World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
Gaithersburg the City of Gaithersburg, is a city in Montgomery County, Maryland. At the time of the 2010 U. S. Census, Gaithersburg had a population of 59,933, making it the fourth largest incorporated city in the state, behind Baltimore and Rockville. Gaithersburg is located to the northwest of Washington, D. C. and is considered a suburb and a primary city within the Washington–Arlington–Alexandria, DC–VA–MD–WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. Gaithersburg was incorporated as a town in 1878 and as a city in 1968. Gaithersburg is divided into east and west sections, separated by Interstate 270; the eastern section of the city is older and is the original portion of the town before more recent growth. Landmarks and buildings from that time can still be seen in many places but in the historic central business district of Gaithersburg called "Olde Towne"; the east side includes Lakeforest Mall, City Hall, the Montgomery County Fair grounds, Bohrer Park. The west side of the city has many wealthier neighborhoods that were designed with smart growth techniques and embrace New Urbanism.
These include the award-winning Kentlands community, the Lakelands community, the Washingtonian Center, a popular shopping/business district. Consumers come to this area during Black Friday and other shopping holidays for the deals and variety of huge brand name stores like Target and Dick's Sporting Goods, smaller stores like Francesca's and Blue Mercury. Two New Urbanism communities are under construction, including Watkins Mill Town Center, the massive "Science City"; the state has a bus rapid transit line, Corridor Cities Transitway or "CCT", planned for the western portion of the city starting at Shady Grove Metro Station and connecting all the high density western Gaithersburg neighborhoods with a total of eight stops planned in the city. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is headquartered in Gaithersburg directly west of I-270. Other major employers in the city include IBM, Lockheed Martin Information Systems and Global Services business area headquarters, MedImmune, the French multinational corporation, Sodexo.
Gaithersburg is the location of the garrison of the U. S. Army Reserve's 220th Military Police Brigade. Gaithersburg is noted for its economic diversity. S. cities for ethnic diversity and second for social class diversity. Gaithersburg was settled in 1765 as a small agricultural settlement known as Log Town near the present day Summit Hall on Ralph Crabb's 1725 land grant "Deer Park"; the northern portion of the land grant was purchased by Henry Brookes, he built his brick home "Montpelier" there, starting first with a log cabin in 1780/3. This 1,000 acre tract became part of the landmark IBM Headquarters complex built on the then-new I-270 Interstate "Industrial", now "Technology", Corridor in the late 1960s to the 1970s. Benjamin Gaither married Henry's daughter Margaret, Benjamin and Margaret inherited a portion of Henry's land prior to Henry's death in 1807. Gaither built his home on the land in 1802. By the 1850s the area was known to inhabitants as Gaithersburg; the Forest Oak Post Office, named for a large tree in the town, was located in Gaither's store in 1851.
However, when the railroad was built through town the new station was called Gaithersburg, an recognized name for the community for the first time. The town incorporated under its current name in 1878. Gaithersburg boomed during the late 19th century and churches, schools, a mill, grain elevators and hotels were built. Much of this development focused around the railroad station. In 1873 the B&O Railroad constructed a station at Gaithersburg, designed by Ephraim Francis Baldwin as part of his well-known series of Victorian stations in Maryland. Rapid growth occurred shortly thereafter, on April 5, 1878 the town was incorporated as the Town of Gaithersburg. In 1899, Gaithersburg was selected as one of six global locations for the construction of an International Latitude Observatory as part of a project to measure the Earth's wobble on its polar axis; the Gaithersburg Latitude Observatory is the only National Historic Landmark in the City of Gaithersburg. The observatory and five others in Japan, Italy and the United States gathered information, still used by scientists today, along with information from satellites, to determine polar motion.
The Gaithersburg station operated until 1982 when computerization rendered the manual observation obsolete. In 1968, Gaithersburg was upgraded from a town to a city. Gaithersburg remained a predominantly rural farm town until the 1970s; as the population grew, with homes spreading throughout the area, Gaithersburg began taking on a suburban and semi-urban feel, leaving its farming roots behind. During the late 1990s and 2000s, it had become one of the most economically and ethnically diverse areas in the Washington, D. C. Metropolitan Area as well as the State of Maryland, with people from all walks of life calling Gaithersburg home; this can be seen in the local schools, with Gaithersburg High School and Watkins Mill High School having two of the most diverse student bodies in the region. During a 1997 rainstorm, the 295-year-old forest oak tree that gave its name to the Forest Oak Post Office crashed down; the tree served as the inspiration for
Paul James (actor)
Paul James is an American actor, best known for his role of Calvin on the ABC Family television show Greek. James starred in the movie The Architect. James graduated from Syracuse University in 2003 with a BA degree in Theatre, he starred as Sean Egan on the Hulu TV series The Path. James was born in Washington, D. C. and raised in the neighboring suburbs of Maryland. He graduated from Quince Orchard High School in Maryland, his mother was a school teacher at Watkins Mill High School in Gaithersburg, Maryland up until 2007. ABC Family's Greek aired for four seasons. In the show Paul James plays a gay member of Omega Chi Delta fraternity. Fans have applauded both the show for portraying homosexuality in a good light and Paul James as an actor for his portrayal of a black gay man living in a fraternity house. Paul James on IMDb
Tori Amos is an American singer-songwriter and pianist. She is a classically trained musician with a mezzo-soprano vocal range. Having begun composing instrumental pieces on piano, Amos won a full scholarship to the Peabody Institute at Johns Hopkins University at the age of five, the youngest person to have been admitted, she was expelled at the age of 11 for what Rolling Stone described as "musical insubordination". Amos was the lead singer of the short-lived 1980s pop group Y Kant Tori Read before achieving her breakthrough as a solo artist in the early 1990s, her songs focus on a broad range of topics, including sexuality, feminism and religion. Her charting singles include "Crucify", "Silent All These Years", "God", "Cornflake Girl", "Caught a Lite Sneeze", "Professional Widow", "Spark", "1000 Oceans", "Flavor" and "A Sorta Fairytale", her most commercially successful single in the U. S. to date. Amos has received five MTV VMA nominations, eight Grammy Award nominations, won an Echo Klassik award for her classical crossover album.
She is listed on VH1's 1999 "100 Greatest Women of Rock and Roll". Amos is the third child of Edison McKinley Amos, she was born at the Old Catawba Hospital in Newton, North Carolina during a trip from their Georgetown home in Washington, D. C. Amos has said that her maternal grandparents each had an Eastern Cherokee grandparent of their own. Of particular importance to her as a child was her maternal grandfather, Calvin Clinton Copeland, a great source of inspiration and guidance, offering a more pantheistic spiritual alternative to her father and paternal grandmother's traditional Christianity; when she was two years old, her family moved to Baltimore, where her father had transplanted his Methodist ministry from its original base in Washington, D. C, her older brother and sister took piano lessons. From the time she could reach the piano, she taught herself to play: when she was two, she could reproduce pieces of music she had only heard once, and, by the age of three, she was composing her own songs.
She has described seeing music as structures of light since early childhood, an experience consistent with chromesthesia: The song appears as light filament once I've cracked it. As long as I've been doing this, more than thirty-five years, I've never seen the same light creature in my life. Similar chord progressions follow similar light patterns, but try to imagine the best kaleidoscope ever—after the initial excitement, you start to focus on each element's stunning original detail. For instance, the sound of the words with the sound of the chord progression combined with the rhythm manifests itself in a unique expression of the architecture of color-and-light.... I started visiting this world, it was euphoric. At five, she became the youngest student admitted to the preparatory division of the Peabody Conservatory of Music, she studied classical piano at Peabody from 1968 to 1974. In 1974, when she was eleven, her scholarship was discontinued, she was asked to leave. Amos has asserted that she lost the scholarship because of her interest in rock and popular music, coupled with her dislike for reading from sheet music.
In 1972, the Amos family moved to Silver Spring, where her father became pastor of the Good Shepherd United Methodist church. At thirteen, Amos began playing at gay bars and piano bars, chaperoned by her father. Amos won a county teen talent contest in 1977, singing a song called "More Than Just a Friend"; as a senior at Richard Montgomery High School, she co-wrote "Baltimore" with her brother Mike Amos for a competition involving the Baltimore Orioles. The song won the contest and became her first single, released as a 7" single pressed locally for family and friends in 1980 with another Amos-penned composition as a B-side, "Walking With You". Before this, she had performed under her middle name, but permanently adopted Tori after a friend's boyfriend told her she looked like a Torrey pine, a tree native to the West Coast. By the time she was 17, Amos had a stock of homemade demo tapes that her father sent out to record companies and producers. Producer Narada Michael Walden responded favorably: he and Amos cut some tracks together, but none were released.
Atlantic Records responded to one of the tapes, when A&R man Jason Flom flew to Baltimore to audition her in person, the label was convinced and signed her. In 1984, Amos moved to Los Angeles to pursue her music career after several years performing on the piano bar circuit in the D. C. area. In 1986, Amos formed a musical group called Y Kant Tori Read, named for her difficulty sight reading. In addition to Amos, the group was composed of Steve Caton, drummer Matt Sorum, bass player Brad Cobb and, for a short time, keyboardist Jim Tauber; the band went through several iterations of recording. In July 1988, the band's self-titled debut album, Y Kant Tori Read, was released. Although its producer, Joe Chiccarelli, stated that Amos was happy with the album at the time, Amos has since criticized it, once remarking: "The only good thing about that album is my ankle high boots."Following the album's commercial failure and the group's subsequent disbanding, Amos began working with other artists as a backup vocalist.
She recorded a song called "Distant Storm" for the film China O'Brien. In the credits, t
Internal Revenue Service
The Internal Revenue Service is the revenue service of the United States federal government. The government agency is a bureau of the Department of the Treasury, is under the immediate direction of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, appointed to a five-year term by the President of the United States; the IRS is responsible for collecting taxes and administering the Internal Revenue Code, the main body of federal statutory tax law of the United States. The duties of the IRS include providing tax assistance to taxpayers and pursuing and resolving instances of erroneous or fraudulent tax filings; the IRS has overseen various benefits programs, enforces portions of the Affordable Care Act. The IRS originated with the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, a federal office created in 1862 to assess the nation's first income tax, to raise funds for the American Civil War; the temporary measure provided over a fifth of the Union's war expenses and was allowed to expire a decade later. In 1913, the Sixteenth Amendment to the U.
S. Constitution was ratified authorizing Congress to impose a tax on income, the Bureau of Internal Revenue was established. In 1953, the agency was renamed the Internal Revenue Service. Though the IRS brings in most of the revenue needed to fund the federal government, its resources have been cut year after year. In 2016 the American College of Tax Counsel wrote to the Congressional leadership stating, "We have watched the agency struggle with significant decreases in funding that have caused staffing and morale issues. In our practices, we have seen the negative impact this has had on our clients, the taxpayers."In the 2017 fiscal year, the IRS processed more than 245 million returns and collected more than $3.4 trillion in gross revenue, spending 34¢ for every $100 it collected. On June 28, 2018, Bloomberg News wrote, "The agency has been reeling from budget cuts; the current budget of $11.43 billion is less than in fiscal 2008, the IRS pared about 15 percent of its workforce over the past five years.
The enforcement staff has plunged by more than 25 percent since 2010."In the 2018 fiscal year, the U. S. federal government spent $779 billion more. It's estimated; the cutoff date taxes from 2017 filed in the 2019 tax season is March 25th. In fiscal year 2019 the IRS plans to cut an additional 2,200 employees. In July 1862, during the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln and Congress passed the Revenue Act of 1862, creating the office of Commissioner of Internal Revenue and enacting a temporary income tax to pay war expenses; the Revenue Act of 1862 was passed as temporary war-time tax. It copied a new British system of income taxation, instead of trade and property taxation; the first income tax was passed in 1862: The initial rate was 3% on income over $800, which exempted most wage-earners. In 1862 the rate was 3% on income between $600 and $10,000, 5% on income over $10,000. In 1864 the rate was 5% on income between $600 and $5,000. By the end of the war, 10% of Union households had paid some form of income tax, the Union raised 21% of its war revenue through income taxes.
After the Civil War, Reconstruction and transforming the North and South war machines towards peacetime required public funding. However, in 1872, seven years after the war, lawmakers allowed the temporary Civil War income tax to expire. Income taxes evolved, but in 1894 the Supreme Court declared the Income Tax of 1894 unconstitutional in Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. a decision that contradicted Hylton v. United States; the federal government scrambled to raise money. In 1906, with the election of President Theodore Roosevelt, his successor William Howard Taft, the United States saw a populist movement for tax reform; this movement culminated during candidate Woodrow Wilson's election of 1912 and in February 1913, the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution: The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, without regard to any census or enumeration. This granted Congress the specific power to impose an income tax without regard to apportionment among the states by population.
By February 1913, 36 states had ratified the change to the Constitution. It was further ratified by six more states by March. Of the 48 states at the time, 42 ratified it. Connecticut, Rhode Island, Utah rejected the amendment. Though the constitutional amendment to allow the Federal government to collect income taxes was proposed by President Taft in 1909, the 16th Amendment was not ratified until 1913, just before the start of the First World War. In 1913 the first edition of the 1040 form was introduced. A copy of the first IRS 1040 form, can be found at the IRS website showing that only those with incomes of $3,000 or more were instructed to file. In the first year after ratification of the 16th Amendment, no taxes were collected. Instead, taxpayers completed the form and the IRS checked the form for accuracy; the IRS's workload jumped by ten-fold. Professional tax collectors began to replace a system of "patronage" appointments; the IRS doubled its staff, but was still processing 1917 returns in 1919.
Income tax raised much of the money required to finance the war effort. In 1919 the IRS was tasked with enforcement of laws relating to prohibition of alcohol sales and manufacture.
The Blair Witch Project
The Blair Witch Project is a 1999 American supernatural horror film written and edited by Daniel Myrick and Eduardo Sánchez. It tells the fictional story of three student filmmakers—Heather Donahue, Michael C. Williams, Joshua Leonard—who hike in the Black Hills near Burkittsville, Maryland in 1994 to film a documentary about a local legend known as the Blair Witch; the three disappeared. The purportedly "recovered footage" is the film. Myrick and Sánchez conceived of a fictional legend of the Blair Witch in 1993, they developed a 35-page screenplay with the dialogue to be improvised. A casting call advertisement in Backstage magazine was prepared by the directors and Donahue and Leonard were cast; the film entered production in October 1997, with the principal photography taking place in Maryland for eight days overseen by cinematographer Neal Fredericks. About 20 hours of footage was edited down to 82 minutes; when The Blair Witch Project premiered at the Sundance Film Festival on January 25, 1999, its promotional marketing campaign listed the actors as either "missing" or "deceased".
Owing to its successful run at Sundance, Artisan Entertainment bought the film's distribution rights for $1.1 million. It had a North American release on July 14, 1999, before expanding to a wider release starting on July 30. While critical reception was positive, audience reception was split; the film was regarded to have popularized the found-footage technique used by successful thriller films such as Paranormal Activity and Chronicle. A sleeper hit, The Blair Witch Project grossed nearly $250 million worldwide on a modest budget of $60,000, making it one of the most successful independent films of all time; the film spawned two sequels—Book of Shadows and Blair Witch—released in October 2000 and September 2016, respectively. The Blair Witch franchise has expanded to include novels, video games, comic books and additional merchandise. In October 1994, film students Heather and Josh set out to produce a documentary about the fabled Blair Witch, they travel to Burkittsville and interview residents about the legend.
Locals tell them of Rustin Parr, a hermit who lived in the woods and kidnapped eight children in the 1940s, killing seven of them on the orders of the witch. After spending the night at a motel, the students explore the woods in north Burkittsville to research the legend. Along the way they meet two fishermen, he tells them of a young girl named Robin Weaver, who went missing in 1888. His companion, however, is skeptical of the story; the students hike to Coffin Rock, where five men were found ritualistically murdered in the 19th century. Their bodies disappeared; the group camps for the night. They move deeper into the woods the next day and locate what appears to be an old cemetery with seven small cairns and set up camp nearby; that night, they hear the sound of twigs snapping from all directions but assume the noises are from animals or locals. The following day, they try to hike back to the car but are unable to find it before dark and make camp, they again fail to find the source of the noises.
In the morning, they find that three cairns have been built around their tent during the night, which unnerves them. As they continue, Heather learns. Mike reveals he kicked it into a creek the previous day out of frustration, which prompts Heather and Josh to attack him in a rage, they realize they are now lost and decide to head south. They reach a section where they discover a multitude of humanoid stick figures suspended from trees, they again hear sounds that night, including those of children laughing, among other strange noises. After an unknown force shakes the tent, they hide in the woods until dawn. Upon returning to their tent, they find that their possessions have been rifled through, Josh's equipment is covered with slime; as they continue, they come across a log on a river identical to one. They realize they have walked in a circle, despite thinking they traveled south all day, once again make camp. Josh suffers a breakdown while holding the camera, taunting Heather for their circumstances and her constant recording of the events.
Josh has disappeared the next morning, Heather and Mike try in vain to find him before moving on. That night, they hear Josh's agonized are unable to locate him. Mike and Heather theorize that Josh's screams are a fabrication by the witch to draw them out of their tent; the next day, outside her tent, Heather discovers a bundle of sticks tied with a piece of fabric from Josh's shirt. As she searches through it, she finds blood-soaked scraps of Josh's shirt as well as teeth and what appears to be a piece of his tongue. Although distraught by the discovery, she chooses not to tell Mike; that night, Heather records herself apologizing to her family and to Mike's and Josh's families, taking full responsibility for their predicament. They again hear Josh's agonized cries for help and follow them to a derelict, abandoned house containing symbols and children's bloody hand-prints on the walls. Mike races upstairs to find Josh. Mike says, he runs downstairs. Upon reaching the basement, an unseen force attacks Mike, causing him to drop the camera and go silent.
Heather enters the basement screaming, her camera captures Mike facing a corner. So