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Montgomery County, Indiana

Montgomery County is a county in the U. S. state of Indiana. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 38,124; the county seat is Crawfordsville. The county has 11 townships. Montgomery County comprises the Crawfordsville, IN Micropolitan Statistical Area; the earliest known inhabitants of the area that would become Montgomery County were the Mound Builders, Native Americans who built large earthen mounds, two of which were constructed in southeastern Franklin Township. (Note: Research in the late 1900s has shown these mounds were natural mounds not man made. Subsequent Native American tribes occupied the area until as late as 1832; the first white settler in the area that would become Montgomery County was William Offield, earlier of Tennessee, who arrived in 1821 with his wife Jennie and one child and settled near the confluence of Offield Creek and Sugar Creek, about five miles southwest of Crawfordsville. The first land in the county to be purchased from the government was a tract in Scott Township sold to John Loop on July 23, 1822.

The area's settlers came from Kentucky and Ohio, with others arriving from Tennessee and the Carolinas. Montgomery County was established by an act of the Indiana state legislature passed on December 21, 1822, which defined the county's boundaries and provided for the organization of its government, it was formed from parts of Wabash New Purchase attached to Putnam Counties. The county was named in honor of Richard Montgomery, an American Revolutionary War general killed on December 31, 1775, while attempting to capture Quebec City in the Battle of Quebec; the first county election was held on March 1, 1823, with 61 voters participating to elect the first three county commissioners — William Offield, James Blevins and John McCollough — who ordered that the first jail and courthouse be built. Beginning on December 24, 1824, a large land sale was held for several days at the United States Land Office on North Water Street in Crawfordsville during which a large number of the area's tracts were sold at auction.

The money raised from the sale in the form of gold and silver, was packed into kegs, hauled by wagon to Louisville, carried by boat up the Ohio River, to Washington, D. C. Settlement increased during the subsequent year. Montgomery County's first courthouse was ordered on June 28, 1823, to be made "of good hewed logs... to be twenty-six feet long. Eliakam Ashton won the contract to construct the building and completed it on a lot along Main Street on August 9, 1824, at a cost of $295. In 1825 a contract was issued to Henry Ristine to cut trees and pick up chips from under the courthouse so that "hogs would not find a comfortable place in which to make their beds". A second, more substantial structure was ordered in 1831, the contract for its construction being awarded to John Hughes for $3,420; the result, completed in 1833, was a two-story, 40x40 foot brick building surmounted by a cupola supplemented by separate one-story buildings erected to the north and east as wings of the main structure.

The building stood on the current public square for over forty years until being torn down in 1875. The third and current Montgomery County courthouse was the first courthouse designed by George W. Bunting of Indianapolis. Bunting had served as a colonel in the Confederacy during the Civil War before establishing himself in Indianapolis; the building was constructed by McCormack and Sweeney of Columbus at a cost of $150,000, was completed in 1876. The cornerstone contains an embedded copper box of memorable items, including the key to the old courthouse and a Henry VIII coin. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 505.44 square miles, of which 504.61 square miles is land and 0.83 square miles is water. Crawfordsville Lake Holiday Binford Fredericksburg Troutman CSX Transportation KCFJ - Crawfordsville Regional AirportMontgomery County is served by the Crawfordsville Regional Airport. Located four miles south of the city, the airport handles 6,383 operations per year, with 100% general aviation and <1% air taxi.

The airport has a 4,504 foot asphalt runway with approved NDB approaches. Two covered bridges, the Darlington and the Deer's Mill, are in the county. In recent years, average temperatures in Crawfordsville have ranged from a low of 14 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −31 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 102 °F was recorded in June 1988. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.02 inches in February to 4.28 inches in June. The county government is a constitutional body granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana and the Indiana Code; the county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all spending and revenue collection. Representatives are elected from county districts; the council members serve four-year terms and are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget and special spending. The council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax, subject to state level approval, excise taxes and service taxes.

The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners. The commissioners are elected county-w

Walter Ward (politician)

Walter Ward was a member of the New York City Council for a quarter of a century, serving 13 terms from 1968 until 1993. Ward, who took courses at the Dale Carnegie Institute, was the owner of the Ward Advertising Company, which specialized in outdoor signs. Ward sold the business in 1971 to devote himself to representing the 32nd Legislative District, which incorporated Broad Channel, Howard Beach, Ozone Park, South Ozone Park, the Rockaways. Towards the end of his tenure, Ward was the oldest member of the legislative body, had earned the unofficial title "Dean of the Council." Throughout his 25 years in office, Ward worked ardently for clean beaches and against airplane noise, issues at the heart of his constituency near the coast and around John F. Kennedy International Airport. Ward became chairman of the City Council Committee of Parks and Cultural Affairs, a member of the Council's General Welfare Committee. Ward cast one of the deciding electoral votes for President John F. Kennedy after being named a Democratic elector for New York State in the 1960 presidential election.

Ward continued to be involved in Democratic politics until his death, serving as Democratic District Leader in Queens after being defeated in the 1993 City Council election. In addition to his political activities, Ward served on various community boards and organizations, such as the 101st Precinct Community and Youth Council, the Ozone Howard Little League, the Wyckoff Heights Hospital Advisory Board. Ward died on November 8, 1994, at the age of 83. PS 232 in Lindenwood and the playground for PS 207 in Rockwood Park have been named in his honor


A handicraft, sometimes more expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made by hand or by using only simple tools. It is a traditional main sector of craft and applies to a wide range of creative and design activities that are related to making things with one's hands and skill, including work with textiles and rigid materials, plant fibers, etc. One of the world's oldest handicraft is Dhokra; the term is applied to traditional techniques of creating items that are both practical and aesthetic. Handicraft industries are those that produce things with hands to meet the needs of the people in their locality. Machines are not used. Collective terms for handicrafts include artisanry, crafting, handicraftsmanship and handcrafting; the term arts and crafts is applied in the United States and to hobbyists' and children's output rather than items crafted for daily use, but this distinction is not formal, the term is confused with the Arts and Crafts design movement, in fact as practical as it is aesthetic.

Handicraft has its roots in the rural crafts—the material-goods necessities—of ancient civilizations, many specific crafts have been practiced for centuries, while others are modern inventions or popularizations of crafts which were practiced in a limited geographic area. Many handcrafters use natural entirely indigenous, materials while others may prefer modern, non-traditional materials, upcycle industrial materials; the individual artisanship of a handcrafted item is the paramount criterion. Seen as developing the skills and creative interests of students and sometimes towards a particular craft or trade, handicrafts are integrated into educational systems, both informally and formally. Most crafts require the development of skill and the application of patience but can be learned by anyone. Like folk art, handicraft output has cultural and/or religious significance, may have a political message as well, as in craftivism. Many crafts become popular for brief periods of time, spreading among the crafting population as everyone emulates the first examples their popularity wanes until a resurgence.

The Arts and Crafts movement originated as late 19th-century design reform and social movement principally in Europe, North America and Australia, continues today. Its proponents are motivated by the ideals of movement founders such as William Morris and John Ruskin, who proposed that in pre-industrial societies, such as the European Middle Ages, people had achieved fulfillment through the creative process of handicrafts; this was held up in contrast to. These activities were called crafts because many of them were professions under the guild system. Adolescents were apprenticed to a master craftsman and refined their skills over a period of years in exchange for low wages. By the time their training was complete, they were well equipped to set up in trade for themselves, earning their living with the skill that could be traded directly within the community for goods and services; the Industrial Revolution and the increasing mechanization of production processes reduced or eliminated many of the roles professional craftspeople played, today many handicrafts are seen when no longer the mainstay of a formal vocational trade, as a form of hobby, folk art and sometimes fine art.

The term handicrafts can refer to the products themselves of such artisanal efforts, that require specialized knowledge, maybe technical in their execution, require specialized equipment and/or facilities to produce, involve manual labor or a blue-collar work ethic, are accessible to the general public, are constructed from materials with histories that exceed the boundaries of Western "fine art" tradition, such as ceramics, textiles and wood. These products are produced within a specific community of practice, while they differ from the products produced within the communities of art and design, the boundaries overlap, resulting in hybrid objects. Additionally, as the interpretation and validation of art is a matter of context, an audience may perceive handcrafted objects as art objects when these objects are viewed within an art context, such as in a museum or in a position of prominence in one's home. Simple "arts and crafts" projects are a common elementary and middle school activity in both mainstream and alternative education systems around the world.

In some of the Scandinavian countries, more advanced handicrafts form part of the formal, compulsory school curriculum, are collectively referred to as slöjd in Swedish, käsityö or veto in Finnish. Students learn how to work with metal and wood, not for professional training purposes as in American vocational–technical schools, but with the aim to develop children's and teens' practical skills, such as everyday problem-solving ability, tool use, understanding of the materials that surround us for economical and environmental purposes. Secondary schools and college and university art departments provide elective options for more handicraft-based arts, in addition to formal "fine arts", a distinction that continues to fade throughout the years with the rise of studio craft, i.e. the use of traditiona

Two Open Rectangles, Excentric, Variation VI

Two Open Rectangles, Variation VI, is a public artwork by American artist George Rickey, located on the Middlebury College campus, outside of the Christian A. Johnson Memorial Building, in Middlebury, United States; this kinetic sculpture of stainless steel consists of two rotating open rectangles attached with bearings on a u-shaped mount on an upright arm in a steel base. It measures 12 feet high by 3 feet wide; this stainless steel sculpture is composed of two rotating open rectangles attached with bearings on a u-shaped mount on an upright arm is a steel base. The rectangles move with the wind in a yaw and roll; the steel base is painted grey in color and has a silver colored metal plate label attached to it with screws. The sculpture replaced a smaller work by Rickey, Two Open Rectangles, Variation III, stolen from its pedestal in front of the Middlebury College Johnson Building on August 15, 1976. Although the artist and the college were disappointed by the theft, the occasion did permit the artist to produce a similar, larger sculpture that would hold up to the scale of the Johnson Building's architecture.

It, or a near replica has been spotted in Sydney G. Walton Square, San Francisco; the sculpture was commissioned in 1976 by the Middlebury College Friends of the Art Museum. The purchase was funded by a matching grant from the National Endowment for the Arts and the Friends of the Art Museum's Acquisition Fund; this work was the first outdoor sculpture acquired for the Middlebury College campus. This sculpture's condition was described as being well-maintained in 1992 as part of Save Outdoor Sculpture!, a campaign organized by Heritage Preservation: The National Institute of Conservation partnered with the Smithsonian Institution the Smithsonian American Art Museum. Throughout the 1990s, over 7,000 volunteers cataloged and assessed the condition of over 30,000 publicly accessible statues and sculptures installed as outdoor public art across the United States. In Vermont, the survey was sponsored by the Vermont Museum and Gallery Alliance from 1992-1993 where 110 volunteers surveyed 242 sculptures dating from 1740 to 1993.

The archives from the project are maintained by the Vermont Historical Society. Stainless steel Two Open Rectangles, Variation VI on Middlebury College's site Middlebury College's Public Art Collection - Jules Olitski and George Rickey

Ordre du Croissant

The Ordre du Croissant was a chivalric order founded by Charles I of Naples and Sicily in 1268. It was revived in 1448 or 1464 by René I, king of Jerusalem and Aragon, to provide him with a rival to the English Order of the Garter. René was one of the champions of the medieval system of chivalry and knighthood, this new order was neo-Arthurian in character, its insignia consisted of a golden crescent moon engraved in grey with the word LOZ, with a chain of 3 gold loops above the crescent. On René's death, the Order lapsed; the Order of the Crescent known as "Order of the Crescent in the Provence", a French chivalric order was founded on 11 August 1448 in Angers by King Rene of Provence as a court order. The order, which united itself, features from knighthood and spiritual orders, counted up to 50 knights, of which can be dukes, marquises and knights with four quarters of nobility; the Knights committed themselves to mutual assistance and loyalty to the order which, after the Provence became part of France in 1486, was soon forgotten.

Ackermann mentions this knighthood as a historical order of France. René and his Order of the Crescent were adopted as "historical founders" by the Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity in 1912, as exemplars of chivalry and Christian charity. Ceremonies of the Order of the Crescent were referenced in formulating ceremonies for the fraternity; the Order was neo-Arthurian in character, so has been used to link René with the Holy Grail and the fictitious Priory of Sion. Statutes of the Order of the Crescent in the Manuscripts of the Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève, Paris. Coat of arms Gustav Adolph Ackermann, " Ordensbuch, Sämtlicher in Europa blühender und erloschener Orden und Ehrenzeichen ". Annaberg, 1855, p 208 - Google Book

Toh EnJoe

Toh EnJoe is a Japanese author. His works are literary fiction, speculative fiction or science fiction. Born in 1972 in Sapporo, he graduated from the physics department of Tohoku University went on to the graduate school at University of Tokyo and received Ph. D. for a mathematical physical study on the natural languages. He worked as a post-doc researcher at several research institutes for seven years abandoned the academic career in 2007 and found a programmer job at a software firm. In 2006, he submitted Self-Reference ENGINE to a science-fiction novel contest Komatsu Sakyō Award. Although it did not win the award, it was published from Hayakawa Shobō in 2007. At same time, his short story "Obu za bēsbōru" won the contest of literary magazine Bungakukai, which became his debut in literary fiction, his literary fictions are dense with allusions. Labyrinthine annotations were added to "Uyūshitan" when it was published in book form in 2009, where there were none when published in literary magazine.

His science fiction works take motif from mathematics. The narrator of "Boy's Surface" is a morphism, the title is a reference to a geometrical notion. In "Moonshine", natural numbers are sentient through a savant's mind's eye in a field of the monster group. Project Itoh's Genocidal Organ was a finalist of Komatsu Sakyō Award contest and published from Hayakawa Shobō in 2007, along with Enjoe's Self-Reference ENGINE. Since they appeared together at science fiction conventions and interviews, collaborated in a few works, until Itoh's death of cancer in 2009. At the press conference after the announcement of Enjoe's Akutagawa Prize in January 2012, he revealed the plan to complete Itoh's unfinished novel Shisha no teikoku, it was published in August 2012, received the Special Award of Nihon SF Taisho. Japanese Awards2010: Noma Prize for New Writers for Uyūshitan 2012: Akutagawa Prize for "Dōkeshi no chō" 2012: Nihon SF Taisho Special Award for Shisha no teikoku 2013: Seiun Award Japanese Long Form for Shisha no teikoku 2017: Kawabata Yasunari Prize for Literature for "Mojika" 2018: Nihon SF Taisho for Mojika U.

S. Award2014: Philip K. Dick Award Special Citation for Self-Reference ENGINE English translationsSelf-Reference ENGINE, his language and his writing style, belie his background as a physicist: topics woven into his stories include science, but linguistics, literary theory, philosophical approaches to the imagination. His complicated narrative structures are the subject of heated discussions and have evoked harsh reviews calling his work'indigestible','sleep-inducing,' and'reader-unfriendly'." @EnJoeToh on Twitter Interview by Sayuri Okamoto INTERVIEW: Toh EnJoe, Author of Self-Reference ENGINE J'Lit | Authors: Toh EnJoe | Books from Japan Excerpt and synopsis of The Empire of Corpses Toh EnJoe at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database