Montgolfier brothers

Joseph-Michel Montgolfier and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier were paper manufacturers from Annonay, in Ardèche, France best known as inventors of the Montgolfière-style hot air balloon, globe aérostatique. They launched the first piloted ascent. Joseph-Michel invented the self-acting hydraulic ram, Jacques-Étienne founded the first paper-making vocational school and the brothers invented a process to manufacture transparent paper; the Montgolfier brothers Joseph-Michel and Jacques-Étienne were born into a family of paper manufacturers founded in 1534 in Annonay, in Ardèche, France. Their parents were his wife, Anne Duret, who had 16 children. Pierre Montgolfier established Raymond, as his successor. Joseph-Michel was the 12th child and was described as a maverick and dreamer and was impractical in terms of business and personal affairs. Étienne was the 15th child, had a much more and businesslike temperament and was sent to Paris to train as an architect. After the sudden and unexpected death of Raymond in 1772, he was recalled to Annonay to run the family business.

In the subsequent 10 years, Étienne applied his talent for technical innovation to the family business of paper making, which as now was a high-tech industry. He succeeded in incorporating the latest Dutch innovations of the day into the family mills. Of the two brothers, it was Joseph, first interested in aeronautics, he first contemplated building machines when he observed laundry drying over a fire incidentally form pockets that billowed upwards. Joseph made his first definitive experiments in November 1782 while living in Avignon, he reported some years that he was watching a fire one evening while contemplating one of the great military issues of the day—an assault on the fortress of Gibraltar, which had proved impregnable from both sea and land. Joseph mused on the possibility of an air assault using troops lifted by the same force, lifting the embers from the fire, he believed that the smoke itself was the buoyant part and contained within it a special gas, which he called "Montgolfier Gas", with a special property he called levity, why he preferred smoldering fuel.

Joseph built a box-like chamber 1×1×1.3 m out of thin wood, covered the sides and top with lightweight taffeta cloth. He lit some paper under the bottom of the box; the contraption lifted off its stand and collided with the ceiling. Joseph recruited his brother to balloon building by writing, "Get in a supply of taffeta and of cordage and you will see one of the most astonishing sights in the world." The two brothers built a similar device, scaled up by three. On 14 December 1782 they did their first test flight, lighting with wool and hay, the lifting force was so great, that they lost control of their craft; the device floated nearly two kilometers and was destroyed after landing by the "indiscretion" of passersby. To make a public demonstration and to claim its invention the brothers constructed a globe-shaped balloon of sackcloth tightened with three thin layers of paper inside; the envelope weighed 225 kg. It was held together by 1,800 buttons. A reinforcing fish net of cord covered the outside of the envelope.

On 4 June 1783, they flew the balloon at Annonay in front of a group of dignitaries from the États ″particuliers″″. The flight covered 2 km, lasted 10 minutes, had an estimated altitude of 1,600-2,000 m. Word of their success reached Paris. Étienne went to the capital to make further demonstrations and to solidify the brothers' claim to the invention of flight. Joseph, given shyness, remained with the family. Étienne was the epitome of sober virtues... modest in clothes and manner... In collaboration with the wallpaper manufacturer Jean-Baptiste Réveillon, Étienne constructed a 37,500-cubic-foot envelope of taffeta coated with a varnish of alum for fireproofing; the balloon was sky blue and decorated with golden flourishes, signs of the zodiac, suns. The design showed the intervention of Réveillon; the next test was on 11 September from the grounds of la Folie Titon, close to Réveillon's house. There was some concern about the effects of flight into the upper atmosphere on living creatures; the king proposed to launch two convicted criminals, but it is most that the inventors decided to send a sheep, a duck, a rooster aloft first.

On 19 September 1783, the Aérostat Réveillon was flown with the first living beings in a basket attached to the balloon: a sheep called Montauciel, a duck and a rooster. The sheep was believed to have a reasonable approximation of human physiology; the duck was expected to be unharmed by being lifted and was included as a control for effects created by the aircraft rather than the altitude. The rooster was included as a further control; the demonstration was performed at the royal palace in Versailles, before King Louis XVI of France and Queen Marie Antoinette and a crowd. The flight lasted eight minutes, covered two miles, obtained an altitude of about 1,500 feet; the craft landed safely after flying. Since the animals survived, the king allowed flights with humans. Again in collaboration wit

Miss Teen USA 1999

Miss Teen USA 1999, the 17th Miss Teen USA pageant, was televised live from Shreveport, Louisiana on 24 August 1999. At the conclusion of the final competition, Ashley Coleman of Delaware was crowned by outgoing queen Vanessa Minnillo of South Carolina; the pageant was hosted by newcomer Carson Daly with color commentary by Ali Landry and Julie Moran for the second year. Landry held the Miss Louisiana Teen USA 1990, Miss Louisiana USA 1996 and Miss USA 1996 titles, making the semi-finals at Miss Teen USA 1990 pageant before winning Miss USA 1996. During the pageant there were performances by Britney N'Sync; this was the second year. Miss Congeniality: Morgan Maholich Miss Photogenic: Lexie Kemper Style Award: Morgan O'Murray Best in Swimsuit: Ashley Coleman Best in Evening Gown: Ashley Coleman Ashley Coleman, the winner of Miss Teen USA 1999 was the first delegate from Delaware to win the national title; this was Louisiana's highest placement. Kentucky placed for the first time since 1995; this was only Indiana and Michigan's second placement, coming after success in 1996.

Arizona and Michigan, both placing for the third time placed for the first time since 1996. Virginia placed for the first time this had occurred; this record was broken when Virginia placed consecutively from 2005-2008. Tori Hall placed in the top 10 at Miss Teen USA 2005. Samantha Casey placed 3rd runner up to Katie Blair of Montana. Emily Bruce continued these placements by placing in the top 10 at Miss Teen USA 2007, and Megan Myrehn placed in the top 15 at Miss Teen USA 2008. The Miss Teen USA 1999 delegates were: Kristi Lauren Glakas is one of only six women to be a Triple Crown titleholder, having competed at Miss Teen USA, Miss USA, Miss America. After placing first runner-up for two consecutive years, Glakas won the Miss Virginia USA 2004 title and competed at Miss USA 2004, she won the Miss Virginia 2005 title, placed third runner-up at Miss America 2006. Morgan O'Murray of Colorado won the Miss Colorado 2002 title and competed at Miss America, she made two attempts to win the Miss Colorado USA title.

Had she won the title, she would have become one of only a few women to win the Triple Crown. Others who competed at Miss USA were: Alina Ogle - Miss New Mexico USA 2003 Allison Bloodworth - Miss Mississippi USA 2003 Jennifer Ripley - Miss Vermont USA 2003 Danielle Demski - Miss Arizona USA 2004 Kimberly Weible - Miss Idaho USA 2004 Katie Rudoff - Miss Wyoming USA 2004 Aureana Tseu - Miss Hawaii USA 2009 Khosi Roy and Keely Wright were the first runner up at their respective state pageants. Jane Kim won the title of Miss Georgia Teen USA 1999, but was disqualified in after it was discovered she was not a US citizen, but had been born in South Korea. Kristina Sisco was the original winner of the Maryland title, but resigned after gaining a part on the soap opera As the World Turns. Misty Giles went on to appear on the 12th season of the CBS reality show Survivor, this time set in Panama, she was the third contestant voted off. Grace Shibley finished in 11th place, her Top 15 placement was confirmed by the VanBros website, the organization that hosts and sponsors the Miss Kansas Teen USA pageant.

Kimberly Kirberger Eric Lively Colin Mortensen Dave Tomberlin Tisha Venturini Coolio Spinderella Jeanne Pyun Official website

Choi Jung Hwa

Choi Jung Hwa is the only son of General Choi Hong Hi, always regarded as the founder of Taekwondo. Choi Jung Hwa studied taekwondo since the age of 7 under his father and many prominent high ranking taekwondo Masters during their visits and stays with General Choi, his claimed earliest recollections of training are around the time General Choi was appointed as Korea's Ambassador to Malaysia. Choi spent his early childhood training on the lawn of the Embassy compound, as there were no dojangs established at that point, he grew up in an environment surrounded by taekwondo due to General Choi's schedule and work in spreading taekwondo globally. Choi Jung Hwa trained with many high-ranking instructors during this period. Choi held the post of Secretary General and Vice Secretary of the ITF for several years until elected as Choi Hong Hi's successor to the Presidency by the ITF members in 2001, he offered that General Choi should remain ITF President for the first 2 years of that term as to give him the opportunity to "retire with dignity" in 2003.

General Choi Hong Hi died less than 12 months later. Choi Jung Hwa was promoted to the rank of Grandmaster. Choi prefers the title of Master to Grandmaster, he has been a regular visitor to Australia since the mid-1990s. After his father's death he formed his own International Taekwondo Federation. Prior to forming his own Taekwondo organization he was a Vice Secretary of his father's ITF organization. Choi Jung Hwa still works extensively promoting Taekwon-Do around the world and is accredited with introducing and developing Taekwon-Do in many Eastern European countries such as Poland, Czechoslovakia, the former USSR and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Under his leadership, the ITF returned to South Korea for its 2004 ITF World Championships. ITF has now commenced re-establishing itself in Choi Jung Hwa's country of birth. "As an organization, we must become sensitive to the changes around us and be able to cope, without compromising the principles – that is, to maintain this purity of technique and philosophy that General Choi handed down to us…..

Don't forget the standards include moral as well as technical." In 1971 Choi Jung Hwa emigrated to Canada. In 1983 Choi was convicted in Canada on charges that he conspired to assassinate the President of South Korea Chun Doo-Hwan, he was sentenced in Canada, was barred from South Korea. He was convicted in absentia, travelled as a Taekwon-Do instructor in the "Eastern Bloc" nations, it wasn't until several years that he returned to Canada to finish his prison term. Choi Jung Hwa on the ITF website. General Choi Hong Hi on the ITF website