Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay. According to the 2011 census, the city proper has a population of 1,319,108 in an area of 201 square kilometres; the southernmost capital city in the Americas, Montevideo is situated on the southern coast of the country, on the northeastern bank of the Río de la Plata. The city was established in 1724 by a Spanish soldier, Bruno Mauricio de Zabala, as a strategic move amidst the Spanish-Portuguese dispute over the platine region, it was under brief British rule in 1807. Montevideo is the seat of the administrative headquarters of Mercosur and ALADI, Latin America's leading trade blocs, a position that entailed comparisons to the role of Brussels in Europe; the 2017 Mercer's report on quality of life, rated Montevideo first in Latin America, a rank the city has held since 2005. As of 2010, Montevideo was the 19th largest city economy in the continent and 9th highest income earner among major cities. In 2019, it has a projected GDP of $47.7 billion, with a per capita of $27,542.
In 2018, it was classified as a beta global city ranking eighth in Latin America and 84th in the world. Montevideo hosted every match during the first FIFA World Cup, in 1930. Described as a "vibrant, eclectic place with a rich cultural life", "a thriving tech center and entrepreneurial culture", Montevideo ranked eighth in Latin America on the 2013 MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. In 2014, it was regarded as the fifth most gay-friendly metropolis in the world and the first in Latin America, it is higher education in Uruguay as well as its chief port. The city is the financial hub of Uruguay and the cultural anchor of a metropolitan area with a population of around 2 million. There are several explanations about the word Montevideo. All agree that "Monte" refers to the Cerro de Montevideo, the hill situated across the Bay of Montevideo, but there is disagreement about the etymological origin of the "video" part. Monte vide eu is the most widespread belief but is rejected by the majority of experts, who consider it unlikely because it involves a mix of dialects.
The name would come from a Portuguese expression which means "I saw a mount", wrongly pronounced by an anonymous sailor belonging to the expedition of Fernando de Magallanes on catching sight of the Cerro de Montevideo. Monte Vidi: This hypothesis comes from the "Diario de Navegación" of boatswain Francisco de Albo, member of the expedition of Fernando de Magallanes, who wrote, "Tuesday of the said we were on the straits of Cape Santa María, from where the coast runs east to west, the terrain is sandy, at the right of the cape there is a mountain like a hat to which we gave the name "Montevidi"." This is the oldest Spanish document that mentions the promontory with a name similar to the one that designates the city, but it does not contain any mention of the alleged cry "Monte vide eu." Monte-VI-D-E-O: According to Rolando Laguarda Trías, professor of history, the Spaniards annotated the geographic location on a map or Portolan chart, so that the mount/hill is the VI mount observable on the coast, navigating Río de la Plata from east to west.
With the passing of time, these words were unified to "Montevideo". No conclusive evidence has been found to confirm this academic hypothesis nor can it be asserted with certainty which were the other five mounts observable before the Cerro. Monte Ovidio, a less widespread hypothesis of a religious origin, stems from an interpolation in the aforementioned Diario de Navegación of Fernando de Albo, where it is asserted "corruptly now called Santo Vidio" when they refer to the hat-like mount which they named Monte Vidi. Ovidio was the third bishop of the Portuguese city of Braga. Given the relationship that the Portuguese had with the discovery and foundation of Montevideo, despite the fact that this hypothesis, like the previous ones, lacks conclusive documentation, there have been those who linked the name of Santo Ovidio or Vidio with the subsequent derivation of the name "Montevideo" given to the region since the early years of the 16th century. Between 1680 and 1683, Portugal founded the city of Colonia do Sacramento in the region across the bay from Buenos Aires.
This city met with no resistance from the Spanish until 1723, when they began to place fortifications on the elevations around Montevideo Bay. On 22 November 1723, Field Marshal Manuel de Freitas da Fonseca of Portugal built the Montevieu fort. A Spanish expedition was sent from Buenos Aires, organized by the Spanish governor of that city, Bruno Mauricio de Zabala. On 22 January 1724, the Spanish forced the Portuguese to abandon the location and started populating the city with six families moving in from Buenos Aires and soon thereafter by families arriving from the Canary Islands who were known as Guanches or Canarians. There was one significant early Italian resident by the name of Jorge Burgues. A census of the city's inhabitants was performed in 1724 and a plan was drawn delineating the city and designating it as San Felipe y Santiago de Montevideo shortened to Montevideo; the census counted fifty families of Galician and Canary Islands origin, more than 1000 indigenous people Guaraní, as well as Black African slaves of Bantu origin.
The Armstrong Siddeley Serval was a British ten-cylinder aero engine developed by Armstrong Siddeley in the late 1920s. Following company tradition, the engine was named for the serval; the Serval was a double-row, air-cooled radial piston engine. It was developed from the Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose and was, more or less, two Mongooses built around a single crankcase. In fact, it first appeared as the Double Mongoose in May 1928. Built in several variants, power output was about 340 hp. Serval I Double Mongoose 340 hp. Serval III Serval IIIB 310 hp. Serval IV 310 hp. Serval V 340 hp. Airco DH.9 Armstrong Whitworth Atalanta BFW M.36 Canadian Vickers Vancouver Fairey Fox ICAR Comercial Saro Cloud Data from Lumsden. Type: 10-cylinder double-row radial Bore: 5 in Stroke: 5.5 in Displacement: 1,080 cu in Length: 54.25 in Diameter: 45.6 in Dry weight: 714 lb Valvetrain: Overhead poppet valves Fuel type: 77 Octane petrol Cooling system: Air-cooled Reduction gear: Direct drive, Left hand tractor Power output: 340 hp at 2,000 rpm at sea level Compression ratio: 5:1 Power-to-weight ratio: 0.47 hp/lb Related development Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose Related lists List of aircraft engines
Leonid Viktoryvich Korotkov was the governor of Amur Oblast in Siberia in Russia. He was born in Zavitinsk, he graduated from Far Eastern University in 1987. He is a member of the Communist Party of Russia, he became governor in 2001. He had been a distant second with only 20% of the vote in the first round, but the incumbent got less than 50% of the vote so Korotkov could participate in the runoff, which he narrowly won. In February 2005, Korotkov was renominated by President Vladimir Putin and confirmed for a second term by the local Parliament, he was one of the first governors to be elected in this way, as a law abolishing direct election of governors and presidents of the Russian republics had just taken effect. Putin sacked Korotkov from his position on May 10, 2007 after he was charged with abuse of power, appointing the oblast's agriculture minister Alexander Nesterenko as acting governor. Putin appointed Nikolai Kolesov as Amur oblast's governor. President Dmitry Medvedev sacked Kolesov in October 2008 when Putin's appointee faced charges of illegally building a country house in a nature reserve.
A court in Blagoveshchensk on 27 December 2010 acquitted Korotkov of the charges he had faced of raising electricity tariffs to illegally bankroll the local soccer team, buying vehicles at inflated prices and paying 16 million roubles to a mining company for a controlling stake, never transferred to the oblast government