Frances Matilda Van de Grift Osbourne Stevenson was the wife of Robert Louis Stevenson and mother of Isobel and Lloyd Osbourne. Fanny Vandegrift was born in Indianapolis, the daughter of builder Jacob Vandegrift and she was something of a tomboy, and had dark curly hair. At the age of seventeen she married Samuel Osbourne, a lieutenant on the State Governors staff and their daughter Isobel was born the following year. Samuel fought in the American Civil War, went with a friend sick with tuberculosis to California, once settled there he sent for his family. Life was difficult in the town, and there were few women around. Fanny learned to shoot a pistol and to roll her own cigarettes, the family moved to Virginia City, Nevada. Samuel began going with saloon girls, and in 1866 he headed off gold prospecting in the Coeur dAlene Mountains, and Fanny and her daughter journeyed to San Francisco. There was a rumour that Sam had been killed by a bear, but he returned to the family safe. But Samuel continued philandering and Fanny returned to Indianapolis, the couple were reconciled again in 1869, and lived in Oakland where a second son, was born.
Fanny took up painting and gardening, Sams behaviour did not improve, and Fanny finally left him in 1875 and moved with her three children to Europe. They lived in Antwerp for three months, and to allow Fanny to study art, they moved to Paris where Fanny, sick with scrofulous tuberculosis, died on 5 April 1876, and was buried in a temporary grave at Père Lachaise Cemetery. While in Paris, she met and befriended Robert Louis Stevenson, convinced of his talent, she encouraged and inspired him. He became deeply attached to her, but Fanny returned abruptly to California, Stevenson announced his intention of following her, but his parents refused to pay for it, so he saved for three years to pay his own way. Stevenson wrote many of his most muscular essays in Monterey while awaiting Fannys decision, the lady ultimately chose Stevenson, and in May 1880, they were married in San Francisco. A few days later, the left for a honeymoon in the Napa Valley. He wrote The Amateur Emigrant in two parts about his passage to America, From the Clyde to Sandy Hook and Across the Plains.
His middle-class friends were shocked by his travel with the classes, it was not published in full in his lifetime. In August 1880, the moved to Great Britain, where Fanny helped to patch things up between Robert and his father
Robert Louis Stevenson
Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson was a Scottish novelist, poet and travel writer. His most famous works are Treasure Island, Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, a literary celebrity during his lifetime, Stevenson now ranks as the 26th most translated author in the world. M. Barrie, and G. K. Chesterton, who said of him that he seemed to pick the word up on the point of his pen. Stevenson was born at 8 Howard Place, Scotland, on 13 November 1850, to Thomas Stevenson, a lighthouse engineer. He was christened Robert Lewis Balfour Stevenson, at about age 18, Stevenson was to change the spelling of Lewis to Louis, and in 1873, he dropped Balfour. Lighthouse design was the profession, Thomass father was the famous Robert Stevenson. Indeed, even Thomass maternal grandfather, Thomas Smith, had been in the same profession, Roberts mothers family were not of the same profession. Margarets natal family, the Balfours, were gentry, tracing their lineage back to a certain Alexander Balfour who had held the lands of Inchyra in Fife in the fifteenth century.
Margarets father, Lewis Balfour, was a minister of the Church of Scotland at nearby Colinton, and her siblings included the physician George William Balfour, Stevenson spent the greater part of his boyhood holidays in his maternal grandfathers house. Now I often wonder, wrote Stevenson, what I inherited from this old minister, I must suppose, that he was fond of preaching sermons, and so am I, though I never heard it maintained that either of us loved to hear them. Lewis Balfour and his daughter both had weak chests, so they often needed to stay in warmer climates for their health, Stevenson inherited a tendency to coughs and fevers, exacerbated when the family moved to a damp, chilly house at 1 Inverleith Terrace in 1851. The family moved again to the sunnier 17 Heriot Row when Stevenson was six years old, illness would be a recurrent feature of his adult life and left him extraordinarily thin. Contemporary views were that he had tuberculosis, but more recent views are that it was bronchiectasis or even sarcoidosis, Stevensons parents were both devout and serious Presbyterians, but the household was not strict in its adherence to Calvinist principles.
His nurse, Alison Cunningham, was fervently religious. Her Calvinism and folk beliefs were a source of nightmares for the child. But she cared for him tenderly in illness, reading to him from Bunyan, Stevenson recalled this time of sickness in The Land of Counterpane in A Childs Garden of Verses, dedicating the book to his nurse. In any case, his frequent illnesses often kept him away from his first school and he was a late reader, first learning at age seven or eight, but even before this he dictated stories to his mother and nurse. He compulsively wrote stories throughout his childhood and his father was proud of this interest, he had written stories in his spare time until his own father found them and told him to give up such nonsense and mind your business
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Historic districts in the United States
Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are normally divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts greatly vary in size, some have hundreds of structures, the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, state-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level, local districts are generally administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, Charleston city government designated an Old and Historic District by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it.
New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission, other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955. The Supreme Court case validated the protection of resources as an entirely permissible governmental goal. In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from rootlessness. By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts, Historic districts are generally two types of properties and non-contributing. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context, in addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories. They are, structure, site and object, all but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register.
A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district, the Register is an honorary status with some federal financial incentives. The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, a district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines generally begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, the National Register is the official recognition by the U. S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, if the federal government is not involved, the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected, a federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation.
Usually, the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, however, if a property falls into one of those categories and are integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic district listings, like all National Register nominations, can be rejected on the basis of owner disapproval, in the case of historic districts, a majority of owners must object in order to nullify a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places
The Californias, or Province of the Californias, or Spanish, Las Californias, Provincia de las Californias, was the northwestern-most area of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. There has been confusion about use of the plural The Californias by Spanish colonial authorities. Afterwards, when its peninsular character was ascertained, it was called simply California, when the expeditions for the settlement of San Diego and Monterey marched, it was understood that they were going, not out of California, but into a new part of it. The peninsula began to be spoken of as Antigua or Old California. At the same time the old name of The Californias was revived. The first attempted Spanish occupation of California was by the Jesuit missionary Eusebio Kino and his Misión San Bruno failed, and it wasnt until 1697 that Misión de Nuestra Señora de Loreto Conchó was successfully established by another Jesuit, Juan María de Salvatierra. The mission became the nucleus of Loreto, first permanent settlement, the Jesuits went on to found a total of 18 missions in the lower two-thirds of the Baja California Peninsula.
In 1767, the Jesuits were expelled from the missions, gaspar de Portolá was appointed governor to supervise the transition. At the same time, a new visitador, José de Gálvez, was dispatched from Spain with authority to organize and expand the fledgling province. The more ambitious name, Las Californias, was established by a joint dispatch to the King from Viceroy de Croix and visitador José de Gálvez. Gálvez sought to make a distinction between the Antigua area of established settlement and the Nueva unexplored areas to the north, the single province was divided in 1804, into Alta California province and Baja California province. By the time of the 1804 split, the Alta province had expanded to coastal areas as far north as what is now the San Francisco Bay Area in the U. S. state of California. Expansion came through exploration and colonization expeditions led by Portolá, his successor Pedro Fages, Juan Bautista de Anza, independent Mexico retained the division but demoted the former provinces to territories, due to populations too small for statehood.
In 1836, the designation Las Californias was revived, reuniting Alta, the Seven Laws were repealed in 1847, during the Mexican-American War, and the split of the two Californias was restored. Following Mexicos defeat in the war, most of the former Alta California territory was ceded on 2 February 1848 to the United States, under the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The new Mexico-United States border was established slightly to the north of the previous Alta-Baja border, the areas in North America acquired by the U. S. were designated as unorganized territory under a military governor, pending reestablishment of civilian control and organization. California was the first section of the territory to achieve statehood, the Baja California Peninsula is bordered on three sides by water, the Pacific Ocean and Gulf of California, while Alta California had the Pacific Ocean on the west and deserts on the east. A northern boundary was established by the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 and that boundary line remains the northern boundary of the U. S.
states of California and the western part of Utah
Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde
Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde is a novella by the Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson first published in 1886. The work is known as The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. It is about a London lawyer named Gabriel John Utterson who investigates strange occurrences between his old friend, Dr Henry Jekyll, and the evil Edward Hyde. Stevenson had long been intrigued by the idea of how personalities can affect a human and how to incorporate the interplay of good and evil into a story. While still a teenager, he developed a script for a play about Deacon Brodie, which he reworked with the help of W. E. Henley and which was produced for the first time in 1882. In early 1884, he wrote the short story Markheim, which he revised in 1884 for publication in a Christmas annual, biographer Graham Balfour quoted Stevensons wife Fanny Stevenson, In the small hours of one morning, I was awakened by cries of horror from Louis. Thinking he had a nightmare, I awakened him and he said angrily, Why did you wake me. I was dreaming a fine bogey tale, I had awakened him at the first transformation scene.
Lloyd Osbourne, Stevensons stepson, wrote, I dont believe there was ever such a literary feat before as the writing of Dr Jekyll. I remember the first disease of the world though it were yesterday, Louis came downstairs in a fever, read nearly half the book aloud, and then, while we were still gasping, he was away again, and busy writing. I doubt if the first draft took so long as three days, inspiration may have come from the writer’s friendship with French doctor Eugene Chantrelle, who was convicted and executed for the murder of his wife in Edinburgh in May 1878. Chantrelle, who had appeared to lead a life in the city. According to author Jeremy Hodges, Stevenson was present throughout the trial and as the evidence unfolded he found himself, like Dr Jekyll, ‘aghast before the acts of Edward Hyde’. ”Moreover, it was believed that the doctor had committed other murders both in France and Britain by poisoning his victims at supper parties with a dish of toasted cheese. Louis Vivet, a patient who was suffering from Multiple Personality, caught Frederic W. H.
Myerss attention. Stevenson was polite in his response but rejected that reading, as was customary, Mrs Stevenson would read the draft and offer her criticisms in the margins. Robert Stevenson was confined to bed at the time from a haemorrhage, she left her comments with the manuscript and Robert in the toilet. She said that in effect the story was really an allegory, scholars debate whether he really burnt his manuscript, there is no direct factual evidence for the burning, but it remains an integral part of the history of the novella. Stevenson re-wrote the story in three to six days, the standard history, according to the accounts of his wife and son, says he was bed-ridden and sick while writing it
The Larkin House, located at 464 Calle Principal, California, was built in 1835 by Thomas O. Larkin. It is claimed that the house was the first two-story house in all of California, the design combined Spanish Colonial building methods with New England architectural features and originated the popular Monterey Colonial style of architecture. The Larkin House is both a National and a California Historical Landmark, in 1832 Thomas O. Larkin joined his half-brother John B. R. Cooper in business. Larkin became the most influential American in Monterey, capital of Alta California and he served as the only United States consul to Mexico in Monterey. Monterey expanded beyond the old Spanish Presidio walls, many leading citizens built their large houses using white wash, sun-dried adobe bricks. The Larkin House was designated as a California Historical Landmark in 1933 and it became a National Historic Landmark in 1960 and is part of the larger Monterey State Historic Park, which is itself designated a National Historic Landmark District.
Media related to Larkin House at Wikimedia Commons Official Larkin House website Official Monterey State Historic Park website Historic American Buildings Survey No. CA-128, Larkin House,464 Calle Principal, Monterey County, CA,13 photos,16 measured drawings,7 data pages, supplemental material
Thomas O. Larkin
Thomas Oliver Larkin was an early American businessman in Alta California, and was appointed to be the United States first and only consul to Mexican Alta California. After the Mexican-American War ended in 1848, Larkin moved to San Francisco, Larkin was born in Charlestown, the son of Thomas O. Larkin and Ann Rogers, and a grandson of the Deacon John Larkin who provided the horse for Paul Reveres famous ride. Larkins mother was widowed three times - her first husband was named Cooper and her husband was named Amariah Childs. At the age of 15, Larkin went to Boston to apprentice as a bookbinder, in 1821 he sailed to Wilmington, North Carolina, where he worked as a clerk and experienced a disastrous partnership with a dishonest merchant. He visited Bermuda in 1822 and relatives in New England in 1824, in 1825 he opened a store in Duplin, North Carolina. The fortune he made on the store he lost on a sawmill operation, here he learned that his half-brother, John Bautista Rogers Cooper, needed his assistance with a business in California, and in September 1831 Thomas left Boston on the ship Newcastle.
After a stopover in the Sandwich Islands, he landed in San Francisco, aboard ship, he met and developed an intimate relationship with Mrs. Rachel Hobson Holmes, who was coming to California to join her husband, Captain A. C. They traveled together from San Francisco to Monterey where they boarded at the Cooper house. When Rachel learned she was carrying Thomas’ child, she moved to Santa Barbara while Thomas remained in Monterey. At Santa Barbara, Rachel gave birth and awaited a dreadful reunion with her husband and he was able to invest again in a sawmill, this time in Santa Cruz. He sailed to Santa Barbara and there was reunited with Rachel and they were married there, on board the American bark Volunteer, 1833-06-10. In 1835 Larkin built the first two-story house in California, a combination of New England and California building materials, Larkin House survives today and is part of Monterey State Historic Park. Larkin built the first wharf at Monterey harbor and was commissioned to rebuild the Customhouse, at that time, all foreign ships had to check in at Monterey to pay import/export tariffs and get official permission to trade.
Larkin was well-positioned to engage in trade with Mexico, the United States and American trade with China came to the Pacific Coast by way of the Sandwich Islands. The fact that he was able to survive through shifting administrations is testimony to his political skills, Larkin loaned money to Alvarado’s successor, which he lost when the Governor was overthrown by Alvarado in 1844. He never applied for Mexican citizenship, which required conversion to Catholicism, as a non-citizen, he could not legally own land, but he managed to obtain land grants in the names of his children. In 1842, Monterey was surprised by the actions of U. S, Commodore Thomas ap Catesby Jones, who landed Marines to take over Monterey in the mistaken belief that war had broken out between the United States and Mexico. Larkin and William Hartnell worked to smooth over the situation, Jones was induced to submit a written apology to the angry Mexican officials and withdraw his troops
California Historical Landmark
California Historical Landmarks are buildings, sites, or places in the state of California that have been determined to have statewide historical landmark significance. Historical significance is determined by meeting at least one of the criteria listed below, The first, only, associated with an individual or group having a profound influence on the history of California. California Historical Landmarks of #770 and above are listed in the California Register of Historical Resources. By contrast, a site, feature, or event that is of local significance may be designated as a California Point of Historical Interest. List of California Historical Landmarks by county National Historic Sites National Register of Historic Places listings in California — with links to list articles by county, los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments San Francisco Designated Landmarks Johnson, Marael. A Guide to California Roadside Historical Markers, official OHP—California Office of Historic Preservation website OHP, California Historical Sites searchpage — links to lists by county
A brick is building material used to make walls and other elements in masonry construction. Traditionally, the term referred to a unit composed of clay. A brick can be composed of clay-bearing soil and lime, Bricks are produced in numerous classes, types and sizes which vary with region and time period, and are produced in bulk quantities. Two basic categories of bricks are fired and non-fired bricks, block is a similar term referring to a rectangular building unit composed of similar materials, but is usually larger than a brick. Lightweight bricks are made from expanded clay aggregate, fired bricks are one of the longest-lasting and strongest building materials, sometimes referred to as artificial stone, and have been used since circa 5000 BC. Air-dried bricks, known as mudbricks, have an older than fired bricks. Bricks are laid in courses and numerous patterns known as bonds, collectively known as brickwork, the earliest bricks were dried brick, meaning that they were formed from clay-bearing earth or mud and dried until they were strong enough for use.
The oldest discovered bricks, originally made from shaped mud and dating before 7500 BC, were found at Tell Aswad, in the upper Tigris region, ceramic, or fired brick was used as early as 3000 BC in early Indus Valley cities. In pre-modern China, bricks were being used from the 2nd millennium BCE at a site near Xian, the carpenters manual Yingzao Fashi, published in 1103 at the time of the Song dynasty described the brick making process and glazing techniques in use. He had to know when to quench the kiln with water so as to produce the surface glaze, Early civilisations around the Mediterranean adopted the use of fired bricks, including the Ancient Greeks and Romans. The Roman legions operated mobile kilns, and built large brick structures throughout the Roman Empire, during the Early Middle Ages the use of bricks in construction became popular in Northern Europe, after being introduced there from Northern-Western Italy. An independent style of architecture, known as brick Gothic flourished in places that lacked indigenous sources of rocks.
Examples of this style can be found in modern-day Denmark, Poland. A clear distinction between the two styles developed at the transition to Baroque architecture. In Lübeck, for example, Brick Renaissance is clearly recognisable in buildings equipped with terracotta reliefs by the artist Statius von Düren, production of bricks increased massively with the onset of the Industrial Revolution and the rise in factory building in England. For reasons of speed and economy, bricks were increasingly preferred as building material to stone and it was at this time in London, that bright red brick was chosen for construction to make the buildings more visible in the heavy fog and to help prevent traffic accidents. The transition from the method of production known as hand-moulding to a mechanised form of mass-production slowly took place during the first half of the nineteenth century. His mechanical apparatus soon achieved widespread attention after it was adopted for use by the South Eastern Railway Company for brick-making at their factory near Folkestone, the Bradley & Craven Ltd ‘Stiff-Plastic Brickmaking Machine’ was patented in 1853, apparently predating Clayton
Alta California, founded in 1769 by Gaspar de Portolà, was a polity of New Spain and after the Mexican War of Independence in 1822, a territory of Mexico. The region included all of the states of California and Utah. Large areas east of the Sierra Nevada and San Gabriel Mountains were claimed to be part of Alta California, to the southeast, beyond the deserts and the Colorado River, lay the Spanish settlements in Arizona. The areas formerly comprising Alta California were ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican–American War in 1848, two years later, California joined the union as the 31st state. Other parts of Alta California became all or part of the U. S. states of Arizona, Utah and Wyoming. The Spanish explored the area of Alta California by sea beginning in the 16th century. During the following two centuries there were plans to settle the area, none of which were effectively carried out. Ultimately, New Spain did not have the resources nor population to settle such a far northern outpost.
To ascertain the Russian threat a number of Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest were launched, the Spanish Crown funded the construction and subsidized the operation of the missions, with the goal that the relocation and enforced labor of Native people would bolster Spanish rule. The first Alta California mission and presidio were established by the Franciscan friar Junípero Serra, the following year,1770, the second mission and presidio were founded in Monterey. In 1773 a boundary between the Baja California missions and the Franciscan missions of Alta California was set by Francisco Palóu, the missionary effort coincided with the construction of presidios and pueblos, which were to be manned and populated by Hispanic people. The first pueblo founded was San José in 1777, followed by Los Ángeles in 1781, by law, mission land and property were to pass to the indigenous population after a period of about ten years, when the natives would become Spanish subjects. In the interim period, the Franciscans were to act as mission administrators who held the land in trust for the Native residents, the transfer of property never occurred under the Franciscans.
As the number of Spanish settlers grew in Alta California, the boundaries, conflicts between the Crown and the Church and between Natives and settlers arose. State and ecclesiastical bureaucrats debated over authority of the missions and they advocated that the Natives owned property and had the right to defend it. Governor Diego de Borica is credited with defining Alta and Baja Californias official borders, Mexico won independence in 1822, and Alta California became a territory of Mexico. The Spanish and Mexican governments rewarded retired soldados de cuera with large grants, known as ranchos, for the raising of cattle. Hides and tallow from the livestock were the primary exports of California until the mid-19th century, the construction and domestic work on these vast estates was primarily done by Native Americans, who had learned to speak Spanish and ride horses