for certain events.
Metrolink's fare structure is based on a flat fee for boarding the train and an additional cost for distance with fares being calculated in 25-cent increments between stations. Metrolink tickets are valid fare for most connecting trains. Fare increases occur annually in July, to coincide with increased fuel and labor expenses, have averaged between 3.5% and 5% per year. The oil price increases since 2003 are to blame for increasing fares, as Metrolink trains are powered by diesel fuel; the member agencies of the SCRRA purchased 175 miles of track, maintenance yards, stations and other property from Southern Pacific for $450 million in 1990. The rights to use Los Angeles Union Station were purchased from Union Pacific, the station's owner at the time, for $17 million in the same year; the Authority was formally founded in 1991. Amtrak began operation of the Ventura, Santa Clarita, San Bernardino lines on October 26, 1992 under contract to the SCRRA. In 1993, service was expanded to include the Orange County Lines.
The Inland Empire-Orange County Line opened in 1995. In 1995, more trains on the Orange County service were funded; the 91 Line opened in 2002. From July 2004, Metrolink fares were changed from zone based to one based on distance. In 2005 a five-year operational contract was awarded to Connex Railroad/Veolia Transport. In 2005, the Orange County Transportation Authority approved a plan to increase frequencies to 76 trains daily on the Orange County and Inland Empire-Orange County Lines by 2009, funding for increased Metrolink service was included in the renewal of the Measure M sales tax for transportation approved by voters in November 2006. A proposed station in Yorba Linda was canceled in 2005 due to local opposition. In July 2008, it was announced. Following the 2008 Chatsworth train collision in which 25 people died and 135 were injured a number of safety measures were taken. In 2010, the first of 117 energy absorbing passenger carriages were received by the operator. Amtrak regained the contract to operate Metrolink beginning in July 2010.
Average weekday ridership for the fourth quarter of 2009 was 38,400. In 2010, to save money in the face of funding cuts, the Metrolink board voted to reduce mid-day service on the Inland Empire–Orange County Line, as well as weekend service on both the Orange County and Inland Empire–Orange County lines. Average weekday ridership was 41,000 during May 2011. A survey found that 90% of users during a typical weekday in 2009 would have driven alone or carpooled and that the system replaced an estimated 25,000 vehicle trips. During a weekend closure of Interstate 405 in July 2011, the system recorded its highest-ever weekend ridership of 20,000 boardings, 50% higher than the same weekend in 2010 and 10% higher than the previous weekend ridership record which occurred during U2 360° Tour in June 2011. Ridership continued to rise in 2012, when average weekday ridership reached 42,265. Although 2013 annual boardings were 12.07 million, ridership dropped to 11.74 million by fall 2014, contrary to projections.
Blaming the decrease on the worst recession since World War II, Metrolink said it found itself caught between cutting service and boosting fares, both of which would further decrease ridership. Metrolink began offering mobile ticketing in early 2016; the Riverside County Transportation Commission extended the 91 Line southeast 24 miles to Perris, using the existing San Jacinto Branch Line, which it purchased in 1993. Initial plans were for construction/renovation of the line to begin in 2012, but these were delayed by a lawsuit filed by homeowners in the affected area, who challenged the RCTC's environmental report; the lawsuit was settled in late July 2013. Construction on the $248.3 million extension began in October 2013. In mid-February 2016, the extension's opening was planned in March of that year; the extension opened in June 2016
A transit bus is a type of bus used on shorter-distance public transport bus services. Several configurations are used, including low-floor buses, high-floor buses, double-decker buses, articulated buses and midibuses; these are distinct from all-seated coaches used for longer distance journeys and smaller minibuses, for more flexible services. A transit bus will have: large and sometimes multiple doors for ease of boarding and exiting minimal or no luggage space bench or bucket seats, with no coachlike head-rests destination blinds / displays such as headsigns or rollsigns or electronic dot matrix/LED signs legal standing-passenger capacity fare taking/verification equipment pull cord or bus stop request buttonModern transit buses are increasingly being equipped with passenger information systems, multimedia, WiFi, USB charging points, entertainment/advertising, passenger comforts such as heating and air-conditioning; some industry members and commentators promote the idea of making the interior of a transit bus as inviting as a private car, recognising the chief competitor to the transit bus in most markets.
As they are used in a public transport role, transit buses can be operated by publicly run transit authorities or municipal bus companies, as well as private transport companies on a public contract or independent basis. Due to the local authority use, transit buses are built to a third-party specification put to the manufacturer by the authority. Early examples of such specification include the Greater Manchester Leyland Atlantean, DMS-class London Daimler Fleetline. New transit buses may be purchased each time a route/area is contracted, such as in the London Buses tendering system; the operating area of a transit bus may be defined as a geographic metropolitan area, with the buses used outside of this area being more varied with buses purchased with other factors in mind. Some regional-size operators for capital cost reasons may use transit buses interchangeably on short urban routes as well as longer rural routes, sometimes up to 2 or 3 hours. Transit bus operators have a selection of'dual-purpose' fitted buses, standard transit buses fitted with coach-type seating, for longer-distance routes.
Sometimes transit buses may be used as express buses on a limited-stopping or non-stop service at peak times, but over the same distance as the regular route. Fare payment is done via Smart card single or multi-ride coupon/ticket cash and is done upon Pre-payment, done at ticket machines located at the bus stops or at other locations, before getting on the bus. Boarding departing both, e.g. after crossing fare zone boundaries in transit, via an attendant or bus conductor Depending on payment systems in different municipalities, there are different rules with regard to which door, front or rear, one must use when boarding/exiting. For rear doors, most buses have doors opened by patron. Most doors on buses use air-assist technology, the driver controlled doors, use air pressure to force them open, patron-operated doors, can push them open, the doors are heavy, so the touch-to-open or push bar mechanism, sends pressurized air to open the doors. Most doors will signify that they are unlocked and open with lights, this gives guide to those who are going up or down the door steps to not trip and fall.
Unlocked or open doors, will trigger a brake locking mechanism on the bus to prevent it from moving while someone could be entering or exiting the bus, when the door is closed, the lock will release, this is implemented on rear doors, not on front doors, since the driver will be paying attention to the front door. Transit buses can be double-decker, rigid or articulated. Selection of type has traditionally been made on a regional as well as operational basis. Depending on local policies, transit buses will usually have two, three or four doors to facilitate rapid boarding and alighting. In cases of low-demand routes, or to navigate small local streets, some models of minibus and small midibuses have been used as transit type buses; the development of the midibus has given many operators a low-cost way of operating a transit bus service, with some midibuses such as the Plaxton SPD Super Pointer Dart resembling full size transit type vehicles. Due to their public transport role, transit buses were the first type of bus to benefit from low-floor technology, in response to a demand for equal access public service provision.
Transit buses are now subject to various disability discrimination acts in several jurisdictions which dictate various design features applied to other vehicles in some cases. Due to the high number of high-profile urban operations, transit buses are at the forefront of bus electrification, with hybrid electric bus, all-electric bus and fuel cell bus development and testing aimed at reducing fuel usage, shift to green electricity and decreasing environmental impact. Developments of the transit bus towards higher capacity bus transport include tram-like vehicles such as guided buses, longer bi-articulated buses and tram-like buses such as the Wright StreetCar as part of Bus Rapid Transit schemes. Fare collection is seeing a shift to off-bus payment, with either the driver or an inspector verifying fare payments. A commuter or express bus service is a fixed-route bus characterized by service predominantly in on
Independence Day (United States)
Independence Day is a federal holiday in the United States commemorating the Declaration of Independence of the United States on July 4, 1776. The Continental Congress declared that the thirteen American colonies were no longer subject to the monarch of Britain and were now united and independent states; the Congress had voted to declare independence two days earlier, on July 2, but it was not declared until July 4. Independence Day is associated with fireworks, barbecues, fairs, concerts, baseball games, family reunions, political speeches and ceremonies, in addition to various other public and private events celebrating the history and traditions of the United States. Independence Day is the National Day of the United States. During the American Revolution, the legal separation of the Thirteen Colonies from Great Britain in 1776 occurred on July 2, when the Second Continental Congress voted to approve a resolution of independence, proposed in June by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia declaring the United States independent from Great Britain's rule.
After voting for independence, Congress turned its attention to the Declaration of Independence, a statement explaining this decision, prepared by a Committee of Five, with Thomas Jefferson as its principal author. Congress debated and revised the wording of the Declaration approving it two days on July 4. A day earlier, John Adams had written to his wife Abigail: The second day of July, 1776, will be the most memorable epoch in the history of America. I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated by succeeding generations as the great anniversary festival, it ought to be commemorated by solemn acts of devotion to God Almighty. It ought to be solemnized with pomp and parade, with shows, sports, bells and illuminations, from one end of this continent to the other, from this time forward forever more. Adams's prediction was off by two days. From the outset, Americans celebrated independence on July 4, the date shown on the much-publicized Declaration of Independence, rather than on July 2, the date the resolution of independence was approved in a closed session of Congress.
Historians have long disputed whether members of Congress signed the Declaration of Independence on July 4 though Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin all wrote that they had signed it on that day. Most historians have concluded that the Declaration was signed nearly a month after its adoption, on August 2, 1776, not on July 4 as is believed. Coincidentally, both John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, the only signers of the Declaration of Independence to serve as Presidents of the United States, died on the same day: July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of the Declaration. Although not a signer of the Declaration of Independence, James Monroe, another Founding Father, elected as President died on July 4, 1831, he was the third President. Calvin Coolidge, the 30th President, was born on July 4, 1872. S. President to have been born on Independence Day. In 1777, thirteen gunshots were fired in salute, once at morning and once again as evening fell, on July 4 in Bristol, Rhode Island. An article in July 18, 1777 issue of The Virginia Gazette noted a celebration in Philadelphia in a manner a modern American would find familiar: an official dinner for the Continental Congress, toasts, 13-gun salutes, prayers, parades, troop reviews, fireworks.
Ships in port were decked with red and blue bunting. In 1778, from his headquarters at Ross Hall, near New Brunswick, New Jersey, General George Washington marked July 4 with a double ration of rum for his soldiers and an artillery salute. Across the Atlantic Ocean, ambassadors John Adams and Benjamin Franklin held a dinner for their fellow Americans in Paris, France. In 1779, July 4 fell on a Sunday; the holiday was celebrated on Monday, July 5. In 1781, the Massachusetts General Court became the first state legislature to recognize July 4 as a state celebration. In 1783, North Carolina held a celebration with a challenging music program assembled by Johann Friedrich Peter entitled The Psalm of Joy; the town claims to be the first public July 4 event, as it was documented by the Moravian Church, there are no government records of any earlier celebrations. In 1870, the U. S. Congress made Independence Day an unpaid holiday for federal employees. In 1938, Congress changed Independence Day to a paid federal holiday.
Independence Day is a national holiday marked by patriotic displays. Similar to other summer-themed events, Independence Day celebrations take place outdoors. According to 5 U. S. C. § 6103, Independence Day is a federal holiday, so all non-essential federal institutions are closed on that day. Many politicians make it a point on this day to appear at a public event to praise the nation's heritage, history and people. Families celebrate Independence Day by hosting or attending a picnic or barbecue. Decorations are colored red and blue, the colors of the American flag. Parades are held in the morning, before family get-togethers, while fireworks displays occur in the evening after dark at such places as parks, fairgrounds, or town squares; the night before the Fourth was once the focal point of celebrations, marked by raucous gatherings incorporating bonfires as their centerpiece. In New E
Rosemead is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 53,764. Rosemead is part of a cluster of cities, along with Arcadia, Temple City, Monterey Park, San Marino, San Gabriel, in the west San Gabriel Valley with a growing Asian population. Prior to the arrival of the Spanish, the area around Rosemead was populated by Native Americans known as the people of the willow houses or better known as the Kizh- prounced Keech, or as the Spaniards renamed them, the Gabrieleños. In 1771, the Spanish founded the first Mission San Gabriel Arcángel in the area, formally known as the village of Shevaangna or Siba what is now known as La Mision Veija or Whittier Narrows on the border between Montebello and Rosemead. In 1775, the mission moved to avoid the spring floods that ruined the first crops, to its present location in San Gabriel formally known as the village of Tovisvanga. During the Spanish Colonial era, the area, now the City of Rosemead was part of the land administered by the San Gabriel Mission.
As part of the Mexican government's Secularization Act of 1833, the land held by the Mission, was distributed to private citizens, requiring only that they build a house and graze cattle, bringing to an end the Mission Era Following the Mexican–American War and the 1848 signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe which transferred sovereignty over the territory now known as the State of California to the United States, Anglo-American immigration began to flow to the area. The southern part of Rosemead was part of Rancho Potrero Grande, granted to a Native American man named Manuel Antonio, a "mayordomo" at the San Gabriel Mission; the 4,431-acre ranch was transferred to Juan Matias Sánchez. In 1852, John and Harriet Guess moved cross-country in an ox drawn wagon, to the San Gabriel Valley from Conway County, Arkansas. In 1855, the couple camped where present-day Savannah Elementary School is located on Rio Hondo Avenue, they rented the land until 1867, when John Guess purchased 100 acres of a 1,164-acre ranch and named it Savannah.
The land stretched from Valley Boulevard to Marshall Street, from Rosemead Boulevard to the Eaton Wash. Other pioneers, Frank Forst and Leonard John Rose settled in this valley. Rose and his wife Amanda bought about 600 acres of land between what is now Rosemead Boulevard and Walnut Grove Avenue. Rose trained horses for a living, he named his ranch "Rose's Meadow", shortened to Rosemeade and gave the city its name. Rosemeade was once again shortened to Rosemead; the peaceful, pastoral community flourished with small truck farms and chicken farms. Settlers moved in and raised vegetables, fruits and feed for the animals, it wasn't until August 4, 1959, the citizens elected to incorporate Rosemead into a city. Rosemead Airport is one of the vanished former airports which once were spread all throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Western Air College operated the airport; the airport at this location in Rosemead was built at some point between 1940–42, as it was not depicted on a 1940 LA street map.
The earliest depiction of this airport was on a 1942 street map, which labeled the field as the Western Air College Airport. At some point between 1942-44 the airport was renamed Rosemead, as, how it was labeled on the 1944 LA Sectional Aeronautical Chart. A flying school was operated at Rosemead Airport. Fletcher Aviation acquired the airport from the Heasley brothers during the Korean War and sold to AJ Industries in the 1960s, AJ sold the portion of the land from Rio Hondo Avenue to Rosemead Boulevard to AeroJet Corporation and they built a large facility there, it was named the roadway that parallels I-10 was named Flair Drive. Rosemead is part of a cluster of cities in the west San Gabriel Valley with a growing Asian population. Rosemead has a significant population among other Latino nationalities. Less than 1 % of the population is Native American; the 2010 United States Census reported that Rosemead had a population of 53,764. The population density was 10,387 people per square mile; the racial makeup of Rosemead was 11,348 White, 273 African American, 396 Native American, 32,617 Asian, 32 Pacific Islander, 7,940 from other races, 1,158 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18,147 persons. The Census reported that 53,351 people lived in households, 135 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 278 were institutionalized. There were 14,247 households, out of which 6,267 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 8,028 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,502 had a female householder with no husband present, 1,373 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 571 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 74 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 1,739 households were made up of individuals and 844 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.74. There were 11,903 families; the population was spread out with 12,231 people under the age of 18, 5,225 people aged 18 to 24, 14,952 people aged 25 to 44, 14,392 people aged 45 to 64, 6,964 people who were 65 years of age or o
East Los Angeles, California
East Los Angeles, or East L. A. is an unincorporated area in California. It is 96% Latino—the highest percentage of any neighborhood in Los Angeles County, the highest of any census-designated place in the country, with a population of more than 100,000. East L. A. is located east of the Boyle Heights district of Los Angeles, south of the El Sereno district of Los Angeles, north of the city of Commerce, west of the cities of Monterey Park and Montebello. The unincorporated area known as City Terrace occupies the northern part of the East L. A. CDP. East Los Angeles is the least ethnically diverse community in Los Angeles County as noted by the Los Angeles Times' Mapping L. A. survey. The 2010 United States Census reported that East Los Angeles had a population of 126,496. Population density was 16,973.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of East Los Angeles was 53,934 White, 817 African American, 1,549 Native American, 1,144 Asian, 63 Pacific Islander, 54,846 from other races, 4,143 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 122,784 persons. The Census reported that 126,176 people lived in households, 174 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 146 were institutionalized. There were 30,816 households, out of which 17,509 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 15,497 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 7,104 had a female householder with no husband present, 3,238 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 2,516 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 199 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 3,781 households were made up of individuals and 1,781 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.09. There were 25,839 families; the population was spread out with 39,804 people under the age of 18, 15,193 people aged 18 to 24, 37,354 people aged 25 to 44, 23,281 people aged 45 to 64, 10,864 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.9 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.1 males. There were 32,201 housing units at an average density of 4,320.8 per square mile, of which 10,986 were owner-occupied, 19,830 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.2%. 47,123 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 79,053 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, East Los Angeles had a median household income of $37,982, with 26.9% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of 2000, there were 124,283 people, 29,844 households, 25,068 families residing in the community; the population density was 16,697.4 people per square mile. There were 31,096 housing units at an average density of 4,177.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the community was 39.3% White, 4.52% Black or African American, 1.29% Native American, 0.77% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 54.01% from other races, 4.22% from two or more races. 96.8 % of the population were Latino. As of 2000, speakers of Spanish as a first language accounted for 87.30%, while English accounted for 12.65%, Japanese was spoken by 0.16%, Armenian made up 0.09%, Vietnamese was at 0.07%, Chinese at 0.05%, Russian at 0.04%, Tagalog at 0.03%, Mandarin was at 0.03% of the population.
There were 29,844 households out of which 51.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.1% were married couples living together, 21.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.0% were non-families. 12.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.15 and the average family size was 4.42. The age distribution of the community was as follows: 34.6% under the age of 18, 12.6% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 14.2% from 45 to 64, 7.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.2 males. The median income for a household in the community was $28,544, the median income for a family was $29,755. Males had a median income of $21,065 versus $18,475 for females; the per capita income for the community was $9,543. About 24.7% of families and 27.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.0% of those under age 18 and 13.5% of those age 65 or over.
East Los Angeles has a large Latino population that consists of Mexicans, Guatemalans and Nicaraguans. Latino communities These were the ten cities or neighborhoods in Los Angeles County with the largest percentage of Latino residents, according to the 2000 census: Light rail service to East L. A. is provided by the Metro Gold Line's Eastside Extension, which opened in 2009. The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority provides bus service from East L. A. throughout the L. A. area. Local shuttle service is provided by El Sol; as East Los Angeles is an unincorporated community, it does not have a local government and relies on the County of Los Angeles for local services. Supervisor Hilda L. Solis represents East LA on the Board of Supervisors. In the California State Legislature, East Los Angeles is in the 24th Senate District, represented by Democrat Maria Elena Durazo, in the 51st Assembly District, represented by D